Military Review

A country without territorial defense

Economy, infrastructure and civilian population are top priorities

As it became known, on the basis of amendments to the existing federal law “On Defense”, introduced by the president, for the first time in recent years, the new leadership of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation has practically re-started the development of a whole set of legislative documents relating to the defense of our state.

The difficulty of solving this task lies in the difficulties specific to Russian conditions, including the organization of territorial defense (MOT). THEN as a system of measures to protect the population, objects and communications from the actions of the enemy, sabotage and terrorist acts, since the times of the USSR, distinguished by its completeness and validity, has recently found itself in the pen. On the other hand, today there are factors that have significantly changed the views on its organization.

In the new conditions

Socio-economic device. With the advent of private property, entrepreneurs have found not only individual enterprises, but also entire industries, land, forests, and water areas. All this huge household owned by individuals requires protection. Since war is a disaster that affects the interests of not only the state, but also every citizen of Russia and its property, both military authorities, the executive branch of the subjects of the Federation, and local self-government with the involvement of individual private owners should take a direct part in this work . After all, in Russia at the time of difficult trials, thanks to the rise of patriotism among the widest masses, the feeling of the Motherland united society and turned it into a single camp.

Military-political situation. The volume and procedure for preparing the country militarily and the organization of maintenance depend on it. Russia occupies a unique geopolitical position and has huge produced and natural values. The problem of preserving the military security of the Russian Federation in the conditions of the superiority of a potential enemy in almost all strategic areas has become more acute. Timely organization MOT plays an important role.

The nature of the armed struggle is also changing. From the very first days the war will take extremely tense and decisive forms. Military districts will be under constant threat from missileaviation strikes, actions of air (sea) landings, special operations troops. The peculiarities of future wars are that in the course of hostilities, not only troops and military facilities, but also the country's economy with all its infrastructure and civilian population will end up under enemy attacks.

Defense infrastructure. Over the past decades, the system of interconnected facilities, which maintains the vital activity and security of the Armed Forces, has actually been destroyed. Including as a result of the sovereignization of the former Soviet republics. As a result, a single defense space with a large number of aerodromes, stationary control points for strategic and operational assignment, and storages ceased to exist.

Due to the ill-conceived redeployment of troops, academies and even the main commands and departments of military districts, restoring the territorial defense system, organizing command and control in all military districts, and protecting large government bodies located near the state border is a problem.

Modern organization

The theoretical positions of the former harmonious system of technical maintenance were set forth in the “Basics of preparation and conduct of operations”. The bottom line was that the entire responsibility for the organization of territorial defense was assigned to the commander of the district (in wartime).

A country without territorial defenseThe military doctrine of the Russian Federation from 21 April 2000, the Armed Forces focused on defensive actions, to repel enemy aggression. Military districts solved these tasks within their administrative boundaries. The functions and rights of the commanders of military districts were extended, which were assigned the task of preparing TO in the established areas of responsibility. The commander of the district (for wartime) decided all the work on the preparation of territorial defense under the direction of the commander of the military district or the commander of the front, if he acted on the territory of the district.

The last document regulating the activities of the departments of military districts in the war was the “Temporary Instruction on Territorial Defense”, in which clarifications were made in the activities of the commander of the military district in peacetime. All the responsibility of planning and organizing territorial defense was assigned to him and his headquarters, which greatly complicated their activities and increased the time required to prepare for the execution of tasks.

An analysis of the organization of territorial defense in the post-war period allows us to conclude that attention to it has lately decreased unreasonably. In none of the exercises conducted in 2010 – 2013, the questions of maintenance were not worked out. This is mainly due to the fact that in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation gradually began to form a look at future military conflicts through the prism of the counter-terrorist operation in the Chechen Republic and in the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict, which fixed the thinking of a number of leaders mainly at the tactical level. At the same time, the operational and strategic levels that require serious knowledge and skills were practically ignored.

The latter is especially important for the organization of territorial defense management in the RF Armed Forces, where the main issues were solved by the General Staff, the command of the Ground Forces, as well as the commanders-in-chief and the main headquarters of other branches of the Armed Forces. Detailed planning and organization of territorial defense measures in accordance with the “Temporary Instruction on Territorial Defense” is carried out in full in military districts that exist in peacetime, without involving the district command (in wartime). This is today the general scheme for organizing territorial defense in the Russian Federation.


It would be advisable to make some clarifications, mainly related to the need to separate operational and administrative functions between the implementers, so as not to concentrate all the tasks being solved in one hand. The existing military district administrations are endowed with the status of a strategic interspecific OVU and they are entrusted with full responsibility for ensuring military security and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation within the established boundaries.

