Military Review

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missile technology in the world

Modern weapon mass destruction radically changed not only military tactics, but also the strategy and, moreover, geopolitics in the modern world.

First of all, this refers to nuclear weapons. This weapon, having appeared historically in a short period of time, initially in the USA, Great Britain, France and the USSR, soon turned out to be in China, which had not previously had any prerequisites for its creation.

Equally rapidly, nuclear technology was mastered by Israel, Pakistan, India, North Korea, Iran, South Africa and Brazil. It is indicative that French companies played an important role in equipping the armed forces of Pakistan, India and Israel, although these states were not bound by political ties.

At the same time, in Pakistan, French companies collaborated with socialist China, which was then very hostile to the West, and at the same time Pakistan, according to Abdul Qadir Khan, the father of the Pakistani atomic bomb, also played an important role in the development of Iran’s nuclear program. areas and from North Korea.

The danger of nuclear weapons has increased all the more since nuclear warheads were developed for 70-80-x to 155-mm, 175-mm and 203-mm ammunition and to land mines, but most importantly - to controlled land mines carried by special forces, up to 5 kilotons

Most of these munitions continue to be in warehouses, and many people who participated in their development and preparation for use still serve in various organizations.

Of course, nuclear weapons are expensive, and chemical weapons are cheaper, which were used occasionally in modern military stories. The chemical weapons used in the First World War were still imperfect and did not have effective means of delivery.

In the Second World War, chemical weapons were not used, but Saddam Hussein during the war against Iran (1980-1988) used combat agents - mustard gas, tabun and sarin. At the end of this war, Iraq possessed 500 tons of toxic agents, including several tens of thousands of artillery shells and more than fifty warheads (combat units) for operational-tactical missiles.

Although Saddam Hussein refused to attack chemical weapons in Iranian cities, Iraqi troops used chemical weapons against Kurdish rebels from April 1987 to August 1988 over forty times.

So during the operation of the armed forces of Iraq "Anfal" from February to September 1988, the widespread use of chemical weapons was noted, and the Iraqi Air Force planes bombed with ammunition containing poisonous substances (sarin, tabun and mustard gas), a Kurdish city, on 16 of February and September. Halabja, preoccupied by the Iranians. In this case, a significant damaging factor of chemical weapons was manifested in urban neighborhoods, and although Halabja was a small town with a couple of tens of thousands of people, the death toll was estimated at about five thousand people.

During the Cold War, the United States and the USSR had several tens of thousands of tons of chemical weapons, as the USSR developed the RBC-AD-1 “one-time cassette” containing chemical submunitions (combat elements), and the United States began testing in 1986 of the year. binary "chemical bombs.

1 June 1990, when the United States and the USSR signed an agreement on the destruction of most chemical weapons (primarily obsolete), according to the agreements reached for the year 2002, the parties had to have 5000 tons of chemical weapons.

Now, due to the complexity of its destruction technology, this weapon continues to be stored in the warehouses of many armies, and it is rather difficult to determine whether any state possesses such weapons or not.

It developed in the world a huge number of different toxic substances sternites - toxic substances, and mixtures thereof based on organoarsenic compounds (adamsite - DM, diphenylchlorarsine - DA, diphenylcyanoarsine - DC), poisons smothering action (phosgene - CG and diphosgene - CG2), toxic solid matter common toxicity (hydrocyanic acid - AC, cyanide, chlorocyan - CK), poisonous substances of the skin-blistering action (mustard - HD, lewisite - L), toxic substances of the nerve agent (sarin - GB, soman - GD, tabun - GA, V-gas - VX), poisoning e substances of psychochemical exposure (quinuclidyl-3, benzyl), various toxins (chemicals of the protein nature of microbial, plant or animal origin - XR and PG), phytotoxicants (chemicals that cause damage to vegetation), such as substance known from the Vietnam War Orange.

Chemical weapons are in service with Burma, Vietnam, Egypt, Israel, India, Iran, China, South Korea, North Korea, Russia, Syria, USA, Thailand, Taiwan, France, Ethiopia and a number of other states that have the possibility of its production.

After the war in Libya, many warehouses of the former Libyan army were left unguarded, and the fate of the chemical weapons there was unknown.

In addition, for the production of chemical agents a rather small chemical plant, and therefore it is quite possible that in the course of another war, it can be used by either side. The consequences of a chemical weapon strike on any locality can be catastrophic, as they will cause a complete paralysis of vital functions of urban services, which will plunge any large city, and even more so the "megalopolis" into a state of chaos.

Speaking about chemical and nuclear weapons, one should not forget about the means and methods of their delivery. In the event of a "total" war, the states or organizations possessing them will try to strike at the very "heart" of the adversary, and for this they need means of delivery. Aviation in solving this issue plays an important role, but not decisive, since the aircraft is a noticeable target and also quite vulnerable.

For this reason, it will be more rational for a number of countries to use ground-based missile systems that are harder to control than aircraft. Missiles used modern operational-tactical missile systems and medium-range complexes, can be equipped with various types of warheads, including penetrating, nuclear, containers with cluster fragmentation, fragmentation-cumulative, incendiary submunitions, as well as SPBE.

The first missile system that was exported to the third world countries was the Soviet tactical missile system 2K6 Luna, developed in XXUMX, its upgraded version developed in 1961, 1964K9 Luna-M, as well as its export version 52K9TS "Luna-T". In NATO, the tactical complex 52K2 "Luna" was designated as "Frog-6," Frog -3 "," Frog -4 ", and 5K9" Luna-M "as" Frog-52A "and" Frog-7В. "Range of fire tactical complexes were respectively 7 and 44 km.

