Military Review

200 anniversary of the death of the great Russian commander and diplomat Michael Illarionovich Kutuzov

41
200 anniversary of the death of the great Russian commander and diplomat Michael Illarionovich Kutuzov

28 (16) April 1813, in Poland, died an outstanding Russian commander, the first full cavalier of the Order of St. George, Michael Illarionovich Kutuzov (the Most High Prince Golenishchev-Kutuzov-Smolensky). The commander entered the Russian history as the winner of the French emperor Napoleon and his Great Army in the Patriotic War 1812, the "Savior of the Fatherland". Mikhail Kutuzov had a difficult fate, with his ups and downs. He walked a long way along the path of the warrior, taking part in more than one campaign. But it was precisely during World War 1812 of the year that Kutuzov’s talent for military leadership and his closeness to the people showed up best to the soldiers. Kutuzov became a worthy contender of Napoleon and his generals, won up over the army of the then "world community". The West has once again been crushed and confounded by Russian soldiers.


The genus Kutuzov was one of the oldest in Russia. His ancestor, “the honest husband Gabriel,” left the “Nemetsii” under Alexander Nevsky. The prince of Smolensk was the lieutenant-general, Senator Illarion Golenishchev-Kutuzov, and Anna was the mother of the Beklemishev family. My father served in the first Turkish war under the banner of Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky, served in the Engineering Corps for three decades, was famous for his intelligence and high knowledge of military and civil affairs, for which he was nicknamed the "sensible book." Michael was born 5 (16) September 1745 of the year (according to other data 5 September 1747 of the year). Kutuzov received a good home education, in 1759, he was sent to an artillery and engineering noble school, where his father taught. In 1761, Michael mastered the program well and graduated from high school with the rank of engineer-ensign. In the same year, the young man was assigned to the Astrakhan Infantry Regiment, commanded by Alexander Suvorov. He was noticed by Empress Catherine and, at her request, was enlisted as adjutant to the Revel governor, Prince Holstein-Beck. Soon he was granted the rank of captain.

The first baptism of Kutuzov was held in 1764, when volunteers entered the army in Poland. From that moment on, Kutuzov spent almost half a century in battles, reaching top positions and awards. His first battle took place on June 28 near Warsaw, with a squad of Radzivil. The following year, he once beat a detachment of Confederates. In 1767, Kutuzov was recruited to work in the “Commission for the drafting of a new Code,” apparently as a translator, as he was fluent in Latin, French and German. In 1769, he was again sent to Poland, was in mobile ("volatile") units.

From 1770, he was transferred to 1 Army General Field Marshal Peter Rumyantsev, taking part in the war with the Ottomans. Kutuzov, consisting of the quartermaster-general Baur, distinguished himself in the battle of the Ryaba Tomb, for which he was promoted to chief quartermaster of the prime-mayor’s rank. During the defeat on the Prut River, Abda-pasha commanded two companies and repelled the attack of enemy cavalry. In the battle of Larga he commanded a battalion of grenadiers, who broke into the enemy camp. In the battle of Cagul was in the vanguard of the column Baur and pursued the Ottomans to the Danube, received the rank of major. In the year 1771 for success in battle with Popeshtah received the rank of lieutenant colonel. In these battles Kutuzov showed undoubted commanding qualities: initiative, resourcefulness, determination, courage and composure in critical situations.

In 1772, he was transferred to Vasily Dolgorukov's 2 Army in the Crimea. Here Kutuzov distinguished himself near Kinburn in the 1773 year, and in the 1774 year he took part in repelling the Turkish assault on the peninsula. In the battle at the village of Noises (now Kutuzovka) was seriously wounded in the head. Doctors feared for his life: he received a through wound, a bullet hit the left temple and flew around the right eye. But to the surprise of many, he recovered. Empress Catherine reacted to him with special attention, said: “We must take care of Kutuzov. He will be my great general. ” Kutuzov was awarded the Military Order of St. George 4 class and sent for treatment in Austria, paying the costs. Kutuzov traveled for two years in Europe, visited Germany, France, Italy, Holland and England. This time he used to enhance his education.

Upon his return to Russia from 1776, he returned to military service. Was determined to the Crimea to Suvorov. Using Kutuzov's talents in all important matters, Suvorov fell in love with him, and from 1776 to 1782, according to his idea, he was granted a year for the differences between the rank of colonel and brigadier. Suvorov recommended him to Potemkin. In 1784, having suppressed the unrest of the Crimean Tatars, Kutuzov, on the presentation of Potemkin, received the rank of major general. From 1785, Mikhail Kutuzov was the commander of the same formed Bug Chasseur Corps. Developed for the rangers new tactical methods of struggle in the spirit of the Suvorov Science to Win, and outlined them in a special instruction. Personally, I selected people in the corps, trained the soldiers with shooting marks, methods of bayonet fighting, orienting themselves in the forest, steppe. He instilled the ability to act in loose ranks. In the 1787 year, during the journey of the Empress to the Crimea, Kutuzov led in her presence maneuvers in the Poltava field, which depicted the Battle of Poltava. For this, he was awarded the Order of St.. Vladimir 2 degree.

