As you know, there are no revolutions without blood. However, a society that has long lived in the world, participating only in the reflection of external threats, gets used to a peaceful life, it is very difficult to shake it with blood. This was the Russian society sample 1917 of the year. Therefore, in the days of the October Revolution, blood spilled relatively little, even less than in the February Revolution. Yes, and resistance in the country was minimal, no wonder this process was called "the triumphal procession of Soviet power." Nobody wanted to defend the talker liberals.
However, this result did not suit the “world community” and the so-called “world community” behind it. “World backstage” (“financial international”). They needed in Russia a lot of blood and a large-scale civil war, which was to lead to the final destruction of Russia and the solution of the "Russian question." The Russian people interfered with the builders of the New World Order and were subject to disintegration and destruction. Therefore, several steps were taken to incite the Civil War. First, through the wing of the “internationalist” Bolsheviks (they were the real agents of influence of various Western special services and financial-industrial groups), the personification of which was Trotsky-Bronstein, they began to artificially impose cruelty and terror. Red Guards and sailors consciously accustomed to blood, the physical elimination of counter-revolutionaries and simply people who were class-alien to the workers and peasants, became commonplace.
Even during the preparation of the October coup, Sverdlov, one of the most sinister figures of the Russian revolution, sent his emissaries to Sevastopol with instructions to set up a "Kronstadt of the South" there. And Kronstadt was marked not only by revolutionary sentiments, but also by the murders of officers. Sverdlov's instructions were carried out. In Sevastopol, Soviet power was established peacefully, during naval committees were already dominated by Bolshevik sentiments. But Sverdlov's envoys, led by commissars Solovieva and Nimich, put together detachments of "thugs" and washed Sevastopol, Yalta, Simferopol, Feodosia and Yevpatoria with the blood of hundreds of officers and "counter-revolutionaries". It should be noted that during the Civil War, many women revolutionaries were noted in simply demoniac cruelty, rare even for male executioners. This is to the question of the myth of the "primordial greater humanity and mercy of women" in human stories. Excessive cruelty and terror, which often touched innocent people, pushed many people away from the Bolsheviks, made them counter-revolutionaries.
One of the main ideologues of the revolutionary terror was Trotsky. He constantly called on rallies for a “revolutionary guillotine”, “merciless executions”. He promised to kill five counter-revolutionaries for every revolutionary killed. In December 1917 of the year, addressing the Cadets, Trotsky announced the beginning of mass terror against the enemies of the revolution: “... no later than a month later, terror will take on very strong forms following the example of the great French revolutionaries. Our guillotine will be waiting for our enemies, and not just a prison. ” It is clear that in troubled times such appeals do not pass by the attention of functionaries of the ruling party. Thus the flywheel of the "Red Terror" spun up.
The second step, which led to the incitement of the Civil War on the territory of the Russian Empire and the big slaughter on its outskirts, was the conscious support of various separatists, supporters of disintegration. Long before 1917, and especially this process intensified during the First World War, the West supported the nationalists and the separatists. In particular, Austria-Hungary and Germany supported the Ukrainian nationalists. Finnish and Baltic separatists were supported by both the Central Powers and the "allies" of Russia in the Entente. The Ottomans and the British worked in the Caucasus and Central Asia. The February and October revolutions shook the state and accelerated the disintegration of the country. National suburbs began to separate. Do not recognize the Soviet government and the Cossack region. The Cossacks during this period were by no means supporters of “united and indivisible Russia,” many lived on the principle of “my hut is on the edge.” Like, let them deal with the problems themselves, we will live ourselves, without a central authority.
Third, the Western powers and Japan provided assistance to both the red (Bolsheviks) and the white. It was an ancient strategy - divide and conquer. The Germans financed revolutionaries - the Bolsheviks, the Mensheviks and the Social Revolutionaries, and also helped the separatists. The intelligence services of the German General Staff sent several officers to Russia for intelligence and counterintelligence work in favor of the Bolshevik Council of People's Commissars. At the same time, the Germans were establishing contacts with Krasnov. The German Empire recognized the Don Republic and controlled the actions of the ataman Krasnov.