Exported files 9K52 and 10M9D-C agitation warhead.

However, work on the modernization of this complex, which began in 1965 to equip missiles with a control system (correction), was stopped and the tactical missile system 9K79 "Tochka", whose development began in 1968, and production - in 1973 came to replace it.

The rocket had inertial guidance with a range from 15 to 70 kilometers and a nuclear warhead AA-60 with a power of 10 kiloton. Subsequently it was created high-explosive warhead 9N123F, 9N123K cassette warhead, nuclear warhead AA-86, as well as missile "point-F" passive radar seeker 9N123F-PX and HE fragmentation warhead.

In 1989, the Soviet Army adopted a modified 9K79-1 "Tochka-U" complex, the main difference of which was a long range (up to 120 kilometers) and firing accuracy.

These tactical complexes 9K79 "Point", designated in NATO as SS-21 "Scarab", were purchased by Yemen, Syria, Poland and Czechoslovakia, and the army of the Russian Federation used them during combat operations in Chechnya, as well as during the war in South Ossetia.

During the Cold War, the USSR began to send for export or as military assistance also the tactical complex 9K72 with the Р-17 (8К14) and Р-17М (8К14-1) missiles on the MAZ-543 wheeled chassis with the MAX-50 wheeled chassis -300 km, which was designated in NATO as "Scud-B" ("Scud B"), and its version with the P-11М missile (8К11) on the crawler ISU-152K had an operating range of up to 150 km and, in NATO terminology, was designated as "Scud-A".

The OTP P-17 could be equipped with a 100 CT nuclear warhead, a 1016 kg high-explosive warhead, a 985 kg chemical warfare warmer and a detonating warhead (thermobaric), and in the Russian Federation in the middle of the 90-s the complex modernization program was created under the designation "Aero", by creating a detachable warhead and the introduction of a new guidance system.

The export version of the complex 9К72, designated as Р-300, was widely exported to the countries of the Warsaw Pact, Afghanistan, Yemen, Iraq, Iran, Cuba, Libya, Syria, North Korea and other countries.

Just the Scuds served Egypt, Iraq, Iran, North Korea and Syria as the basis for developing their own missile programs.

In the US, tactical missile systems were intended primarily for the use of tactical nuclear weapons.

The first tactical missile system MGM-5 Corporal was created in 1958 year on the basis of the German V-2 rocket.

Then, in the US, from the 1953 to the middle of the 60-s, tactical complexes MGR-1A and MGR-1B "Honest John" were produced with a range of 37 and 48 km, as well as the MOM-3A "Little John" airmobile complex with a range of up to XNUM kilometers

Since 1960, the tactical complex MGM-29 Sergeant was also produced with a range of up to 140 kilometers and with a nuclear warhead.

Missiles "Honest John" and "Little John" in addition to nuclear warheads had high-explosive, cluster, chemical warheads.

These complexes were supplied only to Great Britain, while the allied United States Taiwan, South Korea and Turkey used American medium-range air defense systems Nike Hercules MIM-14, -14A, -14B with a firing range of up to 75 miles (130 km) capable of fire at ground targets.

Missile "Nike Hercules" had a high-explosive fragmentation warhead, but could use chemical and cluster warheads. Later in the US, the MGM-52 "Lance" was created with a range of up to 120 kilometers (75 miles) with inertial guidance and a W-70 nuclear warhead or M-251 warhead warhead equipped with M-40 submunitions.

These MGM-52 "Lance" complexes were exported to Holland, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Israel, Taiwan and South Korea.

Created in 70-s of the OTR "Pershing-2" complexes MGM-31B fell under a reduction in accordance with the Soviet-American Treaty on the Reduction of Strategic Offensive Arms together with the ground installations of cruise missiles RGM-109 (USA) and the Soviet complex 9-714 "Oka" ( SS-23 "Spider").

Of the US allies, only France, Israel, South Korea and Taiwan had their own programs for the development of rocket technologies that achieved significant results.

The NHK-1 and NHK-2 rockets produced in South Korea, also called “Hyun Mu”, were created based on the outdated American MIM-14 “Nike Hercules” air defense system. At the same time, South Korea’s missile program was under constant US control, which demanded that the range of the missiles be limited to 150 km, although South Korea later requested that the range be increased to 250 km.

Taiwan’s missile program was also under pressure from the United States, and the 70’s program for developing its own missiles based on the American tactical missile MGM-52 "Lance" (in Taiwan called the "Green Bee") was suspended under pressure from the United States.

Nevertheless, the development of missile weapons continued in the 80-ies of the armed forces of Taiwan was adopted operational-tactical complex "Ching Feng", created on the basis of MGM-52 "Lance".

In 90-ies, Taiwan adopted the new tactical complex "Tien Chi" ("Sky Halberd"), created on the basis of the "Tien Kung-2" ("Sky Bow") air defense system, which in turn was created on the basis of American air defense system "Nike-Hercules". It is indicative that the projected launch range of this operational-tactical complex in 300 km under pressure from China and the USA has been reduced to 130 km. For guidance OTR "Tien Chi" used a combined system of INS / GPS, and thus the combat use of missiles from two dozen of these complexes that were in service with Taiwan, depended on the United States.

In 90, the Taiwan Institute of Science and Technology Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology also developed the medium-range Sky Horse 1 class missiles with a range of up to 1000 km and a mass of warheads up to 500 kg, which in Taiwan supposed to use to launch satellites.

