In 1950-ies, the first special-purpose units began to form in the Armed Forces of the USSR. The servicemen for recruiting separate companies of special forces of the Main Intelligence Directorate were recruited mainly from the units of army, divisional and regimental intelligence. Many of them, especially commanders, had combat experience. Also widely used was the rich combat experience of Soviet partisans and saboteurs.
In 1968, a separate company was introduced into the state of the Ryazan Higher Airborne Command School, which trained officers for special purpose units and subunits. The training program, in addition to other disciplines, included in-depth study of foreign languages.
Training units and regiment
With the development of special-purpose units and subdivisions, an acute need arose for the training of junior commanders and specialists on the basis of a uniform teaching methodology.
History The 1071 Second Special Education Regiment began in November 1965, when a training company was formed under a separate brigade of special forces of the Moscow Military District (Chuchkovo, Ryazan Region). Its first commander was appointed Major A. Galich.
In April, the 1969 of the year she relocated to the town of Pechora, Pskov Region, and in June of the 1971 of the year, the 629-th separate special-purpose training battalion, which was assigned to command Lieutenant-Colonel Yu. Batrakov, was deployed.
January 25 The 1973 of the year began the formation of the 1071-th Separate Special Purpose Training Regiment. 1 June 1973, the regiment was fully formed. The combat banner of the military unit was awarded 11 June 1974 of the year. The first commander of the regiment was Lieutenant Colonel V. Bolshakov.
Staff and structure of the regiment
The regiment staff consisted of the following divisions: the headquarters, the headquarters, two training battalions, the school of ensigns, the educational support company, the supply company, the medical unit and the political department.
I will stop on training battalions. I myself served in the third company of the first battalion.
But first, a few words about the second training battalion, which trained the radio telegraphists - the “low-ranking helpers” (Р-394 КМ) and the specialists of radio and radio intelligence (РРТР). These soldiers landed and acted as part of reconnaissance groups and special forces reconnaissance detachments in the rear of the enemy, providing communications for the intelligence agency with the Center, and also carried out radio reconnaissance. The selection to the battalion was carried out after determining the cadet's abilities to the radio department. For example, the ability to listen to Morse code signs was taken into account. Communications officers had the primary right to choose from young recruits. In fact, their selection began on the sports area, continued in the course of personal conversations to determine the intellectual level of a person, and only after that was his hearing checked. Further service in Afghanistan taught me to treat radio operators with great respect - graduates of the Pechora training regiment, whose highest professionalism more than once ensured the timely execution of the tasks set, saved more than one life. It was in Afghanistan that I began to pay tribute to the officers who graduated from the Cherepovets Higher Engineering School of Radio Electronics, which trained highly qualified specialists of the radio department. I remember Major V. Krapiva, captains A. Bedratov, G. Pasternak, lieutenants V. Toropov, Yu. Polyakov, Yu. Zykov. And especially the battleship officer of the battalion, Lieutenant S. Sergienko, judo champion of the Ukrainian SSR, and later the head of the physical training and sports regiment, crashed into the memory.
The first and second companies of the first battalion trained the squad leaders. At the end of their studies, cadets who had passed the final exams as “excellent” were given the military rank of sergeant, who received at least one four became junior sergeants. The servicemen, who did not cope with the final check, left the army for private soldiers.
My own third company was preparing the miners-bombers and operators of specialized complexes of guided missiles (URS).
From the first day of service in the regiment, we, the cadets, understood that every minute we lived, any of our actions, were thoroughly thought out and controlled by the heads of all levels, from the regiment commander to the squad leader. The intensity of the learning process was very high. They explained to us that we should become professionals in our business in a relatively short period of time. In the future, we were instructed, the knowledge gained will most likely come in handy in the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, allowing us to accomplish the assigned tasks and remain alive. For five months, the scouts had to master a mine-blasting business, learn to make parachute jumps with standard armament and equipment on a forest, water, and a limited landing area. We had to study the tactics of reconnaissance and sabotage units, military topography, structure and armament of foreign armies, significantly improve our physical fitness, learn how to fire from various small arms. And, perhaps, the most difficult thing: to learn foreign languages for interrogation of a prisoner - someone English, someone German, and I, a Khabarovsk citizen, intended for the Ussuri 14-th separate brigade of special purpose - Chinese.