At the beginning of the new Russian-Turkish war, Kutuzov protected the borders of the empire on the Bug River. During the Russian-Turkish war 1787 – 1791 occurred the formation of MI Kutuzov as a commander. He participated in the siege of Ochakov. In August, 1788 was again badly wounded in the head during the Turkish raid. Again, everyone feared for his life, but Kutuzov recovered and returned to service. Masot, the chief medical officer in the army, wrote that fate appoints Kutuzov to something great, for he survived after two wounds, deadly according to all medical rules. ” Catherine sent Kutuzov order of St.. Anne. In 1789, Kutuzov commands a separate corps, guards the banks of the Dniester and the Bug. He took part in the capture of Hajibey (now Odessa), captured Turkish pasha in the case of Kaushany, was in the taking of Bender. In 1790, he guarded the banks of the Danube, conducted reconnaissance and Ishmael, for which he was awarded the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky. During the assault Ishmael commanded one of the assault columns. After taking the stronghold he was appointed commandant of Ishmael Suvorov. According to the great commander, in this battle Kutuzov was his "right hand." For this case, Kutuzov was awarded the rank of lieutenant-general, and the Order of St.. George 3 class. Kutuzov repelled an attempt by the Ottomans to repel the fortress and defeated the Turkish corps at Babadag. For his victory at Machin in June 1791, where the commander commanded the right wing, Kutuzov was awarded the Order of George of the 2 degree.

Directly from the banks of the Danube, Kutuzov moved to Poland, being in the army of Kakhovsky and contributing to the defeat of the Polish insurgents. Then Empress Catherine called Kutuzov to the capital and gave her a new appointment as ambassador to Constantinople. In this mission, Kutuzov showed himself not only a brilliant diplomat, but also a scout. During the celebration of the Iasi peace, the empress rewarded Kutuzov 2 thousands of souls of serfs and appointed Kazan and Vyatka governors-general.

Upon returning to the Russian Empire, Kutuzov became commander-in-chief of troops in Finland and director of the Land gentry (cadet) corps. Kutuzov became a member of a small elected society under the empress. The commander did much to improve the training of officers, he taught tactics, military history and other sciences. Many of his students will be heroes of World War 1812 of the year.

Catherine II talked with him almost daily, and Kutuzov spent the last evening with her before the death of the empress. Kutuzov was one of the few favorites of Catherine, who retained his position during the accession of Paul. Throughout the reign of Pavel Kutuzov was close to the emperor's special, constantly honored with his trust. Pavel I sent Kutuzov with a diplomatic mission to the capital of Prussia, after successful negotiations in Berlin (Prussia was on the side of Russia in the fight against France), he was granted the rank of general from infantry, the title of chief of the Ryazan regiment and the head of the Finnish division. In 1799, he was appointed commander-in-chief of Russian forces in Holland. However, the troops did not get, the emperor recalled him back to Russia. Pavel expresses his gratitude again: Kutuzov was awarded orders of St. John of Jerusalem and St. Andrew the First Called. He was Lithuanian Governor-General (1799 — 1801) and was appointed commander of the army formed in Volyn. This army was one of the two that were intended to act against France in Europe. Commands the army on large maneuvers near Gatchina. Pavel expressed his satisfaction with the actions of the general: “With such a general as Kutuzov,” said the sovereign, “Russia can be calm.”

An interesting fact is that Kutuzov spent the evening on the eve of Catherine's death in her company, and also on the evening before the death of Emperor Paul had a conversation with him. With the accession of Alexander Pavlovich, he was appointed by the Petersburg and Vyborg military governor (1801-1802). However, already in 1802, Kutuzov fell into disgrace to Emperor Alexander I, was dismissed and lived in his estate in Goroshki (in Little Russia).