France's own ground-based tactical complexes "Hades" with a range of 480 kilometers, replacing the decommissioned OTR "Pluton" in 1984 in the year, also removed from weapons in the 1997, although rocket technology was exported to a number of countries, for example, to Israel .

The rocket program in Israel was launched back in 1962 with the help of France, so the first Israeli Luz-YA-1 rocket was a copy of the MD-620 rocket of the French company Marcel-Dassault.

The missile adopted by the Israel Self-Defense Forces has received the designation "Jericho-1". This is a two-stage solid-fuel rocket with a range of up to 500 kilometers, which can be equipped with a nuclear warhead (about 20 Kt), a single-warhead warhead with a conventional explosive mass 450-650 kilogram or with a chemical warhead.

In the 70s, Israel entered into an agreement with South Africa and Iran to jointly develop and manufacture missiles, and a modernized missile under the designation YA-3 was tested in Iran.

In South Africa, the Jericho rocket was named Arniston, but after the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979 and the subsequent fall of apartheid in South Africa, this cooperation was discontinued.

New Israeli rocket "Jericho-2" (YA-3) was adopted by the Israeli army in the 1990 year, and the mass of its warhead was 1000 kilogram.

The YA-3 rocket can carry a nuclear power as high as 1 Mgt to a range of up to 1500 km. Over 90 such missiles deployed in the area of ​​the city of Zacharia (Zacharia) in the mine-type installations.

Since the Jericho-2 rocket was used to launch Shavit satellites, it is likely that the official data on the range of this rocket in 1500 km is not entirely correct and more accurate data suggest a range of this rocket to 3500 km.

How the Israeli government protects its secrets can be judged from the trial of the Israeli physicist Mordechai Vanunu, who received a long prison sentence for disclosing the very fact of Israel’s possession of nuclear weapons, although Israel possesses, according to various sources, from several dozen to several hundreds of nuclear weapons.

Due to strict secrecy, information about the new YA-4 "Jericho-3" three-stage rocket, which entered service with the Israeli army in 2006, was rather sketchy, and only its intended range was known - to 6000 km.

It is known that in addition to a monoblock nuclear warhead (around 1 Mgt), Israel was developing a nuclear warhead with multiple warheads, while it remains possible to equip the missile with conventional warheads.

However, China played a much more important role in supplying the third world countries with tactical and operational-tactical missile systems.

The development of China’s missile and nuclear programs was launched with the help of the USSR in the middle of the 50s.

20 August 1957 of the year issued an order of the USSR Minister of Defense on the transfer to China of long-range missiles P-2, and then the tactical missile systems P-11. In total, 60 missile regiments armed with the Р-20 and Р-2 missiles were formed at the beginning of the 11s in China.

Soviet specialists also helped China develop and produce the first Chinese DF (Dong Feng) - Eastern Wind rocket, which represented a modification of the Soviet Volga P-1 missile system or, as is commonly mentioned in the West, the German V-2 rocket.

Its first launch took place in 1960, and in 1964, a new DF-2 rocket with a liquid jet engine was launched.

The DF-2 rocket was used to test China’s nuclear weapons in 1966, and by the end of 60's, the Celestial Empire had about a hundred of such missiles (Western designation CSS-1) with a range of 1250 conventional warheads kg or with a nuclear warhead power 1500 CT.

Another two-stage rocket DF-21 (CSS-5) with a range of 2150 kilometers (while its modification DF-21A had a range of 2500 km) had, in addition to a monoblock nuclear warhead, also a high-explosive, cluster, electromagnetic and chemical warhead 600 kg.

China has deployed more than a hundred of these rocket launchers in all border areas from the border with Vietnam and Burma to the coast and the border with Russia.

Also, a JL-21 (CSS-N-1) sea-based rocket was created on the basis of the DF-3, which had the same range in 2150 km (whereas the JL-1A, based on the DF-21A, had the corresponding range 2500 km ), so that each nuclear SSBN of the 092 type carries 12 of such missiles.

Later, China created a three-stage DF-3 (CSS-2) missiles with a range of 2650 km and a mass of conventional warheads around 2000 kg. Due to the impossibility of long-term storage of liquid fuel missiles in the engine, these missiles had a long service life, but the range itself in 2500 km was sufficient to bombard most of Southeast Asia, as well as Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missile technology in the world

In 1997, Saudi Arabia also bought about 60 DF-3 missiles from China.

The new two-stage rocket DF-4 (CSS-3) had a range of up to 4750 km, and the subsequent rocket DF-5 during the tests flew to Solomon Islands (about 12 thousand km), and its modification DF-5А reached the radius 13 thousand km , but unlike previous missiles, it did not have a monoblock warhead, but was supplied with six separable nuclear warheads.

The DF-4 and DF-5 rockets served as a prototype for the creation of the Chan Zheng (Great Tour) missiles designed to launch the CZ-1 (LM-1 "Long Marsh") and CZ-2 satellites (LM-2). In the future, China continued to develop missiles to launch satellites and began to develop solid-fuel intercontinental rockets.

Work on the new three-stage solid-fuel rocket DF-23 and its JL-2 "Ju Lang" maritime variant was launched in 1970. Despite numerous delays, China succeeded, not without the help of foreign experts, to test this rocket in 1995 on the test site. " Wuzhai. " This rocket, renamed DF-31, instead of the expected 6 thousands of kilometers traveled 8 thousands of kilometers, and its modification DF-31A reached the turn of 10 thousands of kilometers, while the DF-31 developed on the basis of DF-90 at the end of 41’s rocket DF-12 , whose third stage was longer, had a range of up to XNUMX thousands of kilometers.