The cadets serving in the regiment were special young people. The fact is that they all underwent a qualitative multistage selection, which began after they received a registered certificate. All of them differed in absolute health, before the army they were trained in the DOSAAF system, many had sports ranks and titles. In addition, the recruitment of these recruits to the regiment was carried out not only by the employees of the military registration and enlistment offices, but also by officers of separate special forces brigades, who were not indifferent to who in six months would return from the training regiment to recruit their units.
Sergeants, selected from the best cadets of previous editions, had its own “hierarchy”. The deputy platoon commander was the real head for the squad leaders. The sergeants were justifiably demanding of the cadets, did not let down the slightest offense, but the punishments very rarely went over to the plane of non-statutory relations. By tradition, the guilty cadet increased his physical stamina. The basis of the relationship between the cadets is equality, and one could not become stronger than the others, therefore, they “rocked” platoon.
Many years have passed, and I still maintain friendly relations with my deputy platoon commander Pavel Shkiparev.
The platoon commanders, mostly graduates of the special intelligence department of the Ryazan Higher Airborne Command School, sincerely loved their work and lived it. On their shoulders lay the brunt of the training of cadets and the organization of their daily life. Being with us from the ascent to the end of the field, on the shooting range, in the classrooms, they honestly gave us their extensive knowledge. Compared to graduates of other schools, in our cadet view, “Ryazan” seriously stood out for their high professionalism, a more subtle understanding of the ways and mechanisms for achieving goals. Accordingly, the results of their work were high.
My first commander, Lieutenant A. Pavlov, a man of great physical strength, understood the military business well in a military school. It was a seasoned, caring, able to maintain discipline in the unit officer. Teacher from God. Its principle is that the soldier should not be spared, but cherished. At first it was difficult, in the war his science was remembered with gratitude. Our cadet graduation was the first in the long successful military career of Alexander Stanislavovich. Three years later, he took command of the second training company of the first battalion. Subsequently, having fulfilled his dream, he transferred to the Pacific Special Forces fleet, acted in various countries of the far abroad. After serving more than thirty calendar years in units and units of special forces, he graduated from the FSB special forces center of Russia with the rank of colonel. There he became the author of the first program of operational-combat training of units and special forces of the territorial security agencies.
Tempering our will, he brought up winners among us, I was not afraid to find myself in a hot spot. When I got to Afghanistan in 173 OOSPN already trained fighter, I was confident in myself. This helped me to fulfill my military duty and return home. Today I am proud of my friendship with Alexander Stanislavovich. The first army commander remains for me the standard of a special intelligence officer.
The officers and sergeants of the company treated our company commander, captain N. Khomchenko, with a feeling of deep respect for his human and commanding wisdom. Other officers and warrant officers of the regiment did everything that was required to organize the training process, provided us with everything necessary. Their care for us was constantly felt. I remember the high professionalism and dedication of the commander of the regiment, Lieutenant Colonel V. Morozov, the chief of staff of Major A. Boyko and the chief of the clothing service of Lieutenant S. Tarasik.
The daily routine was ordinary, but tough. At 6, the command sounded in the morning: “Roth, rise! Building on the morning hour of physical activity in one minute! Uniform No. 3 ". Overboard minus fifteen. Winter.
I'm still sleeping, but the body works on the machine: quickly and clearly. I wake up somewhere in 100 – 200 meters of running. We have the most running platoon. As always, I see a platoon ahead. From his naked torso knocks steam. Moving to the Estonian SSR, to the settlement of Matsuri: four kilometers there, the same back. (Now it is surprising to realize that now the European Union and NATO are here.) During the run, all thoughts are reduced to one thing: to endure, not to surrender, to reach. Each charge always ends. At the beginning of training - fortunately, then - just before the release - unfortunately.
Personal time flashed by, restoring internal order, morning inspection, and here we are marching with a song for breakfast. All movements on the territory of the part are carried out as a front or in a run. Meals unassuming, but quality.
After a half-hour morning exercise (usually drill or protection from weapons mass destruction) - regimental divorce classes.
Multiple classes unites one of the main rules of the regiment: they cannot be started a minute later than the established time and finished a moment earlier. We start with the theory in the classroom, but still “the field is the soldier’s academy,” and whatever subject we study, whatever topic we work out, in the end everything was fixed in fieldwork. The main goal is to develop practical skills for combat operations in a specific tactical situation.