Opala lasted three years. In 1804, Russia entered the next anti-French coalition and in 1805 sent two armies to the aid of Austria. Talents Kutuzov were claimed, he was appointed commander of one of the armies. However, the Austrians failed the campaign, starting active hostilities before the Russian troops approached. The result was sad, the Austrian army suffered a crushing defeat at Ulm. And the Russian army, in the face of the overwhelming forces of the enemy, had to make a retreat march in 425 km from Braunau to Olmuts. At the same time, Kutuzov's troops inflicted a series of defeats on certain parts of Napoleon’s army. Kutuzov saved the Russian army from encirclement and defeat. This Kutuzov maneuver was an amazing example of the triumph of strategic calculation and the invincible courage of the Russian commander and Russian troops. The best commanders of France did not do anything with the troops of Kutuzov. The feat of Kutuzov was marked by the Austrian Order of Maria Theresa of the 1 degree.

From Olmutz Kutuzov suggested that the emperor lead the troops to the Russian border, and then unite with the second Russian army, and the Austrian troops from Northern Italy, to launch a counterattack. But the opinion of Kutuzov was not taken into account, the emperors Alexander I and Franz II decided to give battle to the French army. November 20 (December 2) The famous Battle of Austerlitz took place on 1805. Russian-Austrian troops were defeated. Kutuzov in this battle was wounded.

The royal court laid all the responsibility for this defeat on Kutuzov. Officially, no one accused him, even awarded the Order of St.. Vladimir 1 degree, but the opal was obvious. At the beginning of a new war with Napoleon, in alliance with Prussia, the army was assigned to Kamensky, and then to Bennigsen. Kutuzov was sent to the “honorary exile” by the military governor in Kiev. In 1808, Kutuzov was sent to the aged field marshal Prozorovsky as assistant to the commander of the Moldovan army. However, after the failure of the assault, Brailov, Kutuzov were again “banished” by the Lithuanian military governor.

After the death of Prozorovsky, they tried to end the war with Turkey against Bagration, then Kamensky (died in 1811). But the war finally came to a standstill, and the foreign policy situation demanded decisive action (a new war was approaching with France). Emperor Alexander Pavlovich was forced to appoint Kutuzov as commander-in-chief. Commander brilliantly coped with the task. In the Ruschukskom battle 22 June 1811, the Turkish army was defeated. Then Kutuzov applied military cunning and lured the enemy army to the left bank of the Danube. The Turks pecked at the false retreat of the Russians, and were surrounded. 23 November 1811, the Turkish army capitulated. Istanbul was forced to go to peace negotiations. 4 (16) May 1812 in Bucharest, Mikhail Kutuzov made a peace, according to which the eastern part of the Moldavian Principality passed to the Prut-Dniester area between Russia. It was a great military-strategic and diplomatic victory for Russia. Napoleon hoped that his invasion of Russia from the south would support 100-thousand. Turkish army. Kutuzov, a diplomat, defeated Napoleon for the first time. For this military diplomatic victory, Kutuzov was awarded the title of count.

After the end of the war with Turkey, Kutuzov is again excluded from important matters. The southern army was headed by Chichagov, and Kutuzov went to his estate. With the beginning of the invasion of the Great Army of Napoleon, Kutuzov arrived in the capital. Aware of his services to the Fatherland, he was entrusted with command over the troops in St. Petersburg. The nobiliary assemblies of St. Petersburg and Moscow almost simultaneously elect Kutuzov to the post of chief of the militia. Mikhail Illarionovich, having received the news of this, exclaimed: “This is the best reward for me in my life!” Kutuzov received the title of His Serene Highness Prince. A special committee proposed that the emperor appoint Kutuzov commander-in-chief of the army in the field. Under public pressure, Alexander was forced on August X to appoint Kutuzov commander-in-chief. Borodino, the Tarutinsky maneuver, the battle for Maloyaroslavets, the battles of Vyazma and Red, the battle on the Berezina immortalized the name of the commander.

The 1812 military campaign of the year against the French and their allies (in fact, Russia fought with all of Western Europe) is the most significant event in Kutuzov’s biography. She made Mikhail Kutuzov a national hero. His actions, often contrary to the expectations of the emperor, the army and society, led to the actual death of Napoleon and his Great Army. Napoleon's army was virtually destroyed, and Russia won one of the most important victories in its history.

Brilliantly began Kutuzov and the foreign campaign of the Russian army in 1813. Prussia and Austria ceased to be allies of Napoleon. Cities and fortresses surrendered one after another. In Europe, the Russian commander was greeted: “Long live the great old man! Long live Grandpa Kutuzov! "