Since the American SSBNs carry three-stage UGM-133A "Trident-II" ballistic missiles with a launch range of up to 13500 km, the range of the Chinese JL-2 8 rocket thousands of kilometers with split nuclear warheads seems to be quite acceptable.

In 2007, the Pentagon report made public that China had adopted five SSBNs, each carrying 12 JL-2 ballistic missiles with a range of up to 8000 km.

In addition to monoblock warheads, nuclear warheads with three split warheads and satellite navigation were developed for the DF-31 and JL-2, and on the basis of the DF-31, its SLV-1 modification was launched to launch satellites.

For export, China also offered its own M-series missiles - single-stage OTP M-11 (DF-11, in the West - CSS-7), which were developed on the basis of the Soviet complex OTP P-17.

The M-11 missiles were mounted on a wheelbase similar to the Soviet MAZ-543 tractor, and had a launch range of up to 350 km and warheads up to 800 kg. Their modification DF-11A (CSS-7 Mod 2) had a lower warhead mass, but a longer range - up to 500 km. On DF-11A rockets, in addition to a nuclear warhead (power up to 20 Kt), a high-explosive, cluster or chemical warhead weighing up to 500 kg could be installed.

These missiles entered service with the PLA, but work to increase its range, accuracy and mass of warheads did not stop.

In 1993, they were purchased by Pakistan, and 1995 and Iran were also data that about two dozen of these missiles were purchased by Syria, which mastered their production in Hama.

Another Chinese medium-range rocket DF-15 and DF-15A (CSS-6), which in the export version received the designation M-9, was developed in 80-90-s together with Syria. Its range was up to 600 km, accuracy (KVO) to 300 m, and the all-in-one warhead was equipped with a charge of 500 kg BB.

Subsequently, chemical and cassette, and for PLA and nuclear warheads were developed. The mass of the DF-15A warhead was reduced to 320 kg, which made it possible to increase the range to 800 km. On satellite DF-15A was installed satellite navigation guidance system, which increased its accuracy (CWO: 30-45 m). According to the magazine "Jane's Defense", an electromagnetic warhead was developed for this rocket.

In China, the M-18 rocket with monoblock warhead and conventional explosives (400-500 kg) with a range of up to 1000 km, which was a two-stage modification of the M-9 rocket, was developed for export and the likelihood of its purchase by Iran was not excluded Xnumx's.

In China, on the basis of the Soviet C-75 medium-range air defense system (HQ-2), another solid-fuel missile M-7 (CSS-8) was developed, also designed for export and having a range of up to 150 km. For this missile, a single-unit warhead with conventional explosives weighing up to 250 kg was developed, cassette and chemical warheads and these missiles (about 90 units) in 1992 were exported to Iran.

One of the latest Chinese developments is a solid-fuel missile of the operational-tactical complex B-611M with combined guidance using the GNSS satellite system and with the inertial system and with various warheads (high-explosive fragmentation, cluster with anti-tank combat elements, volumetric explosion (thermobaric)) at a distance of 280 kilometers.

All this proves that at the present time the countries of the Third World are able, with the help of China, to equip their armed forces with a significant number of medium-range ballistic missiles.

In addition, China offers for export and anti-ship missiles with a range of up to 120 km (C-301, C-601, C-802), with which the aforementioned states can inflict quite noticeable losses to the enemy's Navy, which happened in 2006 during strikes from Hezbollah these missiles on the ships of the Israeli Navy.

Other third world countries, such as Brazil, Egypt, India, Iran, North and South Korea, Pakistan, Syria and Taiwan, also developed their own rocket technology.

True, Argentina has curtailed its missile program by doing so under pressure from the United States at the start of the 90s. Of course, this decision brought obvious economic damage to the country, as a result of which the program to place satellites in space with Condor (or Alacron) rockets was minimized.

In the same way, Brazil halted its missile program for the production of SS-300 and SS-1000 missiles with a range of 300 km and 1000 km at the end of the 90-s.

It should be noted that the range of action developed by Argentina in conjunction with Egypt rocket "Condor-2" (in Egypt, designated "Badr-2000") reached 1000 km.

The Condor-1 missiles had a single-block warhead (with conventional explosives weighing up to 400 kg) and a cassette warhead (with anti-tank or anti-personnel submunitions), and these warheads could also be used in Condor-2 missiles.

Although the Egyptian joint project with Argentina was officially halted, the missile technology from this program, including the development of Condor-3 missiles (with a range of up to 1500 km), was adopted by Egypt.

Egypt, during the war with Israel in 1973, used several P-17 missiles of the Soviet operational tactical complex 9K72 and subsequently, at its factory, Sakr implemented together with North Korea and China a program to build medium-range mobile complexes based on Soviet P-17 .

These complexes had a firing range of up to 450 km with a mass of warheads up to 1000 kilograms, and in the 90-ies about a hundred of such missiles were produced.

The technology of production of Soviet P-17 missiles produced in various versions of North Korea is just as accessible today. The Hwasong-5 and Hwasong-6 missiles manufactured in North Korea with a range of 300 and 500 km, respectively. in addition to the North Korean army (over a hundred installations) were sold to Vietnam and Iran, to Cuba, to Iraq, Libya and Syria.

Iran and Syria, with the help of North Korea, organized their own production of Hwasong-6 missiles, and according to some sources, their production was also organized in Libya under Gadhafi.

Created in North Korea, based on the "Hwasong-6" missile "Nodong-1" with a range of up to 1200 km had a single warhead (with conventional explosives), chemical, biological, cluster (100 fragmentation submunitions) and nuclear warheads.