Double game led and the Entente powers. Under the Soviet government, unofficial missions of the USA and France were created (with the help of the Red Cross), and the British also created such a mission. Trotsky played a key role in relations with the Americans. The leaders of the unofficial Western missions under the Soviet government favorably responded to the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly. Colonel Robins reported to the United States that now the Soviet government has significantly strengthened its position, and advised: "We need to support the Soviet government as long as possible." And the adviser to the American president, Colonel House, noted that the United States should seek rapprochement with the Soviet government in order to put the Russian situation under its control. American businessmen with might and main benefited from the current situation in Russia. Time of troubles allowed to extract super profits. From Russia there was a stream of antiques, jewels, gold, family silver, works of art, etc.
It is necessary to take into account the fact that the Bolsheviks were needed by the “world backstage” in order to inflame the revolution in Austria-Hungary and Germany. The destruction of the Russian Empire did not exhaust the goals of the First World War - the imperial-aristocratic powers had to become a thing of the past, give way to the "democratic" republics. It was necessary to destroy not only Russia, but also the German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires. For the Anglo-Saxons to ignite the flames of the revolution in the Central Powers was a very attractive event. It promised a lot of benefits, at a fairly low cost. Trotsky with his theory of "permanent revolution" was very helpful. From the spring of 1917, President Wilson headed for the support of the German Left, who had close ties with the Russian Social Democrats and encouraged discontent with the war and the government. In public speeches, the American president hinted at the possibility of peace if "democrats" win in Germany and Austria.
With the other hand, the Entente supported the nascent white movement. The Entente was addressed by Kornilov, Alekseev, Kaledin and representatives of the liberal-democratic parties that fled to the Don. In their circles, the Bolsheviks were considered "German agents", so the appeal to the allied Western powers looked quite natural. It is clear that England and France did not refuse to help. This is how many attractive opportunities opened in this situation! Support both camps and get dividends. London and Paris did not disappoint the white camp, encouraged, did not refuse to help, promised to provide assistance. From London, Ambassador George Buchanan was sent a statement stating that the policy of the British government is to support any solid organization in Russia that actively opposes the Bolsheviks. To organize such activities were allocated large sums of money. The American ambassador to Russia, David Rowland Francis, was involved in the same activity. What is interesting is that money for Kaledin was transferred by the same National City Bank, which also financed the revolutionary activities of the Bolsheviks.
True, often the Western powers were limited to promises of help, money. They realized their goals and objectives in Russia, they promised one thing to white, but did something completely different. At the same time they tried to regulate the policy of the White movement. Encouraged, inspired by the war, while trying to distance themselves from further events. Russian fiercely fought with the Russian, as required by the "world backstage."
At the same time, the West was actively in a hurry to take advantage of the collapse of Russia. Readiness was expressed to recognize the independence of Finland, the Baltic states, and Ukraine. Romania, with the support of the Entente, seized Moldavia. In December in Paris, the British and French signed an agreement on the division of spheres of influence in Russia. The English zone includes the Transcaucasus, the North Caucasus and the Don Region, the French - the Crimean peninsula, Ukraine and Bessarabia. Later, the United States and Japan joined the agreement. Plans were made for the division of the Russian North and Siberia. The Japanese laid claim to Primorye and Eastern Siberia.
An important role in stirring up the Civil War in Russia was played by the intervention. The Western powers and Japan had the opportunity to directly intervene in the course of events in Russia, to help one, to disturb others. The reason for the open intervention was the Brest peace. During the First World War, the Entente countries, through the three main open ports of Russia - Murmansk, Arkhangelsk and Vladivostok, supplied about 1 million tons of military cargo. Most were used and shipped inland, but some remained in warehouses. Under the pretext of protecting these goods from the Germans, interventionists appeared. In Murmansk, during the Provisional Government, a detachment of Admiral Kemp arrived. At the beginning of 1918, Japanese ships appeared in Vladivostok. This worried the United States and Britain, they set off their ships.