The outstanding Russian commander and diplomat Mikhail Kutuzov (16) 28 April 1813 in Poland died. His embalmed body was transported to the Russian capital and buried in the Kazan Cathedral. Kutuzov remained in the memory of the descendants of the legendary figure, a role model for all Russian soldiers.
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 April 27 2013 07: 50
    10
    Really Great Commander! Walked under God. Having two wounds in almost the same place, he continued to win Victory! Let not the Russian land become scarce on wonderful people!
    1. redwar6
      redwar6 April 27 2013 10: 38
      +6
      The great man has a blessed memory.
  2. Canep
    Canep April 27 2013 08: 04
    +6
    In Pavlodar (Kazakhstan) the central street - Kutuzov has not yet been renamed.
  3. Landwarrior
    Landwarrior April 27 2013 08: 11
    +4
    One of the greatest warlords. good
    1. Heccrbq
      Heccrbq April 27 2013 08: 59
      17 th
      You guys are completely at odds with history, this "great commander" did not erect monuments under the tsar and did not sing such praises, why would it? He who has ears will hear, eyes will see, everything is in the public domain, you should open a search engine , well, believe it or not? The demon in the little things and in the little things, you can understand what kind of "Great" it is, and so on!
      1. Alekseev
        Alekseev April 27 2013 09: 18
        10
        In addition to the search engine, you also need to open your head and not waste time on trifles laughing
        It's too late to look for "demons in small things". 200 years have passed, however. Everything has already been found before us. wink And the good, which is many, and the bad, without which, alas, a person does not exist.
      2. omsbon
        omsbon April 27 2013 09: 52
        +5
        Quote: Heccrbq
        Under the tsar no monuments were erected to this "great commander" and such praises were not sung, why would it be?


        DIDN'T KNOW that the monument to Kutuzov near the Kazan Cathedral was erected under the Soviet regime. By the way, the fact of the burial in the Kazan Cathedral speaks volumes.
      3. radio operator
        radio operator April 27 2013 11: 41
        +5
        Contemporaries said that when the poet D.I. Khvostov sent his ode to Kutuzov, in which he glorified the actions of the commander, Kutuzov replied: “You kind of exalt me ​​before Rumyantsev and Suvorov. I should have had a lot of pride, if I had agreed to this friendly thought of yours. And if anything from my exploits is suitable for being taught to be posterity, this is only because I endeavor, as much as possible of my ability and my moderate talents, to follow in the footsteps of these great men ”(M. I. Kutuzov. Documents, vol. IV, part 2, doc. N °. 311, p. 300).
      4. Uhalus
        Uhalus April 27 2013 13: 42
        +6
        The chickens in the fall are considered, and the war by the results. What are the results of Kutuzov? And the loss? Here it is. Under the kings, many people who were very worthy did not erect monuments ...
      5. Landwarrior
        Landwarrior April 27 2013 20: 49
        +1
        Quote: Heccrbq
        You guys are completely at odds with history, this "great commander" did not erect monuments under the tsar and did not sing such praises, why would it? He who has ears will hear, eyes will see, everything is in the public domain, you should open a search engine , well, believe it or not? The demon in the little things and in the little things, you can understand what kind of "Great" it is, and so on!

        About Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov-Golenishchev, I will say in the words of Mark Aurelii:
        "Feci, quod potui, faciant meliora potentes" yes (I did everything I could; let whoever can do better ...)
  4. Belogor
    Belogor April 27 2013 08: 55
    +6
    An interesting fate, a series of victories and resignations. But in popular memory he remained a great Russian commander.
  5. wolk71
    wolk71 April 27 2013 09: 27
    +4
    Yes, a great commander! Having surrendered Moscow, he retained the army and did not lose Russia.
  6. Reyngard
    Reyngard April 27 2013 09: 27
    19 th
    Alexander 1 called this "great commander" an old satyr, rightfully so, probably ...
    1. Egoza
      Egoza April 27 2013 10: 11
      10
      Quote: Reyngard
      Alexander 1 called this "great commander" an old satyr

      Envy is a human feeling. And the kings were also subject to him! Kutuzov was adored in the army! And the king praised the court!
    2. avt
      avt April 27 2013 13: 29
      +5
      Quote: Reyngard
      Alexander 1 called this "great commander" an old satyr, rightfully so, probably ...

      Well, Shurik 1 was called a bald dandy. Napoleon, who was not a cake, called the king a cunning Greek, hinting at an unconventional sexual orientation. By the way, did it ever occur to you that this was banal envy? Kutuzov womanizer was pretty much according to contemporaries.
      Quote: omsbon
      DIDN'T KNOW that the monument to Kutuzov near the Kazan Cathedral was erected under the Soviet regime. By the way, the fact of the burial in the Kazan Cathedral speaks volumes.