Another North Korean rocket "Nodong-2" with a range of up to 1500 km has a monoblock conventional (high-explosive fragmentation), nuclear, chemical or biological warhead, as well as a cassette warhead of various equipment.

Based on the Nodong missiles, North Korea created and produced a two-stage Moksong-1 rocket (Taepo-dong according to the American classification), which had a liquid engine and had a range of 500-2000 km. According to Western sources, the next rocket "Moksong-2" had a range, according to various sources, from 4000 to 8000 km. In April, the 2009 of the year the rocket was launched into the Pacific Ocean at a distance of 3800 kilometers, and the tests in April of the 2012 year were unsuccessful, since the rocket exploded in the air two minutes after takeoff.

The Moksong-2 rocket ("Taepo-dong-2") was a land-based missile and had a length of 32 meter, a diameter of the first stage 2,4 meter, a second stage of the 1,4 meter, and a third stage 0,9 with weight of the warhead in 64-1000 kilogram.

The first and second stages were created on the basis of the rocket "But Dong-2" with four rocket engines and with liquid fuel, whereas, according to individual data, the third stage could have solid rocket fuel.

Just the production technology "Moksong-2" ("Taepo-dong-2") was transferred to Pakistan and Iran, developing their own missile programs.

In the DPRK, the rocket "Moksong-2" ("Taepo-dong-2") was used in the space program for developing launch vehicles "Unha-2" and "Unha-3"

There is also information about the development of the Moksong-3 rocket (Taepodong-3), which according to some sources had a range of action up to 10-12 thousand km.

North Korea in the late 80-x and the beginning of the 90-s began close cooperation with Iran and Pakistan, despite the fact that Pakistan was formally considered an ally of the United States and Iran as an adversary. It was at this time that North Korea developed intercontinental ballistic missiles intended both for launching satellites and for strikes against the enemy.

Just on the basis of the Korean missiles, Nodong developed its own missiles and Pakistan, which created the Ghauri-1 missiles, which was a modification of the Nodong-1, while Iran produced using the Nodong-1 missile technology its own version of Shahab-3 ".

After successfully testing the 1998 rocket, the Ghauri-1, also known as the Hatf-5, the advanced model Ghauri-2 or the Long-body Hatf-6, was tested in the 1999 year, and it reached the test range in the 2300 km, and the next model "Ghauri-3", tested in the same year, reached a range of 3000 km.

However, Pakistan has been developing its own missile program since the 60s, cooperating not only with China and North Korea, but also with a number of western states, for example, with France.

So the Hatf-1 missiles were developed at the beginning as unmanaged in the version with liquid and solid fuel engines, but subsequently they were equipped with guidance systems, and they were designated as Hatf-1B missiles. The range of the “Hatf-1” and “Hatf-1А” missiles was up to 80 km, and the “Hatf-1В” - 120 kilometers, and these missiles had a nuclear, chemical or monoblock warhead with conventional explosives.

The Hatf-1 and Hatf-1A missiles were adopted by the Pakistani army in 1992 and the Hatf-1В in 1995, although according to some reports, the production program has now been stopped.

Based on the "Hatf-1", a two-stage solid-fuel rocket "Hatf-2" was created, and according to Western data, the design of the Chinese M-11 rocket was adopted as its basis, although the new rocket adopted for use in the 2004 year looked like Argentine rocket "Alacran".

"Hatf-2" had a launch range of up to 480 km with a weight of 150 kg of warhead, and according to other data, its range was 300 km, and the weight of warhead in 500 kilograms. And Pakistan continued at the beginning of this century of research and development to improve the missiles of this series.

According to Jane's Defense, Pakistan, with the help of North Korea and China, upgraded the Chinese M-9 and M-11 ballistic missiles it purchased, which were designated as Hatf-3 and Hatf-4.

Also, on the basis of the M-11 rocket, the forces of SUPARCO (Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission - Pakistan Space Agency) created their own Shaheen-1 rocket, which was tested in April 1999 of the year, reaching the 750 range of km, and its two-stage modification "Shaheen-2" - range 2500 km.

For these missiles were created single-block warhead mass 750 kg with conventional explosives, chemical and nuclear warheads.

In addition, Pakistan with its 2007 in service has its own Raad ALCM cruise missile weighing 110 in kilograms, with a range of 350 kilometers and with guidance systems INS, TERCOM, DSMAC, GPS, COMPASS, which can also be launched from Pakistan Air Force JF-17, Mirage III and Mirage V.

The Raad missile was based on another land-based Babur cruise missile.

The Babur rocket or 828 project was launched from Pakistan’s 2001 in Pakistan by the National Engineering and Scientific Commission (NESCOM) from 1998 on the basis of two American cruise missiles RGM-109 Tomahawk Вlock 3 that fell on the territory southern Pakistan during the US missile attack on the Afghan Taliban in July and August 1998. The rocket itself is equipped with an MC-400 turbojet (Р95-300) manufactured by Motor-Sich, Zaporozhye. The Babur CD guidance system has inertial and GPS guidance, as well as an analogue of the TERCOM system. The missile can be equipped with both conventional and nuclear warheads. In October, 2011, Pakistan produced a successful test of its Babur cruise missile launched from a ground mobile launcher and hit a target at a distance of 700 km.

Iran began to develop its missile program in the 80-ies with the help of North Korea and in close cooperation with Pakistan. His first Shahab-1 and Shahab-2 missiles were built on the basis of the North Korean Hwasong-5 and Hwasong-6 missiles, which were actively used together with the Soviet-bought 9-72E complexes during the so-called "city war" against Iraq, fired on the city of Iran.