In connection with a significant expansion of the administrative boundaries of military districts, increasing their status and increasing responsibilities, as well as the complexity of organizing control over a large territory, it is advisable to assign all administrative tasks to the specially appointed deputy commander of the military district or USC for territorial defense, which, when the commander of the USC departed from the district, would become the commander of the district (for wartime). In his subordination in peacetime should be the Center of Administrative Territorial Administrations of USC (the establishment of such centers, the weekly MIC informed readers in the number 34 for 2012 a year), on the basis of which the military district’s administration is deployed during the threatened period.

The deputy commander for territorial defense - the commander of the military district (for wartime) is subject to the commanders of the zones and areas of territorial defense. As a rule, these should be the heads of the regional authorities. And their respective deputies become their deputies.

The heads of zones and areas of maintenance are the direct executors of all the tasks assigned to the district administrations (in wartime): territorial defense, mobilization, preparation of reserves, passage of troops through the territory of zones and areas. The expediency of appointing military commissars to the posts of deputy commanders of zones and maintenance areas is explained by the fact that they have prepared command posts (urban and suburban), and are constantly located, even with the outbreak of hostilities, in one place, and most importantly - are professionals in questions of mobilization . Military commissioners should be officers. The appointment of heads of training centers to guide the mobilization is wrong.

In the Armed Forces, it is proposed to resolve the main issues of preparation and conduct of territorial defense to the General Staff, and on the basis of the main command of the Ground Forces it is necessary to create a general command for the preparation of reserves and territorial defense.
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  1. svp67
    svp67 2 May 2013 06: 09
    The issue raised in the article is very complex and multifaceted, and the country's defense capability directly depends on its decision at the state level ...
    1. zart_arn
      zart_arn 2 May 2013 15: 44
      Indeed, a very complex and multifaceted question. In this regard, it seems that the appointment of Shoigu as Minister of Defense is not a very successful personnel decision. Judging by his statements and actions, he does not draw on a system analyst - an analyst, which should be a real minister of defense.
      1. soaring
        soaring 2 May 2013 16: 11
        Totally agree with you, zart_arn! Shoigu is a convenient deflector under the supreme and militarily no ... Maybe I go too far, but he was also unable to deploy and raise the Ministry of Emergencies to the proper level. Shouting and glaring at his subordinates is not an indicator of his high professionalism ..
        And the question was raised necessary and necessary! And then many begin to believe that if war, then it will blow us over ... This is a mistake and it must be eradicated in the root!
      2. andrejwz
        andrejwz 3 May 2013 06: 31
        Quote: zart_arn
        the appointment of Shoigu as Minister of Defense is not an entirely successful personnel decision

        Not entirely successful? For whom?
        By the way, systems analysts are service personnel of any company. organizations, management structures. and decision-making remains with "not entirely successful personnel decisions"
    2. vladimirZ
      vladimirZ 2 May 2013 17: 47
      They came to their senses, but why destroy it! It is imperative to punish those responsible for destroying the state’s defense in order to prove that the new construction of defense capability is a serious and responsible matter and will no longer be destroyed at the whim of the new Gorbachev-Yeltsins, Serdyukov-Taburetkins.
  2. Vasily-71
    Vasily-71 2 May 2013 15: 21
    For some reason, I can’t make a clear text out of this wall of letters.

    Everything's Alright. It is only urgent to organize a single center for command of aerospace defense - the only thing that Russia does not have now.
    1. old rocket man
      old rocket man 2 May 2013 16: 25
      Quote: Basil-71
      For some reason I can’t make a clear text out of this wall of letters

