On the "scientific companies", wig and rocket trains
Unexpected “media activity” was shown by the heads of the Ministry of Defense and top managers of the domestic industry. In recent days, they have reported a lot of interesting things, and now it is clear that our Armed Forces have a bright future. But is everything really so good?
Deputy Defense Minister Oleg Ostapenko was pleased with future intellectual recruits, and especially their parents. He said that the first "scientific company", formed from young people who are prone to research work, will appear during the autumn draft. These units will create at military schools.
The first, according to the deputy minister, will be formed at the Peter the Great Strategic Missile Forces Military Academy. Now, as he said, they have begun to equip the premises for these purposes. The accommodation for the “scientific company” military personnel will have its own specifics, which is to enable the “scientific soldiers” to engage “in the institutes and laboratories in the scientific areas that the military man will lead”. And also - “so that he could study independently within the framework of the university where he will live.” In quotes - the words of the Deputy Minister. True, it remained unclear in which institutions and laboratories a soldier would conduct his scientific work, and what he could “engage in within.” Nevertheless, the decision to create five companies has already been made - but not immediately, but gradually, as experience accumulates. According to O. Ostapenko, in the future they may become more. The number of "scientific companies" will vary from 80 to 100 people, "elements of the training of a soldier will also be present." "He will be taught how to shoot from weapons, to some other types of actions of a general arms nature, said the colonel general. “But the main goal, its function will be exactly the occupation of research work in the interests of the defense of the country.”
And, according to the deputy minister, the soldiers, as expected, will have free time, layoffs, they will be able to visit the library, go when necessary, to go home. But the rest is military service with all its inherent rules and regulations. And most importantly, as the ministry believes, a person engaged in scientific and applied work according to his vocation will be able to realize his creative abilities and benefit the country, the army and, of course, himself. Amazing
Earlier, Sergei Shoigu stated that his department was considering the possibility of creating “scientific companies”, in which talented students would be involved in scientific and technical work in the interests of the military. However, the minister stressed: “there will serve talented guys who, without leaving the university walls, will work with teachers to do the work that the Defense Ministry needs.”
There are questions: how to determine the level of talent of a recruit, which allows you to serve urgently, and spend your time in pleasure? And where will these “companies of science” still be - within the walls, where students, who have not yet been drafted into the army, study, as the minister said. Or - at higher military educational institutions, one of which is already equipped with special facilities for their admission, as stated by his deputy.
And in general, what kind of scientific work, if we talk about it seriously, and even in the interests of the Armed Forces, will students be able to conduct during their one-year service life after having studied at a civil university for a year or two?
If we consider that the ordinary "intellectual company" must, in addition, master the basics of the soldiers' service - to go in order, to fire weapons, to know the statutes - then, it turns out, excuse me, frank profanation of both science and the army at the same time.
It is hardly worth doubting what will happen by the well-known expression: we wanted the best ... But it really sounds creative and tempting: a “scientific company”. Nowhere in the world there is no such thing, but we will.
O. Ostapenko also said that the “Defense Advanced Research and Development System of the Russian Ministry of Defense” is being created as part of the military department. The robotics center will be one of the first to be included in it, which will be located on the basis of the former N.Ye. Air Force Engineering Academy. Zhukovsky in Moscow. When creating it, the experience of such a center in the EMERCOM of Russia is used - this is not surprising, taking into account who founded and headed the “emergency workers” for many years. According to O. Ostapenko, the robotic center "will be engaged in scientific studies, the creation of experimental samples, conduct their testing, bring the development to the final product and introduce it into the troops." And it is beautiful. True, one note. Troops are not a market in which it is necessary to "introduce the final product." In the Armed Forces, the “final product” is not being introduced, but is being adopted.
However, the statement about the creation of a certain “system” is much more interesting: it must be a very important and very closed structure of the Ministry of Defense, as it will determine the appearance of weapons of the 21st century. And Colonel-General O. Ostapenko, to whom the new structure will be directly subordinate, explained its functions. According to him, “the very first, main goal of this system is the creation of technical superiority over a potential adversary, in this context we are very actively working on its creation and functioning.”
The structure of the "system" will include: the Main Directorate for Research and Development Activities and Technological Support of Advanced Technologies; Information and Analytical Center for the collection, analysis and preparation of information and Coordination and expert management of research activities; Research Center "Bureau of Defense Solutions", located in Moscow, and the regional department of innovative developments in St. Petersburg. The future center of robotics will join it. In the future, it is planned to create similar structures of the “system” in Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Vladivostok. According to experts, the main tasks of the "system" will be the organization of scientific activities and technological support of innovative research and development in the field of defense; monitoring and analysis of world scientific activities and developments to prevent the sudden appearance of means capable of posing a threat to the national security of Russia; use of domestic scientific resources and scientific potential of foreign countries in the interests of the state’s defense.
All this is undoubtedly very important and necessary. But how will the “system” of the ministry interact with the Advanced Research Foundation established under the Military Industrial Commission? The tasks they face are almost the same.
The Fund’s work plans announced recently are the creation of supersonic passenger airplanes, ekranoplans and convertoplanes. Such a passenger liner will appear - and the pattern of intercontinental communications and long-distance domestic flights will change completely, say, from the center to the west of Russia and to the east - to Vladivostok and to Kamchatka.
The introduction of a commercially viable machine that provides a flight to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in one hour, to the US Pacific coast in two hours, is able to “close” the entire existing global aviation industry, forcing the competition in this area to start from scratch.
Other priority areas of research and development are the creation of a high-speed helicopter, an WIG, a heavy convertoplane. As the experts of the Foundation explained, these machines “are capable of fundamentally changing the ideas about the transport accessibility of many regions - from mountain gorges to taiga and tundra”.