In addition to the Iranian guided missiles, unmanaged tactical complexes Nazeat 6 and Nazeat 10 were created, later replaced by the same solid-fuel single-stage OTP Zelzal-1, Zelzal-2, Zelzal-3, the latter reaching the 200 .

On the basis of the North Korean Nodong missiles in Iran, the Shahab-3 rocket was created, which had one stage and a liquid or solid propellant engine and was essentially the same type as the Pakistani Ghauri-1 rocket.

The first tests of the "Shahab-3" took place in the 1998 year, and as stated, the rocket could hit targets at a distance of up to 1350 km and are able to carry a warhead weighing up to 1200 kg. In the modification tested on the “Payambara Azam-2” maneuvers, the flight range was increased to 2000 km by reducing the weight of the warhead to 650 kg and a number of technical improvements.

The next model, the two-stage Shahab-4 rocket, was also developed as part of a joint project with North Korea and Pakistan based on the North Korean Nodong production technology, and it reached a range of 2000 km with a warhead of 750-1000 kg, while its three-prints were modified with a similar warhead and with a solid-fuel accelerator reached the range 2800 km.

In the future, Iran received from North Korea the production technology of Moksong missiles and began developing Shahab-5 missiles with a 3500-4300 km range in two-stage modification and 4000-4300 km in a three-stage modification, as well as Shahab-6 missiles with 5500 km range for the two-stage version and 5600-6200 km for the three-stage version with warhead weight in the 500-1000 kg. This rocket was capable of launching satellites into orbit.

In 2010, there was a test launch of a new Qiam-1 rocket, which also operated on liquid fuel, like the "Shahab" missiles

Iran also used Chinese M-7 missiles (purchased in the pre-90 number of missiles), designated in Iran as "Tondar-69", and Chinese missiles M-9 and M-11 were in service with Iran.

In 2002, Iran conducted successful tests of its own-developed A-110 "Fateh" tactical complex with a solid-fuel rocket and with a range of up to 200 kilometers, further increased to 300 kilometers.

In 2008, there was information that successful tests of a new solid-propellant ballistic missile with a range of up to 2000 kilometers under the name "Sajil" had been carried out in Iran.

Sajil on parade in Tehran, September 22 2011 year

The 2008-2011 of the year conducted several successful test launches of the Sajil missiles, and then its upgraded version of the Sajjil-2.

As the Ukrainian government admitted in 2005, the Iranians were able to illegally purchase several dozen X-55 cruise missiles in Ukraine. This transaction in 2000-2001 was carried out by Progress, a subsidiary of Ukrspetsexport, and in April 2005, President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko publicly confirmed the illegal delivery of X-55 missiles to China and Iran from the territory of Ukraine.

Subsequently, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov confirmed the information that there is evidence of the sale by Ukraine of strategic X-55 air-launched cruise missiles to China and Iran.

Now Iranians are developing their own cruise missiles on their basis, so in particular in Iran, the Ghadr-110 cruise missile is being manufactured at the Hemmat Missile Industries Complex.

In addition to Iran and Pakistan, their neighbor, India, is developing a rocket program, in the development of which the rocket industry also played a significant role foreign aid, including from the United States.

Launched in 1979 by Indian Defense Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL) in Hyderabad, the Agni-1 ballistic missile program was based on a “commercial” SLV-3 (Satellite Launch Vehicle-3) missile Scout ".

The development of another Indian Prithvi rocket was launched in 1983 by DRDL and with the help of some western companies whose names are kept secret. During its development, the Soviet ZRK C-75 rocket engine was used.

Two models were developed: "Prithvi" SS-150-P1 with a range of 40-150 km and a mass of warheads in 1000 kg and "Prithvi" SS-250-P2 with a range of 250 km and warheads in 500 kg.

For Prithvi missiles, nuclear, single-block warheads with conventional explosives, chemical explosives, concrete (penetrating) and cluster warheads with cumulative fragmentation submunitions were created.

The homing missile of the Prithvi series was equipped with IR and TV sensors and can be used for attacking mobile targets.

The first tests of the Prithvi SS-150-P1 rocket were carried out in 1988, the rocket showed relatively good accuracy (KVO in 50 m at a range of 150 km) and was put into service in 1994

For the Indian Navy a naval modification of the Prithvi - Dhanush missile was created to arm surface ships and submarines.

When creating a new two-stage rocket "Agni", the developers used the stage of the Indian operational-tactical rocket "Prithvi" with a liquid engine, and this project was carried out for almost 15 years with periodic pauses.

In 1997, the program was resumed due to the creation of a solid rocket engine.

The created Agni-1 rocket had a range of up to 2500 kilometers, on its base a medium-range Agni-1A rocket was created, and then the Agni-2 ballistic missile with a launch range of up to 3000 km.

Both missiles were adopted by the armed forces of India at the beginning of this century. In addition to nuclear warheads, Agni missiles can be equipped with a single-warhead warhead with conventional explosives, warheads with explosive explosives and a cluster warhead of up to 1000 kg.

Later, the Agni-3 rocket was developed with a launch range of up to 6000 km.

In 1999, India launched a new program to create the Surya-1 and Surya-2 missiles based on the Indian ASLV commercial missile with a range of 8000 and 12000 km, respectively.

Syria, which besides the already mentioned cooperation with China and North Korea in the 90s, had access to Iraq’s developments, made great efforts in the field of rocket technology.

Syria now has a large number of Soviet P-17 missiles and Chinese M-9 and M-11, for example, Syrians used X-PUMNX missiles in 17 to attack Israel, including Tel Aviv. At the beginning of the new century, Syria purchased a new Iskander-E tactical complex in Russia with a firing range of up to 1973 km.