      It was a well-known fact that he was a freemason, and this is the main Masonic temple in St. Petersburg at least. Even the junior and his wife visited Bush when he came to St. Petersburg. Well, with regards to Mikhaila Illarionych request so he proved everything with his life and everything to everyone and no matter how hungry he is, and he is the Great Leader, a man of his time, quite alive with all the minor flaws inherent in his time and actually the person living in him.
      1. Pancho
        Pancho April 28 2013 20: 38
        -1
        Quote: avt
        Napoleon, who wasn’t a cake, called the king a cunning Greek, alluding to non-traditional sexual orientation

        It’s evident that everything is not all right with your head, if you think so. Less watch O. Stone’s films, then it may brighten up. The whole world tried to imitate the Greek heroes, and then there was some kind of diploma who considers himself entitled to interpret Napoleon’s words. Russian Tsar , of German origin and what side are the Greeks here?
    3. wax
      wax April 27 2013 13: 49
      +3
      The sovereign is weak and crafty,
      A bald dandy, the enemy of labor,
      Unintentionally warmed by glory,
      Reigned over us then.

      A.S. Pushkin
    4. Uhe
      Uhe April 27 2013 21: 51
      +1
      Alexander 1 - is this not the one who began to revive the Masonic infection in Russia and was himself a Freemason? Of course, who would doubt his honesty and sincerity;) To us, the descendants, this Masonic infection came very sideways, in contrast to the victories of Kutuzov, which, on the contrary, are very pleasing to the descendants.
  7. mayor46
    mayor46 April 27 2013 11: 15
    +5
    No one will ever convince me that Kutuzov was not great!
  8. Bort radist
    Bort radist April 27 2013 11: 17
    +5
    Quote "The outstanding Russian commander and diplomat Mikhail Kutuzov (16) died on April 28, 1813 in Poland." The city of Bunzlau, now Boleslawiec, when dying, he said - In my soul I have always been with the Motherland, so bury me in the Motherland, and in my heart I have always been with a Russian soldier, bury my heart here! There is a monument on this place, there used to be a museum house, now I don't know!
  9. radio operator
    radio operator April 27 2013 11: 38
    +5
    But the main thing, in which Kutuzov is a direct follower of Suvorov, is their identical view on the fate of Russia, love for it, for the Russian people. They are united by the same view of the training of the Russian army, its tactics and strategy, united by their proximity to the Russian soldier. And in the fields of Moravia, and under Ruschuk, and near Borodino - everywhere Kutuzov reminded the soldiers of Suvorov.
  10. Dimitr
    Dimitr April 27 2013 12: 02
    +5
    Eternal memory to the great commander, a blacksmith of Russian military glory!
  11. wax
    wax April 27 2013 13: 52
    +4
    Kutuzov should be canonized, not Nicholas II.
  12. Apologet.Ru
    Apologet.Ru April 27 2013 15: 28
    +3
    Here is a magnificent hero and his life - the plot for a feature film! But no, it’s better to shoot any ..., however, everything is clear to everyone. EVERLASTING MEMORY!
  13. Radoslav
    Radoslav April 27 2013 15: 30
    +4
    I believe in Russia and now there are Great Generals, one of whom I consider Colonel General Shamanov. May GOD save him for future victories for the benefit of Great Russia.
  14. pinecone
    pinecone April 27 2013 15: 30
    +6
    Of course, he was not the "favorite" of Empress Catherine II. Kutuzov's proposal after the end of hostilities on the territory of Russia in December 1812 seems to be interesting. abandon the invasion of Europe, thus giving the Europeans the opportunity to exterminate each other as much as possible.
  15. George
    George April 27 2013 15: 49
    +9
    Hello all.
    Truly a great man. Remaining in service after two grave wounds, you involuntarily think about your appointment from above.
    When he began to undo, he stopped in the Prussian town of Bunzlau (now Polish Boleslawiec), the best doctor, Army doctor Wilie, came to him, and the Prussian king urgently sent his life physician Gufeland to him, and he said to Willy:
    - Excuse my colleague, I will leave you. I have a reputation as the best doctor in Europe, and in my old age I would not want to tarnish her with the death of such a great man ...
    It is also known that the arrived Alexander stood in front of Kutuzov and asked for forgiveness.
    “I have already forgiven you sovereign,” replied Mikhailo Larionich. “But Russia will never forgive. After the death of our great commander, a monument was built.
    Only after the liberation of Bunzlau from the Nazis on 12 on February 1945, the monument to the commander was restored. By order of the commander of the troops of the 1th Ukrainian Front, Marshal of the Soviet Union I.S. Konev, dated 7 of March 1945 of the year No. 2, it was prescribed: “... to establish an honor guard at the grave of Field Marshal Kutuzov (near Tillendorf. — A. S.) ... Everyone when passing the grave and monument to Kutuzov (in Bunzlau. — A. S.), to military units of the front and individual soldiers. ”