But in the military department they think differently, in any case, in the part concerning ekranoplans. The Ministry of Defense considers it inappropriate to carry out work on their creation until the appearance and range of tasks solved by an ekranoplane has been determined, said the Director of the Armaments Department of the Ministry of Defense Anatoly Gulyaev. It turns out, except for the possible appearance, there is no clear understanding of its application.
It turns out, decades ago, during the heyday of the USSR, the General Staff of the Soviet Army understood why they were needed, and several copies of various WIGs were built at the request of the military in Gorky. Unique in technical characteristics and combat capabilities of machines, which, by the way, have been tested, including with rocket launches. And now, it turns out, "military thought" is lost. However, the hope is inspired by the fact that in addition to the generals who are trying to determine the place of WIG in solving combat missions, they are also concerned about the creation of the Ministry of Industry and Trade. A draft concept for the development of civil aircraft and military aircraft has been developed there. Whose office will prevail, civil or military? The question is not idle.
The words of another deputy defense minister, Yuri Borisov, who came to the military department from the military-industrial complex, can be considered a real sensation.
In Russia, he said, development work began on the creation of combat railway missile systems - BZHRK. And they are held by the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering - the one in which they made the memorable "Bulava". It is still unclear whether the Bulava passed all the required state tests or not, but, based on what was said by Y. Borisov, the intercontinental missiles for submarines are a past stage. Now all the forces - to create BZHRK. True, the question of whether combat railway missile systems are deployed and on what scale has not yet been resolved.
Yuri Solomonov, General Designer of the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering, answered the question of whether a new rocket would be needed for combat railroad missile complexes or the old one would be used: "What a rocket is needed will be used like this." Read: either - a secret, or the decision has not yet been made. Recall, the sea "Bulava" was forced through with the emphasis on the fact that it was based on spent ground "Topol", and this means unification of production and its cheapening. It turned out exactly the opposite. No one would be surprised if the same general designer later proves that the adapted Bulava will come down for the BZHRK.
In Soviet times, BZHRK were the most invulnerable and very powerful missile weapons of the Strategic Missile Forces. If the submarine missile carrier is tracked immediately after leaving the base, and it is almost impossible to hide it even in the expanses of the World Ocean, then it was easier to get lost in the USSR railways network. When Washington realized that tracking the movement of trains with intercontinental solid-fuel missiles RT-23UTTH “Well done” - according to the NATO classification “SS-24 Scalpel” - the Americans cannot use technical intelligence at all, they are very alarmed. This should not be ...
In the 1988 year, five regiments were deployed in our country, and by the 1991 year - three rocket divisions, near Kostroma, Perm and Krasnoyarsk. Each division consisted of four missile regiments, a total of 12 compositions. BZHRK looked like ordinary trains of refrigerated, postal baggage and passenger cars. Within each train were three launchers with the "Well done", as well as the entire system of their support with a command post and combat crews. Missile launch could be carried out from any point of the route. For this, the train stopped, the contact suspension of the electric wires was set aside with a special device, the launch canister was placed in an upright position, and the rocket was launched. During the day BZHRK could pass about 1200 kilometers, and the time of its combat autonomous patrol, thanks to the reserves on board, lasted almost a month.
After the collapse of the USSR, the Americans made every effort for Russia to destroy with its own hands its unique strategic power.
At first BZHRK banned patrols and tacked on the quartering of the headquarters of the missile divisions. Then the division was reduced to one - in Kostroma. And at the beginning of this century, the BZhRK were decommissioned, their launchers and missiles were dismantled. So the reconstruction of combat railway complexes of strategic purpose can only be welcomed. But even here in a barrel of honey, not even one, but two fly in the ointment.
First: will the research team headed by Y. Solomonov cope with a very difficult task or will we see the continuation of the “Return of the Bulava” series? The second is: what's stopping the launch of rocket launchers on railway platforms now? Russian specialists, on their own initiative, have created an original, and as yet unparalleled in the world, container rocket complex Club-K. In standard cargo containers there are tactical missiles with a range of up to 500 kilometers. Probably, if you put not two rockets, but one with a large diameter, then you can also increase the flight range. But this is not the main thing. Such rocket trains can be formed very quickly, and they can work out the forgotten technology of managing combat railway complexes. However, the Ministry of Defense does not show any interest in the “Club-K” complexes, as far as we know, it does not plan to adopt them.
However, in addition to dreamy speculations about the "scientific companies" and future strategic complexes of BZhRK, there were also encouraging news today. Tactical Missiles Corporation successfully implements a new generation missile program. The head of the corporation, Boris Obnosov, said that the state tests of twelve new types of sea-based and air-based tactical weapons will be completed before the 2017 year. According to him, the times when enterprises developed two or three new missiles over the decade are a thing of the past: “Now the situation is changing dramatically, and the number is increasing, and the most important thing is new products.”
The corporation is engaged in the development and production of modern samples of tactical missile and bomb aviation weapons, including - for the fifth generation fighter. Also there are created tactical means of destruction for surface ships and submarines. In the list of the most well-known developments of the corporation are the coastal complexes "Ball", "Bastion", ship "Mosquito" and "Uran".
And yet, said B. Obnosov, by the summer of 2013, a comprehensive target program for the development of supersonic missiles will be developed. True, shouting "Hurray!" Is still early, the work is not easy and is designed for several stages, he warned.
So, in the army and in industry began the "spring revival." Let the ekranoplanes take off not soon, but the young intellectuals in the "scientific companies" will get more strained, and, you see, the trains with the "Maces" will roll along the steel highways of Russian Railways, scaring not yet named concrete adversaries.