Oh, this situation! The enemy, usually one of the units headed by the deputy platoon commander, pursues us on foot. To it is added the imagination-driven platoon enemy on armored personnel carriers, and helicopters that strive to strike with chemical weapons attack from above. Over time, we get used to the fact that it is also possible to live and act in a working gas mask. The forces are on the edge, but we know what we are “fighting for” and that we must break away from the pursuit. At the same time, we are working out methods of secretive and silent movement, learning to overcome various obstacles, to transport the “wounded”. And such a heat in all disciplines.
Learning a foreign language is violence against a person. You can not spoil the soldier with a warm class and cultural words in a foreign dialect. Languages are given to us with difficulty, because we are not at the institute. Classes are given by special teachers, and our deuces are followed by demand from the platoon. Therefore, on self-training, he confidently depicts that he knows everything in the world of languages, and, periodically applying specific forms of training, he makes us military interpreters. I learned four of the eight variants of interrogation of prisoners of war in just two days, being part of the guard during the command and staff exercises. True, in order to awaken the linguistic abilities, it took me sixteen hours of the awake shift to spend in the gas mask.
Of great importance is the course of mine-blasting. This is my military specialty. At first, one of his colleagues was upset at the lack of prospects for receiving sergeant's pegs after graduation. Miners and radio operators were issued ordinary. At the same time, those who successfully passed the exams were given the qualification “third grade specialist”. The platoon commander explained that the titles to whom they would need would come, who would not need them — they would bypass the party, and such a unique profession would remain for life. The training was complex: they explored explosives, means and methods of blasting, mines and charges, including surprise mines, the same products of probable "friends" and much more interesting. The apotheosis of every big topic was practical subversive work, which was for us the first in our life a serious test of strength. Everyone must calculate, manufacture, install, and then undermine the charge. We began to understand that something is significant. The knowledge and practical skills acquired in the mining company’s training allowed me to successfully use mine explosives in Afghanistan, which often predetermined the successful performance of the tasks assigned by the group. I cannot but remember the regiment's chief of service, Major Gennady Gavrilovich Belokrylov, the highest professional who provided invaluable assistance to us.
Much attention was paid to fire training. Passed class lessons, training at the firing camp. Practical shooting from various types of small arms, grenade launchers, combat grenade launching began.
The eight-kilometer march in the conditions of our usual difficult tactical situation leads us to the shooting range. We ran all without loss. After the introductory part, we went to study places: we work out standards, we conduct reconnaissance of targets, we learn to work with a commander's box, and we do exercises for shooting. Particular emphasis is placed on the implementation of rifle exercises with silent and flameless devices. The conditions of 1 UMS from AKMS with PBS-1 (day and night) are as follows: move forward to the firing line, first shot should hit sentry for five seconds behind the embankment, then move forward secretly and destroy the camera, then shoot the moving doubles patrol (here It is possible to correct the error; three patrons are given). The sound of the shot is almost inaudible, only light cotton and the clank of the bolt carrier. After sunset, the shooting continues. We fasten the night-vision device to the weapon, which, together with the silent and flameless device, makes our familiar Kalashnikov assault rifle unrecognizable. It does not surprise us anymore. Normal work. No matter how well we did it, the path to the barracks will again run through many obstacles, arranged by a treacherous probable adversary.
Before serving in the Soviet army, I made more than 200 parachute jumps and was the first rank. However, it was only in the regiment that he understood the difference between sports parachuting, where the jump is an end in itself, and the military, where this is one of the main ways of delivering scouts to the rear of the enemy.
If for athletes landing on a forest, water, a limited landing area are special cases, then jumps of increased complexity make it possible for the enemy to go unnoticed and secretly move into the specified area. In addition to that, it was required to make jumps in the army with standard armament and equipment. Ammunition, mines and charges, radio stations and dry rations were placed in the paratrooper's knapsack and cargo container.
We studied the material part and the device of parachutes, erased hands on packing, trampled airborne complex. On the day of jumping frost minus thirty degrees. On covered with tents "Uralah" we go to Pskov. We arrived at the base 76-th Chernihiv Airborne Division. Put on parachutes. Passed inspection. We take off. An-2 portholes show typical reinforced concrete buildings of the village of Shabany. I look at the "first fighters", I envy the feeling that they now have to experience. The first step in the sky is always overcoming the feeling of fear inherent in every normal person.