At one time, Libya bought a large number of 9K72 complexes and P-17 missiles in the USSR, using them in 1986 to attack the American coastal station on the Italian island of Lampedusa. Before the fall of Gadhafi, Libya made great efforts to the Al Fatah missile program.

Fateh-110 launch in 2010 year

Companies from Brazil, Germany, India, Ukraine and Yugoslavia participated in this program, the missile's range was to be up to 1500 km with a mass of warheads up to 500 kg.

However, the OTR, which was in service with Libya, was never applied to it, which is not the reason for their performance, but the very unwillingness of a part of the Libyan generals to execute the orders of Muamer Gaddafi.

Now it is obvious that the time has passed when the USSR and the United States could sell weapons to the Third World, suitable only for the mutual extermination of these countries. Now, these countries themselves are developing their own missile technologies, which neither the United States nor, especially Russia, can fully control.

China’s withdrawal of satellites into space and their testing of anti-missile weapons in space have shown that it no longer depends on official foreign assistance. Developing missile programs of Iran, India and Pakistan follow the same path, and with some delay Egypt and Taiwan.

Obviously, sooner or later the world will face a force that will no longer limit itself in the use of this type of weapon and at the moment it is impossible to rely on the technical capabilities of air defense and missile defense systems to combat this threat.

The effects of the use of ground-to-surface missiles can be disastrous.

Even one launcher of a ground-to-ground missile system is capable of delivering such a strike with the use of modern guidance tools in the defeat of urban neighborhoods with nuclear or chemical munitions that can paralyze the state apparatus of the attacking state.

In addition to weapons of mass destruction, electromagnetic bombs can have similar consequences, reports of which for the first time in the open press were published in 90-ies by Australian aviation weapons expert Carlo Kopp, and which, obviously, can serve as a warhead in ballistic missiles.

The development of electromagnetic weapons themselves were conducted both during the Second World War and after it in countries such as the USSR, the USA, Great Britain, Germany, Yugoslavia. An important role in their development was played by the Serbian scientist Nikola Tesla.

Since 50-s have been known to develop this type of weapon in the American laboratory at Los Alamos (Los Alamos Laboratory), successful developments in this direction in Great Britain are also known, where combat units were developed that create an electromagnetic impulse with 20 GWat with a radius of several hundred meters (sheaf width 30º).

According to media reports, the main obstacle in these developments was the difficulty of creating a compact and powerful power source that could generate a current of several hundred thousand amperes and produce a magnetic field in a generator type FCG (Flux Compression Generator) or type MHD (Magneto Hydrodynamic Generator).

Now, according to the media in the United States, there are already projects to create miniature UAVs with an electromagnetic warhead to destroy launch systems and aiming weapons of mass destruction, as well as projects to create electromagnetic generators to destroy ground targets and targets in airspace projects Goodbye, LASP and SASP.

Also known in several countries around the world and the development of the installation of the transmission of electromagnetic waves of the pulse in 100 000 MegaHerts, causing changes in human behavior.

As far as Karlo Kopp’s article is aware, the creation of an electromagnetic bomb itself was technically possible as early as the 90s, and, accordingly, the consequences of its use in a modern city can be disastrous.

In addition, warheads of land-to-surface missiles can be equipped with other types of warheads. So in the Yugoslav press there was data on the development of microwave weapons acting on electronic devices and the human nervous system, which was written by Colonel Yanichievich in his article "The development of weapons with directed energy", published in the magazine Novi Glasnik (No. XXUMX, 2) ), according to which, in the West, microwave radiation installations were developed that destroy the homing heads of guided munitions.

But the very power of modern types of warheads with charges with conventional (conventional) explosives is such that using them in guided and cluster munitions in the event of a widespread war, most of the victims will be civilians.

Death will come both from the direct consequences of the use of such weapons and from the indirect ones - in the ensuing social chaos as a result of the destruction of the public administration system and communications, communications and energy systems, life support infrastructure of large cities, etc. The very existence of cities of such enormous size is direct a source of threat to public order, as evidenced by technological disasters, such as the relatively recent ecological disaster in New Orleans after the hurricane and "Catherine".

The power characteristics of modern guided munitions, the growth of their range and accuracy of hitting, no longer require the direct exit of the enemy to the borders of the victim state. Installations of such an action can be purchased in many countries of the world and the only guarantee of protection in this case are air defense systems, missile defense and space reconnaissance, which can guarantee a sufficiently high degree of state security.

List of sources used:

Site "Venik aviation"

"The development of nuclear and chemist weapons - stadia and tendencies" - Sakhtozar Kakshi. Magazine "Novi Glasnik", №3-4, 1995

"Army and frontline tactical missile systems (OTRK)". Andrian Nikolaev.Site "Military parity"

“The Beijing tiger was made to jump; China is not going to defend. He is going to attack.” Alexander Khramchikhin. “Independent Military Review.” 26 June 2009 year.

Site "Global Security"

Site "TARGET & Foreign Military Review"

Journal "Chemical Disarmament" .Site

Site "159 th missile brigade OTR (Kirovograd)"


"E-bomb for the masses and uniforms of electric and electronic uregana" - Slobodan, a curator of Јaniћievievi. Journal "Novi Glasnik", #6, 1999

"Electromagnet projectiles - the armament of the information force" - kapetan prve klas Toumar Nenad. Magazine "Novi Glasnik", №3-4, 1997

Article "A Brief History of the HARP Project". Richard K Graf. Website Encyclopedia Astronautica

"Development of weapons with a moderate energy" - pugovnik ЈaniЈiyјeviћ Slobodan. Journal "Novi Glasnik", #2, 2001

“Taepo Dong 2” .Lennox, Duncan. ”Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems (Offensive Weapons). September 21, 2012.

