28 (16) April 1813, in Poland, died an outstanding Russian commander, the first full cavalier of the Order of St. George, Michael Illarionovich Kutuzov (the Most High Prince Golenishchev-Kutuzov-Smolensky). The commander entered the Russian history as the winner of the French emperor Napoleon and his Great Army in the Patriotic War 1812, the "Savior of the Fatherland". Mikhail Kutuzov had a difficult fate, with his ups and downs. He walked a long way along the path of the warrior, taking part in more than one campaign. But it was precisely during World War 1812 of the year that Kutuzov’s talent for military leadership and his closeness to the people showed up best to the soldiers. Kutuzov became a worthy contender of Napoleon and his generals, won up over the army of the then "world community". The West has once again been crushed and confounded by Russian soldiers.
The genus Kutuzov was one of the oldest in Russia. His ancestor, “the honest husband Gabriel,” left the “Nemetsii” under Alexander Nevsky. The prince of Smolensk was the lieutenant-general, Senator Illarion Golenishchev-Kutuzov, and Anna was the mother of the Beklemishev family. My father served in the first Turkish war under the banner of Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky, served in the Engineering Corps for three decades, was famous for his intelligence and high knowledge of military and civil affairs, for which he was nicknamed the "sensible book." Michael was born 5 (16) September 1745 of the year (according to other data 5 September 1747 of the year). Kutuzov received a good home education, in 1759, he was sent to an artillery and engineering noble school, where his father taught. In 1761, Michael mastered the program well and graduated from high school with the rank of engineer-ensign. In the same year, the young man was assigned to the Astrakhan Infantry Regiment, commanded by Alexander Suvorov. He was noticed by Empress Catherine and, at her request, was enlisted as adjutant to the Revel governor, Prince Holstein-Beck. Soon he was granted the rank of captain.
The first baptism of Kutuzov was held in 1764, when volunteers entered the army in Poland. From that moment on, Kutuzov spent almost half a century in battles, reaching top positions and awards. His first battle took place on June 28 near Warsaw, with a squad of Radzivil. The following year, he once beat a detachment of Confederates. In 1767, Kutuzov was recruited to work in the “Commission for the drafting of a new Code,” apparently as a translator, as he was fluent in Latin, French and German. In 1769, he was again sent to Poland, was in mobile ("volatile") units.
From 1770, he was transferred to 1 Army General Field Marshal Peter Rumyantsev, taking part in the war with the Ottomans. Kutuzov, consisting of the quartermaster-general Baur, distinguished himself in the battle of the Ryaba Tomb, for which he was promoted to chief quartermaster of the prime-mayor’s rank. During the defeat on the Prut River, Abda-pasha commanded two companies and repelled the attack of enemy cavalry. In the battle of Larga he commanded a battalion of grenadiers, who broke into the enemy camp. In the battle of Cagul was in the vanguard of the column Baur and pursued the Ottomans to the Danube, received the rank of major. In the year 1771 for success in battle with Popeshtah received the rank of lieutenant colonel. In these battles Kutuzov showed undoubted commanding qualities: initiative, resourcefulness, determination, courage and composure in critical situations.
In 1772, he was transferred to Vasily Dolgorukov's 2 Army in the Crimea. Here Kutuzov distinguished himself near Kinburn in the 1773 year, and in the 1774 year he took part in repelling the Turkish assault on the peninsula. In the battle at the village of Noises (now Kutuzovka) was seriously wounded in the head. Doctors feared for his life: he received a through wound, a bullet hit the left temple and flew around the right eye. But to the surprise of many, he recovered. Empress Catherine reacted to him with special attention, said: “We must take care of Kutuzov. He will be my great general. ” Kutuzov was awarded the Military Order of St. George 4 class and sent for treatment in Austria, paying the costs. Kutuzov traveled for two years in Europe, visited Germany, France, Italy, Holland and England. This time he used to enhance his education.
Upon his return to Russia from 1776, he returned to military service. Was determined to the Crimea to Suvorov. Using Kutuzov's talents in all important matters, Suvorov fell in love with him, and from 1776 to 1782, according to his idea, he was granted a year for the differences between the rank of colonel and brigadier. Suvorov recommended him to Potemkin. In 1784, having suppressed the unrest of the Crimean Tatars, Kutuzov, on the presentation of Potemkin, received the rank of major general. From 1785, Mikhail Kutuzov was the commander of the same formed Bug Chasseur Corps. Developed for the rangers new tactical methods of struggle in the spirit of the Suvorov Science to Win, and outlined them in a special instruction. Personally, I selected people in the corps, trained the soldiers with shooting marks, methods of bayonet fighting, orienting themselves in the forest, steppe. He instilled the ability to act in loose ranks. In the 1787 year, during the journey of the Empress to the Crimea, Kutuzov led in her presence maneuvers in the Poltava field, which depicted the Battle of Poltava. For this, he was awarded the Order of St.. Vladimir 2 degree.