It is finished. After landing near the village of Kislovo, at the assembly point of the landing site in a solemn atmosphere in front of the platoon's formation, the lieutenant hands each person the first sign "Parachutist". I notice how the look of my comrades has changed. In my heart I congratulate them on joining a new quality.
You can recall the fascinating hand-to-hand fighting conducted in the snow with weapons, orienteering the terrain on the map and without, day and night, studying foreign armies and many other subjects - everything was interesting, everything was useful in the war.
An indicator of the quality of the educational process in the regiment was the results of operational tactical exercises, where regiment units constantly demonstrated a high level of professional training. Suffice it to say that in 1989, during the competitions of special forces groups of the Soviet army and the Navy, conducted at our base, after the first three stages, the Pecheryans confidently outstripped the rest of the participants. As a rule, the hosts of such competitions won. The legitimacy of their victories has never been in doubt. This time, the leadership of the exercise leaders on the final day of the competition were declared speakers out of competition. According to senior judges, training can not be stronger than combat brigades.
Officers of the naval special forces revealed the most capable sailors who served one year and sent them to the regiment. After training, they were already elders returned to their naval unit, where they served for another year and a half as department commanders.
From all the fleets and the Caspian flotilla about 20 people came. Our sea brothers talked about the romance of long-distance hikes, the specifics of their service. Often we were interested in the possibility of further military service in the fleet. With an important view, "seals" explained to us what kind of "supermen" you need to be and how difficult it is.
After removing the first chips, it turned out that the sailors are good guys and good specialists.
It is appropriate to add that not only sailors, but paratroopers and border guards studied in the Pechora regiment. In the summer, the four-week course was attended by students of the Military Diplomatic Academy.
School of ensigns
In 1972, a school of ensigns was being deployed at the base of the regiment to train deputy commanders of special forces and foremen of companies. The requirements for candidates were very high. The direction was received by the best-trained special forces units, but not all the cherished stars earned money. Until 1986, the course lasted five months, then with the introduction of the radio unit it was increased to eleven. The training was versatile. Listeners could perform any tasks, replace, if necessary, the commanders of reconnaissance groups.
After graduation, young commanders were decreasing not only in units and formations of district and army subordination, but also in the fleet.
In Afghanistan, as part of the 40 Army, there were eight separate spetsnaz units organized into two brigades and one separate company. For ten years the regiment sent its graduates "beyond the river". Thousands of fighters went through this war. All of them, fallen and alive, fulfilled their duty with honor. The bright memory of those who did not return home. In my heart will remain forever friends on the training platoon: Sasha Averyanov from Ryazan, killed by an “spiritual” sniper of 27 on October 1985 of the year near Kandahar, Sasha Aronchik from Khabarovsk, who died at the Kandahar hospital from wounds in February of 1986, Shukhrat Tulagan, died in Kandahar hospital from wounds in February of XNUMX, Shukhrat Tulagan had died in February of the hospital in Khandarovsk, Shukhrat Tulyagan had died from wounds in February of XNUMX in Khabarovsk, February in the mountains near Ghazni in July of the same year.
During the period of the Chechen campaigns, the regiment sent its troops to the North Caucasus as part of the consolidated detachment 2 OBRSN. I am sure that the fighters fulfilled their tasks with honor and in due time they will tell you about what happened during that time.
The disbanding of the regiment in 1999 was a complete surprise for everyone. Pain and the collapse of hopes had this event in the hearts of the officers. One unreasoned decision destroyed a unified methodology for training junior commanders and specialists, uniting all the special forces brigades. Today, military personnel are trained at the discretion of the command of formations and units. The connection of generations is interrupted, the young intelligence officers do not feel now the glorious spirit of the Pechora training regiment, transferred from graduation to graduation.
25 January 2013 marks forty years since the establishment of the regiment. From all over the former Soviet Union, soldiers, sergeants, warrant officers and officers will arrive in the town of Pechora. Remember, remember, sing. Every five years, the district center prepares for this significant event. For the city, the regiment is an integral part of local history. And wherever their fellow soldiers live, whatever their capacity, they are always united by the school, which was completed in the 1071-th separate training regiment of reconnaissance of the Leningrad Military District.