The invasion of foreigners was accompanied by clearly treacherous activity of Trotsky. When the Murmansk Council requested guidance on foreign presence, Trotsky sent a telegram saying: “You must accept any assistance from the Allied missions ...”. Not all members of the CPC liked such steps. Stalin was seriously concerned and inspired the head of the Murmansk Council that the British never help in vain, as the French do. Stalin demanded written assurances from the British and French "against a possible occupation." But he could not resist such a strong attack. Trotsky had already convinced Lenin that the presence of the Entente troops in the Russian North would be useful. March 6 from the battleship "Glory" on the Russian land landed the first British units. Then new landings were landed.
Trotsky was ready to go further. He offered the Americans to break the Brest Agreement if the Bolsheviks were guaranteed economic and military assistance from the Entente. In addition, this traitor offered the United States to establish control over the main transport artery of Russia - the Trans-Siberian Railway, along which military supplies were supposed to go. Trotsky arranged a meeting between Lenin and Robins. The Soviet leader also advocated the expansion of Soviet-American ties, but was more cautious in words, in no hurry to give out promises. He agreed to accept the help of the Entente, if the war with the Germans was resumed and to involve American entrepreneurs in the restoration of rail and water transport. But I did not forget to remind the Americans that the United States, although friendly to the Soviet government, has not yet recognized Soviet Russia.
In early April, Japanese troops landed in Vladivostok. Under the pretext that the Germans could seize the Siberian Railway and create bases in the Pacific, threatening Japanese interests. The Japanese went around without coordination with Moscow. True, the British and Americans somewhat slowed down the Japanese, did not allow them to build on their success. England and the USA had their own plans for the future of Siberia. However, in Tokyo, they were able to act with someone else's hands. Their creature became chieftain Semenov. And Chinese marshal Zhang Zholin, a protege of the Japanese, captured the strip belonging to Russia along the CER with Harbin, built with Russian money.
On the other hand, the Central Powers were introduced into Russia. Finnish nationalists initially flooded under the wing of the Germans. Germany has transferred the brigade of General von der Goltz to Finland. Detachments of the Finnish Red Guard suffered a defeat. According to a secret agreement, Germany recognized Karelia for the Finns, if they manage to capture. Under the Germans went and Balts. In April, the Joint Council of Courland, Livonia and Estland appealed to the German emperor with a request to take them under "permanent German care."
Under the pretext of assistance from the Central Rada, Austrian-German troops occupied Ukraine. Along the way, German troops captured the Donbass and the Crimea, which had no relation to Little Russia. Austria received Odessa and Mariupol. The “independent” state was under the complete control of Germany. Even the harvest took place under German control, mandatory deliveries of grain, meat and fat were introduced. The foreign trade, railways, factories and mines of the “state” came under German control. Soon the Germans Radu dispersed and put hetman Skoropadsky "at the head" of Ukraine. Turkey claimed the Crimea, but Berlin decided to turn the peninsula into a German colony.
In the Caucasus, Turks ruled. Azerbaijani Musavatists took their side. Armenians with Russians who joined them put up resistance, stopped the Turkish offensive, but the Dashnak government capitulated, giving the Ottomans part of the territory of Armenia and the railways. The Georgian Mensheviks pursued an anti-Russian policy: thousands of Russians were fired from their jobs, expelled from their homes, robbed, arrested and killed. When the Turkish troops approached, the Georgian Mensheviks asked the Germans for help. German troops landed in Poti, "rented" this port for 60 years and placed garrisons in Georgian cities. Georgia was supposed to be included in the German Empire, it was supposed to be a stronghold of the German presence in the Caucasus.
Thus, the “global community” played a decisive role in fueling the Civil War in Russia. Due to the fault of the masters of Western civilization, Russia lost millions of people, was thrown back in development, lost vast territories. In 1930-s, Russia had to strain all its forces to close the gap with the advanced powers of the West, which was created during the revolution and the Civil War.