At the beginning of the new Russian-Turkish war, Kutuzov protected the borders of the empire on the Bug River. During the Russian-Turkish war 1787 – 1791 occurred the formation of MI Kutuzov as a commander. He participated in the siege of Ochakov. In August, 1788 was again badly wounded in the head during the Turkish raid. Again, everyone feared for his life, but Kutuzov recovered and returned to service. Masot, the chief medical officer in the army, wrote that fate appoints Kutuzov to something great, for he survived after two wounds, deadly according to all medical rules. ” Catherine sent Kutuzov order of St.. Anne. In 1789, Kutuzov commands a separate corps, guards the banks of the Dniester and the Bug. He took part in the capture of Hajibey (now Odessa), captured Turkish pasha in the case of Kaushany, was in the taking of Bender. In 1790, he guarded the banks of the Danube, conducted reconnaissance and Ishmael, for which he was awarded the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky. During the assault Ishmael commanded one of the assault columns. After taking the stronghold he was appointed commandant of Ishmael Suvorov. According to the great commander, in this battle Kutuzov was his "right hand." For this case, Kutuzov was awarded the rank of lieutenant-general, and the Order of St.. George 3 class. Kutuzov repelled an attempt by the Ottomans to repel the fortress and defeated the Turkish corps at Babadag. For his victory at Machin in June 1791, where the commander commanded the right wing, Kutuzov was awarded the Order of George of the 2 degree.
Directly from the banks of the Danube, Kutuzov moved to Poland, being in the army of Kakhovsky and contributing to the defeat of the Polish insurgents. Then Empress Catherine called Kutuzov to the capital and gave her a new appointment as ambassador to Constantinople. In this mission, Kutuzov showed himself not only a brilliant diplomat, but also a scout. During the celebration of the Iasi peace, the empress rewarded Kutuzov 2 thousands of souls of serfs and appointed Kazan and Vyatka governors-general.
Upon returning to the Russian Empire, Kutuzov became commander-in-chief of troops in Finland and director of the Land gentry (cadet) corps. Kutuzov became a member of a small elected society under the empress. The commander did much to improve the training of officers, he taught tactics, military history and other sciences. Many of his students will be heroes of World War 1812 of the year.
Catherine II talked with him almost daily, and Kutuzov spent the last evening with her before the death of the empress. Kutuzov was one of the few favorites of Catherine, who retained his position during the accession of Paul. Throughout the reign of Pavel Kutuzov was close to the emperor's special, constantly honored with his trust. Pavel I sent Kutuzov with a diplomatic mission to the capital of Prussia, after successful negotiations in Berlin (Prussia was on the side of Russia in the fight against France), he was granted the rank of general from infantry, the title of chief of the Ryazan regiment and the head of the Finnish division. In 1799, he was appointed commander-in-chief of Russian forces in Holland. However, the troops did not get, the emperor recalled him back to Russia. Pavel expresses his gratitude again: Kutuzov was awarded orders of St. John of Jerusalem and St. Andrew the First Called. He was Lithuanian Governor-General (1799 — 1801) and was appointed commander of the army formed in Volyn. This army was one of the two that were intended to act against France in Europe. Commands the army on large maneuvers near Gatchina. Pavel expressed his satisfaction with the actions of the general: “With such a general as Kutuzov,” said the sovereign, “Russia can be calm.”
An interesting fact is that Kutuzov spent the evening on the eve of Catherine's death in her company, and also on the evening before the death of Emperor Paul had a conversation with him. With the accession of Alexander Pavlovich, he was appointed by the Petersburg and Vyborg military governor (1801-1802). However, already in 1802, Kutuzov fell into disgrace to Emperor Alexander I, was dismissed and lived in his estate in Goroshki (in Little Russia).