    At that time, the grave near Tilllendorf and the modest tombstone on it became the place of frequent rallies, salutes, excursions of Soviet soldiers and soldiers of the Polish People’s Army. The grave was literally bombarded with flowers. There were especially many of them on April 28, 1945 of the year, on the 132 anniversary of the death of the commander. On this day in the honor guard at the grave of Kutuzov stood 136 Heroes of the Soviet Union. At the foot of the first monument to Mikhail Illarionovich a marble plaque was installed with the inscription embossed in gilded letters:

    “To the great patriot of the land of the Russian field marshal
    Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov on the day of the 132th anniversary of his death on April 28 1945.
    Among the plains of others, leading to the right feat
    The harsh system of their regiments,
    You are a monument to immortal Russian glory
    On his own heart he raised up.
    But the commander’s heart did not fall silent
    And in a terrible hour, it calls for battle,
    Opo lives and fights courageously
    In the sons of the Fatherland, saved by you!
    And now, following the battle trail
    Your banners flashing through the smoke
    Banners of own victory
    We drive to your heart!

    From the soldiers of the Red Army on February 12 1945 of the year who entered the city of Bunzlau. "

    And on September 16 of 1945, at the grave of Kutuzov near the village of Boleslavitsa, a parade was held in honor of the 200 anniversary of the commander, which was received by Marshal of the Soviet Union K.K. Rokossovsky.

    In the same victorious 1945 year, by the decision of the Military Council of the 1-th Ukrainian Front around the burial of part of the commander’s remains in the old village cemetery near Boleslavitsa according to the project of the architect, and at that time the Kutuzov memorial was erected by the captain of the Soviet Army G.I. Kevkhishvili, the center of which was The first monument to Field Marshal. Near the Kutuzov grave, the ashes of the 141 Soviet soldier who fell in the battles for the liberation of Silesia from the Nazis, including the 42 Heroes of the Soviet Union, were buried. At the entrance to the memorial territory, the figures of two Russian soldiers sculptured from stone, 1813 and 1945, were frozen in eternal guard.
  16. crambol
    crambol April 27 2013 16: 41
    +1
    Quote: Heccrbq
    ... this "great commander" under the tsar did not erect monuments and did not sing such praises ...


    You are right, my dear, and all because there is no prophet in his own country. In addition, the glorification of historical figures in Russia was treated more strictly and with greater intelligence. And the installation of monuments on business and without business, and even from the requirements of the "historical moment" began almost a century ago.
  17. crambol
    crambol April 27 2013 17: 00
    0
    Dear colleagues, I ask you to point out one detail. Namely - on the size of the caps of Kutuzov and Nakhimov. Their deeds and victories are immensely great, and on their heads are barely observed "pancakes". What do we see now?
    1. crambol
      crambol April 27 2013 17: 18
      +1
      HERE IT IS THE GLORY OF RUSSIA!
      1. wax
        wax April 27 2013 22: 59
        +1
        Plus Ushakov. Canonized.
  18. Mrassy2012
    Mrassy2012 April 27 2013 17: 38
    +2
    Great human being, the merits to Russia are enormous. Such a person should be canonized as a saint, and not bloody Nicholas.
  19. DmitriRazumov
    DmitriRazumov April 27 2013 19: 04
    0
    Kutuzov became the commander-in-chief of troops in Finland and the director of the land gentry (cadet) corps. Kutuzov became a member of a small elected society under the Empress. The commander did a lot to improve the training of officer personnel, he taught tactics, military history and other sciences. Many of his students will become heroes of the Patriotic War of 1812.