      I agree, it’s a little bit silly, but in general the idea is correct, especially regarding military commissars.
  3. FC SKIF
    FC SKIF 2 May 2013 15: 24
    I recall the phrase that generals always prepare for the wars of the past. It seems to me that we have problems with the analysis of risks and threats. It seems that we constantly only respond to external irritation, like that ciliator, and the initiative is with the enemies.
    1. Vasily-71
      Vasily-71 2 May 2013 15: 28
      Uneducable as well. War with Georgia was expected, but in the end they commanded with the help of flags and mobile phones. Modern technology is also not delivered.
      1. FC SKIF
        FC SKIF 2 May 2013 18: 09
        I agree. Purely in the Russian spirit and on such and such a mother they won, but the Georgians didn’t have that either. Just think, some kind of Amer’s technique was, so it was necessary to be able to use it, and also risk your life. Look how they draped from Abkhazia - it’s a pleasure to watch. And most importantly, without losses and weapons - on the run in any way would be the first in any competition.
  4. a.hamster55
    a.hamster55 2 May 2013 15: 53
    Yes, there is still a lot of rakes as well as those who want to try them. Does the command staff of the units where to get the equipment, ammunition, etc. in case of a sudden attack on the RPD? Let's say the head of the home knows and his faithful warrant officer, but here they are underestimated to the part. And at headquarters there is a package where to whom to run and where to receive, so the opponent knows. And where are the warehouses of the reserve, they will probably send a carrier pigeon.
    1. Belanov-ga
      Belanov-ga 2 May 2013 16: 45
      We reservists will not wait for the distribution of weapons from warehouses, as these depots will be destroyed by the enemy within an hour. And the country will be finished within a day. We will partisan with hunting rifles, who had something at home. Conclusion: Distribute weapons home to all reservists as in Israel. And wish good luck in the work of our intelligence and counterintelligence.
      1. zennon
        zennon 2 May 2013 21: 05
        Enough was enough! We have a short-barreled population to hand no-no! They say we are stupid, we will shoot each other, and you are army weapons to their homes, as in Switzerland. request
  5. dizelniy
    dizelniy 2 May 2013 16: 07
    A generation of leaders has grown up, both in the army and in the state, who have no idea about mobilization work. They also wanted to grind the General Staff Academy. The building must have looked after the bank. GS was always at the head of this work. Recent reforms halved it. Problems, problems ....
  6. Consul-t
    Consul-t 2 May 2013 16: 18
    The geopolitical situation is not in Russia's favor.
    The faster the country's leadership realizes the imminent danger and ceases to believe in the friendliness of the world capitalist monsters, the more chances we can withstand, both the nation and the state as a whole.
  7. Russian officer
    Russian officer 2 May 2013 16: 21
    “As a rule, these should be the heads of the authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. And their deputies are the corresponding military commissars.
    Military commissars should be officers. "
    Actually, this has already happened in history. And even at the level of bodies of local self and military administration (ie, military enlistment offices). True to Serdyukov. "And Buka came" ,,,, (S. King)
    1. old rocket man
      old rocket man 2 May 2013 16: 33
      Quote: Russian officer
      Actually, it’s already been in history

      That's right, it was. We had a lot of things. Only earlier these issues were resolved by the regional committee (district committee) with the help of the military commissariats, no matter how, but they were resolved, and now can you trust the semi-criminal governors to lead the military formations and arms depots?
      1. Belanov-ga
        Belanov-ga 2 May 2013 16: 57
        Personally, I, as a reservist, will be calm only when the weapons recorded on my military ID will be stored in my house in the arms cabinet. Like in Israel. And then after all, it may turn out to be again like in 1941: a rifle is one for three and that without cartridges! After all, the risk of losing a country is higher than the risk of an accident in a private house from storing weapons in it!
        1. Rrv
          Rrv 2 May 2013 17: 37
          Do you think you are worried about the possibility of an accident in your home? )))
  8. rudolff
    rudolff 2 May 2013 17: 04
    The format of modern exercises is somewhat surprising. Tanks of blue in orderly rows attack the tank units of the Reds. The infantry is digging trenches. Necessarily parachute landing with equipment. Here the question really arises, but what kind of war is our general staff actually preparing for ?! Or is it just a beautiful show for high-ranking officials? At least once conducted exercises in urban conditions! There are enough abandoned towns and villages in Russia. Turning one of them into a landfill is not a problem. But for some reason nobody needs it. As if there were no Chechen wars or Tskhinval.
  9. treskoed
    treskoed 2 May 2013 17: 04
    It is necessary to introduce a special maintenance tax for owners of facilities and territories.
  10. individual
    individual 2 May 2013 18: 00
    Quote by V. Yatsenko:
    In the Armed Forces, it is proposed to resolve the main issues of preparation and conduct of territorial defense to the General Staff, and on the basis of the main command of the Ground Forces it is necessary to create a general command for the preparation of reserves and territorial defense.

    In my deep conviction, the creation of a territorial defense will lead to the separatism of the specific princes, who have received the lever of blackmail of the federal authorities. Protective mechanisms to prevent a split are not enough.
  11. Vtel
    Vtel 2 May 2013 19: 43
    in the Chechen Republic and in the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict, this captured the thinking of a number of leaders mainly at a tactical level. At the same time, both operational and strategic levels, requiring serious knowledge and skills, were left unattended.

    It’s better to learn and create in peacetime so that you don’t step on the rake later.
  12. pamero
    pamero 2 May 2013 21: 01
    In! So, the military commissars, while reducing Serdyukov, destroyed all this, and then these VKs themselves also reduced the dismissals of all. In their place were taken civilians with higher education from employment centers in cities and regions. They need to first explain what MOT and the Threatened Period are and then only demand that everything be done !!!
  13. nemec55
    nemec55 2 May 2013 23: 17
    To be honest, it’s very difficult to decide and think about war and duty, since our kidnappers are alive and their ilk until the cock pecks, we fuck them they don’t need to steal, kids live in foreign countries in Europe, America, and as a feathered peck, you’ll help people at once and die * Yes, they went to ... opu .. I want Stalin and the 37th already got, if it’s worth living together too ...