Opala lasted three years. In 1804, Russia entered the next anti-French coalition and in 1805 sent two armies to the aid of Austria. Talents Kutuzov were claimed, he was appointed commander of one of the armies. However, the Austrians failed the campaign, starting active hostilities before the Russian troops approached. The result was sad, the Austrian army suffered a crushing defeat at Ulm. And the Russian army, in the face of the overwhelming forces of the enemy, had to make a retreat march in 425 km from Braunau to Olmuts. At the same time, Kutuzov's troops inflicted a series of defeats on certain parts of Napoleon’s army. Kutuzov saved the Russian army from encirclement and defeat. This Kutuzov maneuver was an amazing example of the triumph of strategic calculation and the invincible courage of the Russian commander and Russian troops. The best commanders of France did not do anything with the troops of Kutuzov. The feat of Kutuzov was marked by the Austrian Order of Maria Theresa of the 1 degree.
From Olmutz Kutuzov suggested that the emperor lead the troops to the Russian border, and then unite with the second Russian army, and the Austrian troops from Northern Italy, to launch a counterattack. But the opinion of Kutuzov was not taken into account, the emperors Alexander I and Franz II decided to give battle to the French army. November 20 (December 2) The famous Battle of Austerlitz took place on 1805. Russian-Austrian troops were defeated. Kutuzov in this battle was wounded.
The royal court laid all the responsibility for this defeat on Kutuzov. Officially, no one accused him, even awarded the Order of St.. Vladimir 1 degree, but the opal was obvious. At the beginning of a new war with Napoleon, in alliance with Prussia, the army was assigned to Kamensky, and then to Bennigsen. Kutuzov was sent to the “honorary exile” by the military governor in Kiev. In 1808, Kutuzov was sent to the aged field marshal Prozorovsky as assistant to the commander of the Moldovan army. However, after the failure of the assault, Brailov, Kutuzov were again “banished” by the Lithuanian military governor.
After the death of Prozorovsky, they tried to end the war with Turkey against Bagration, then Kamensky (died in 1811). But the war finally came to a standstill, and the foreign policy situation demanded decisive action (a new war was approaching with France). Emperor Alexander Pavlovich was forced to appoint Kutuzov as commander-in-chief. Commander brilliantly coped with the task. In the Ruschukskom battle 22 June 1811, the Turkish army was defeated. Then Kutuzov applied military cunning and lured the enemy army to the left bank of the Danube. The Turks pecked at the false retreat of the Russians, and were surrounded. 23 November 1811, the Turkish army capitulated. Istanbul was forced to go to peace negotiations. 4 (16) May 1812 in Bucharest, Mikhail Kutuzov made a peace, according to which the eastern part of the Moldavian Principality passed to the Prut-Dniester area between Russia. It was a great military-strategic and diplomatic victory for Russia. Napoleon hoped that his invasion of Russia from the south would support 100-thousand. Turkish army. Kutuzov, a diplomat, defeated Napoleon for the first time. For this military diplomatic victory, Kutuzov was awarded the title of count.
After the end of the war with Turkey, Kutuzov is again excluded from important matters. The southern army was headed by Chichagov, and Kutuzov went to his estate. With the beginning of the invasion of the Great Army of Napoleon, Kutuzov arrived in the capital. Aware of his services to the Fatherland, he was entrusted with command over the troops in St. Petersburg. The nobiliary assemblies of St. Petersburg and Moscow almost simultaneously elect Kutuzov to the post of chief of the militia. Mikhail Illarionovich, having received the news of this, exclaimed: “This is the best reward for me in my life!” Kutuzov received the title of His Serene Highness Prince. A special committee proposed that the emperor appoint Kutuzov commander-in-chief of the army in the field. Under public pressure, Alexander was forced on August X to appoint Kutuzov commander-in-chief. Borodino, the Tarutinsky maneuver, the battle for Maloyaroslavets, the battles of Vyazma and Red, the battle on the Berezina immortalized the name of the commander.
The 1812 military campaign of the year against the French and their allies (in fact, Russia fought with all of Western Europe) is the most significant event in Kutuzov’s biography. She made Mikhail Kutuzov a national hero. His actions, often contrary to the expectations of the emperor, the army and society, led to the actual death of Napoleon and his Great Army. Napoleon's army was virtually destroyed, and Russia won one of the most important victories in its history.
Brilliantly began Kutuzov and the foreign campaign of the Russian army in 1813. Prussia and Austria ceased to be allies of Napoleon. Cities and fortresses surrendered one after another. In Europe, the Russian commander was greeted: “Long live the great old man! Long live Grandpa Kutuzov! "
The outstanding Russian commander and diplomat Mikhail Kutuzov (16) 28 April 1813 in Poland died. His embalmed body was transported to the Russian capital and buried in the Kazan Cathedral. Kutuzov remained in the memory of the descendants of the legendary figure, a role model for all Russian soldiers.