    In this case, the gentry corps is the new name for the Kotor engineering-artillery school. Deputy commander graduated. This was the first engineering educational institution in Russia, established by Peter the Great on Petrovsky Island in St. Petersburg in 1712. Now the successor to this glorious university is the Military Comic Engineering Academy named after A.F. Mozhaysky. located in the very same buildings where the great commander studied and taught (On the walls of old buildings there is a memorial plaque about what Kutuzov taught here). Under the leadership of Kutuzov, and not only was the concept of organizing and building Russian artillery the best officer engineering and artillery personnel trained at that time. In 1807, Napoleonic marshals for the first time suffered a crushing defeat from Russian artillerymen in the battle of Preisisch-Eylau (Preussisch - Eilau, East Prussia, now Kaliningrad Region). The Germans still celebrate this victory, noting that the main role in it was played not by the Prussian battalions, but by the Russian corps and the innovative actions of Russian artillery.
    1. DmitriRazumov
      DmitriRazumov April 27 2013 19: 06
      0
      Militarycomic engineering academy named after A.F. Mozhaysky
      . Here's a typo: MilitarySpace Engineering Academy named after A.F. Mozhaysky
  20. Mr. Truth
    Mr. Truth April 27 2013 20: 23
    +2
    "Let's follow the Elbe, but how can we return? With a snout in the blood?"
  21. Aboriginal53
    Aboriginal53 April 27 2013 21: 28
    +1
    Eternal memory to the great Russian commander, the Great Russian man, Mikhailo Illarionovich Kutuzov!
  22. valokordin
    valokordin April 28 2013 09: 54
    0
    If Kutuzov looked with his eyes on the Russian reality, he would certainly cry. Eternal glory and memory to this real Russian man.
  23. FC SKIF
    FC SKIF April 28 2013 11: 14
    +1
    Kutuzov’s role in surrendering Moscow is ambiguous. According to some reports, we could keep the capital or turn it into Stalingrad. Honestly, I don’t know how to relate to Kutuzov. I know how to Suvorov, Zhukov, Ushakov, and how not to him.
    1. Prometey
      Prometey April 28 2013 13: 32
      +1
      Quote: FC Skif
      Kutuzov’s ol in surrendering Moscow is mixed. According to some reports, we could keep the capital or turn it into Stalingrad.

      Here, in general, the question must be posed differently - why was the general battle 1000 km away from the border? Personally, no arguments will convince me that the Russian army carried out a strategic plan in order to wear down the enemy. Whose plan? - traitors and enemy agents? Who came up with such a "brilliant idea" to give half of the country to the enemy for ruin, and then still accept the battle exhausted from endless skirmishes and transitions by the soldiers of the Russian army. Kutuzov was made a "scapegoat" at Borodino. Tsarek Alexander understood that the surrender of Moscow without a fight would cause a riot in Russia and possibly in the army. Therefore, he "pulled" Kutuzov before the battle. Which, in fact, in panting and without preparation, began to prepare the army for a major battle. Kutuzov probably did everything possible from him, together with the exhausted Russian army at Borodino, to bleed Napoleon's army (as a result, the Russian army was unable to strengthen its defenses before the battle, which almost immediately affected the "bare" left flank).
      As for the transformation of Moscow into Stalingrad - probably, at that time it was not real. City battles until World War II were utter nonsense (well, with the exception of spontaneous barricade street battles).
  24. Standard Oil
    Standard Oil April 28 2013 19: 18
    0
    Having accepted a battle on the border, the Russian army would have been defeated and would not have retreated in an organized manner, but most likely simply skied from Napoleon to the same Moscow, where it would have been defeated again and would have ceased to exist, but it so happened that at least they retreated in an organized way, but yes, they surrendered Moscow but at that time it was not even a capital, but an ordinary, albeit a large city. And Kutuzov correctly said that there was nothing to go to Europe, even if she dealt with Napoleon herself, there was no good for Russia from that. And it so happened that they entered Europe. at the cost of Russian soldiers' lives, they "liberated" it, received an extremely dubious territorial acquisition in the form of Poland and Europe's "gratitude" in the form of the Crimean War in the future. And whoever says that this is not so evident beyond the 7th grade history textbook has never been mastered.
    1. Prometey
      Prometey April 28 2013 20: 36
      0
      Quote: Standard Oil
      Having accepted the battle on the border, the Russian army would have been defeated and would not have retreated in an organized manner, but most likely it would have simply been draped from Napoleon to the same Moscow

      Where did you get this information? And on the basis of what do you so peremptorily affirm, virtually completely derogating the power of the Russian army and raising the talent of Napoleon to heavenly heights? All this was invented and justified later to justify the betrayal of the upper classes. The army exists to defend the territory of its state, and not for retreats.
      Quote: Standard Oil
      Well, they surrendered Moscow, but at that time it was not even the capital, but an ordinary, though big city.

      The point is not in Moscow, but in the fact that the enemy was surrendered to the most densely populated territory of the country, in fact its metropolis. One could also understand when they would retreat, surrendering some Karelia or Karakum, but not the heart of their country. In general, this is an unprecedented case in history when a third of the country is surrendered to the enemy without a fight. And there is one definition for this - treason.
      1. Standard Oil
        Standard Oil April 28 2013 22: 12
        0
        Well, as far as I remember Napoleon, when crossing the Neman, there were about 500-600 thousand soldiers, the Russian army was divided into two parts, where about 250-300 thousand were in total, and as far as I remember, I did not lose a single battle before going to Russia moreover, he usually had far fewer troops than his opponent, and here he had an almost twofold advantage and, with all due respect to the Russian army, was repeatedly beaten by Napoleon before, the best way out for her was to retreat and, as a result of this wise decision, the commander of the Russian army, General Barclay- de Tolly, not 500-600 thousand soldiers approached Borodin, but 200-250, let's be honest and the Russian army under Borodin could not cope with them, but at least fought and retreated in order, let's start reading if not Jomini and Kolenkur, at least domestic Tarle, and then wake up to talk about the betrayal of the upper echelons.
        1. Prometey
          Prometey April 28 2013 23: 57
          0
          Quote: Standard Oil
          Well, as far as I remember, Napoleon had about 500-600 thousand soldiers crossing the Neman