“Update: Unha-3 orbits North Korea's first satellite.” Richardson, Doug.Jane's Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis. January 8, 2013.

Magazine "Arms Export". Site

Site "Missile Defense Agency"

Site "Defense Update"

Site "Greg Goebel"

Site "Chinese military power"

The editorial board of Voenniy Obozreniye urgently needs a proofreader. Requirements: impeccable knowledge of the Russian language, diligence, discipline. Contact: [email protected]

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  1. Apollo
    Apollo 3 May 2013 07: 47 New
    no comment infographic
    1. Canep
      Canep 3 May 2013 08: 15 New
      Judging by the presented map, only the lazy in 30 years will not have nuclear weapons.
    2. omsbon
      omsbon 3 May 2013 08: 41 New
      If a gun hangs on the wall, then at the end of the performance it will fire.
      The world stuffed with nuclear and chemical weapons is dangerous, of course the arsenals must be reduced, but not to the detriment of their own security, no matter how much the overseas "partners" would like it.
  2. PN
    PN 3 May 2013 10: 28 New
    Tired of reading, great article. But I liked it. Still about biological weapons write something.
  3. Bongo
    Bongo 3 May 2013 10: 45 New
    Interesting article, but probably it was worth breaking it into 2 parts.
  4. Beck
    Beck 3 May 2013 13: 26 New
    Actually, a paradox. Death is death. And people to the bulb die either from a knife, or from a bullet, or from an air bomb, or from nuclear weapons. All the same, Death. In the other world, there will be no difference between the shadows that die from this or that.

    Until recently, nuclear weapons, if not strange for weapons, played the role of the main deterrent in unleashing major wars between major powers and military blocs. Which could easily develop into 3 MB. World War III has not yet erupted just because of the presence of nuclear weapons from the warring parties. Although there were many reasons and crises for its unleashing after 1945. Nobody wanted to win, completely destroying the opponent, but at the same time irretrievably lose 80-90% of their own country.

    Now, due to the reduction in the cost of nuclear weapons production processes, and the simplification of technology, nuclear weapons want to get other countries - the proliferation process. And nuclear weapons lose their deterrent function, it turns from a deterrent weapon into a weapon of direct attack. And this is primarily due to desire inadequate modes have your own nuclear weapons.

    In the past, these were the dictatorial regimes of Hussein, Gadaffi. The current Iran and North Korea. These regimes of personal, absolute power of the Orthodox-religious and moss-communist types are ready to use nuclear weapons for any reason, at any time, in any direction. That is why it is not the United States that is currently threatening the world. Russia, China, England, France, where adequate governments are in power, and the countries described above are outcasts.

    That is why the World Community opposes the acquisition of inadequate nuclear weapons regimes.
    1. PN
      PN 3 May 2013 18: 40 New
      I would argue with you about adequate government in the United States. Yes, they do not use nuclear weapons, but nevertheless, how many civilians were killed in different parts of the world because of their "adequate" foreign policy? They are still the same.
    2. albert
      albert 3 May 2013 22: 43 New
      It is difficult to condemn any country if it is threatened with the delivery of "bomb democracy" every day. For Iran, for example, an atomic bomb is the only hope to restrain American aggression.
      1. Beck
        Beck 4 May 2013 09: 10 New
        Quote: albert
        For Iran, the atomic bomb is the only hope to restrain American aggression.

        The ayatollahs will not threaten the World with a New Ubiquitous Islamic Order and strive for nuclear weapons and there will be no sanctions.

        You do not look further. For you, at least, that, if only America could get it in your pocket. And what could be further if Iran takes possession of nuclear weapons so on your side.

        First, the principle of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons is violated. Let's say Iran has taken possession of it, with your personal, feasible help, of course, other countries in the region are alarmed. And how then can you forbid other countries to get hold of their nuclear weapons. Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Turkey, Kazakhstan. How can you forbid, because others will point to Iran, get hold of nuclear weapons in Mongolia, Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic states, and Finland. Well, how will you live in Russia in such an environment? Secondly. Iranian missiles will not reach the United States for another 50 years. But they block the entire south and part of the center of European Russia. And what will happen if the ayatollahs want to help their orthodox friends in Russia? And for myopia, if only the amers stumble.

        USA Great Satan, Russia Small Satan. First, slaughter the big Satan, then the small one. - These are the words of the Iranian ayatollahs. - This is for your health, eat well, sleep peacefully.
        1. Tihas
          Tihas 4 May 2013 17: 13 New
          Quote: Beck
          USA Great Satan, Russia Small Satan. First, slaughter the big Satan, then the small one. - These are the words of the Iranian ayatollahs. - This is for your health, eat well, sleep peacefully.

          This saying was relevant in the 80s. Now Iranians do not consider Russia as Satan.
          1. Beck
            Beck 4 May 2013 18: 14 New
            Quote: Tihas
            This saying was relevant in the 80s. Now Iranians do not consider Russia as Satan.

            I agree. Now the ayatollahs want to establish a New Islamic Order around the world. Having nuclear weapons will make it easier for them. So get ready for violent circumcision, in the shadow of Iran’s Nuclear Weapons. I wish you painlessness.
  5. pristav
    pristav 3 May 2013 22: 52 New
    Nuclear Weapon Tests from 1948 to 1998