          These are simply fantastic figures drawn by researchers of the Napoleonic wars, pulling various rabble to the army and the Austrian army, which trampled along the entire Napoleonic campaign near the border with Russia, naturally not intending to fight for Napoleon’s ambitions.
          Perhaps Napoleon had a certain superiority in forces, just from that? For one battle, he would not be able to deploy an army of more than 100-150 thousand, for without the means of communication, otherwise this army would become uncontrollable. For that time, this is the maximum limit. It makes no sense now to discuss a hypothetical battle at the border and or a little further away, but Bagration proposed to strike at the French during their most vulnerable crossing - crossing the Neman. Not on the wings did the French cross.
          Quote: Standard Oil
          also, as far as I remember, before going to Russia, I didn’t lose a single battle, and usually having a lot less troops than his opponent, and here he had an almost twofold advantage and, with all due respect to the Russian army, Napoleon had already beaten

          Are there really so many admirers of Napoleon's "military genius" even in Russia?
          2 times - is it repeatedly? Austerlitz and Frynladn - perhaps you can be ranked among the high-profile victories of Napa, but that in one thing, in another case, the Russians actually had a mess with the command.
          As for - he did not lose a single battle, so he himself created the image of an "invincible" commander, although his comrade was lying.
          Bonaparte received a resounding slap in the mouth from the Austrians at Marengo, where there is nothing to hide, Napoleon was shattered. Alas, the carelessness of the Austrians played a cruel joke. That battle was won by the French generals Kellerman and Bodé, having thrown up reinforcements on the Austrians who had sat down to rest. But Bonaparte quickly attributed the victory to himself.
          At the battle of Wagram, the same Austrians bloodletted Napoleon. Yes, they lost, but they retreated in an organized manner and no defeat happened.
          The Russians at the Battle of Preisis-Elau arranged for Napoleon not a frail batch. Subsequently, he was not too lazy to declare this his victory, although perhaps he had his own views on the victory when the enemy wielded at the headquarters and captured French banners.
          I agree about Borodino - the full pressure of the French in all directions. And what was to be expected from the exhausted Russian army? The French, too, did not stand still, but any military man will confirm that the retreat exhausts much more, and psychologically crushes.
          1. Standard Oil
            Standard Oil April 29 2013 09: 51
            0
            Well, let the border battle take place and let the Russian army win, but what next? To retreat, Napoleon would not have to stomp a good thousand kilometers to the border, losing people and artillery, although according to the memoirs of Denis Davydov, the entire Napoleon guard, even in the Russian winter in perfect order, like a "stop-gun frigate surrounded by our fishing boats", and now all the guards retreated from the Nemunas, even if the Austrians and catfish. fled, after a while another army would have grown up in front of the Russian army, and there would be no coalition, Frederick of Prussia lay like a rag in front of Napoleon, Austria was too weak, and the Austrians did not like Russia to immediately oppose Napoleon, the British remained and The Spaniards, but there is even nothing to say. Well, let's remember what was happening in Europe in reality after 1812, the coalition suffered defeat after defeat, crushing the French in numbers only near Leipzig. I do not want to justify Napoleon, his Russian company was a huge mistake, as far as I remember Napoleon had great respect for the Russian soldier, and if not for the death (murder) of Paul, then I think that the Russians and the French could quite get along.
  25. Soldier
    Soldier April 29 2013 09: 18
    +3
    But the most annoying thing is that the whole world knows who Napoleon is, his name has become a household name. And the surname Kutuzov (winner of Napoleon) is known only to people who are fascinated by history abroad. And this is a fact.
  26. Atash
    Atash 2 May 2013 16: 40
    0
    Someone read "War and Peace", after all Tolstoy worked out the topic well. Maybe I was mistaken in something, but at least it is worth mentioning.
    The battle on the border was necessary psychologically in the first place. If they had started to fight earlier, and not near Moscow already (at least for Smolensk, the battle should have been arranged along Tolstoy), Moscow might not have had to be surrendered. To repel the invasion, good government is needed, as during the Second World War, for example, and at that time there was a mess in this regard, sir. “War and Peace” must first of all be read to talk about Kutuzov and Borodino.