Military Review

P-96 and GSH-18 pistols

Given the popularity of the pistol GSH-18, past this weapons it is simply impossible to pass. The gun is really very interesting, both with its appearance and design, caused and causes a lot of controversy, which have not ceased to this day. Despite the fact that the weapon is quite famous, there is a lot of gossip around it, and for many even the automation system is a mystery. Let's try to get acquainted in detail with the gun, with his history creation, design, as well as the reasons why this gun did not become the main gun in the army.

It’s probably worth starting with the fact that the GSH-18 did not appear from scratch, this weapon has a predecessor that, although it is different in many details, is unconditionally a weapon that provided the basis for a pistol. This is a model named P-96. This gun was developed by one of the creators of the GSH-18, namely, Vasily Petrovich Gryazev. This weapon is somewhat unusual, since it uses the unreleased barrel bore locking system, which is not common not only in pistols, but also in the firearm as a whole. The barrel bore is locked when it is turned, by the coupling of the protrusion above the chamber and the window cutout for spent cartridges. Let's try to figure out what kind of weapon they are and what they eat it with.

The gun exists in three versions for three different ammunition. The first option under the name П-96 is powered by 9х19 cartridges, the П-96М variant uses 9х18 and П-96С ammunition "eats" 9х17 cartridges. The capacity of the ammunition stores is 18, 15 and 10 cartridges, respectively. The weight of the gun without ammunition is 570 Gram for a pistol П-96, 460 gram for a pistol П-96М and 450 gram for П-96С. The total length of the pistols in the same order is 188, 152 and 151 millimeters. With tsiferkami finished, now let's figure out how all this mess works, and the weapon works quite interesting.

In its normal position, the protrusion above the chamber enters the cut-out of the window for ejection of the spent cartridge case, which makes moving the housing-shutter separately from the barrel impossible. When fired, the powder gases push the bullet forward and press not only on the walls of the bore and the back of the bullet, but also on the bottom of the sleeve, trying to push it out of the chamber. As a result of this impact of the powder gases on the sleeve, the bolt of the weapon comes into motion along with the barrel. In fact, the movement begins at the moment of the shot, but against the general background, we can say that when fired, the barrel and shutter remain motionless. The fact is that the time of passage of a bullet through the barrel is very small, and the mass of the barrel and the housing-bolt are large enough to acquire the same speed as the speed of the bullet. Due to the mass of the barrel and the housing-bolt, enough energy is stored so that the bolt and barrel of the weapon move only after the powder gases cease to act on the bottom of the sleeve. Thus, at the initial stage, the barrel and the shutter-casing move together, but in the process of movement, the barrel begins to turn. Turning 30 degrees to the left, the barrel emerges from the clutch with the casing and the bolt stops, the casing-bolt continues to move further back, removing the gun case from the chamber and throwing it out. Having reached its rearmost point, the shutter-casing changes its direction. Moving forward, the shutter casing removes the new cartridge from the magazine and inserts it into the chamber. Having rested in the breech breech, the shutter-casing pushes it forward, which again leads to its rotation in the opposite direction. In this case, the protrusion above the chamber enters into the coupling with the casing-gate for the window for ejection of spent cartridges.

The trigger mechanism of a double-action pistol with a partial cocking of a drummer. That is, when the casing-bolt is retracted, the drummer is not fully cocked, but only partially. Its dovzvedenie occurs when you press the trigger. Quite unusual for domestic weapons are safety devices, or rather the device. So, on the trigger is a safety key that protects against accidental pressing the trigger. I must say that the shape of this safety element was not the most successful, for which the pistols often receive negative reviews. Shutter lag is controlled by a button. Sights consist of a pillar and front sight, which are not regulated. We should also note the plastic frame of the weapon.

Unfortunately, the weapon was not successful, although it was adopted by a number of services. Particularly unlucky model P-96 which simply ceased to be made in view of its low reliability. This version of the gun chambered for 9x19 was positioned as a weapon for the army, but its design was not strong enough and reliable. Everything was aggravated by the fact that 9x19 cartridges of domestic production appeared, with a greater kinetic energy of the bullet. Precisely because for the army this gun did not fit and the development of the GSH-18 was started.

Another parent appeared at the pistol itself, so Gryazev and Shipunov were already working on the weapon. If we consider the GSH as a continuation of the development of the P-96, then it is impossible not to note the tremendous work that the designers have done, since despite the general identical principle of operation, two different samples have come out.

The first thing to note is the reduction in the barrel of the weapon, which made it possible to reduce the impact of recoil when firing, making it more convenient. In order to increase the reliability. The weapons had to rework the system of locking the barrel bore, which became locked on the 11 protrusions and was no longer outside the window for the ejection of the sleeves. In addition, it was possible to reduce the angle of rotation of the barrel when unlocking and locking, which increased the resource of the weapon. So the gun could quite normally transfer work with more powerful 9x19, had quite good ergonomics, a roomy store and could become an excellent sample of weapons for the army. But it did not work out. The reason for the fact that weapons did not become widespread is rather expensive and complicated production, which can be justified only with very large quantities of weapons produced. And in this place the most interesting. It turns out that in order for the pistol to be justified to be produced it is necessary to produce a lot, while arming the army requires just that much, but the GSH-18 is not suitable because its production is not justified. Vicious circle. But mass production in small batches as a premium weapon can be afforded. Here, really, the mind does not understand Russia.

By itself, the gun came out very well, of course, there are certain problems with the reliability of weapons in adverse conditions, but they are not as serious as the opponents of this gun would like. Although honestly, the time for 9x19 ammunition is gone, and it seems to me that it would be more logical to move towards reducing the cost of producing 9x21 cartridges (SP-10, SP-11 and so on) and accordingly switch to weapons for these ammunition. In my opinion, for the army at the moment the best option.
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  1. Timeout
    Timeout 6 May 2013 06: 51 New
    And how do you like this GSh-18?
    1. bazilio
      bazilio 6 May 2013 08: 53 New
      Is this some kind of pre-production sample? Or is it tuning?
      1. Timeout
        Timeout 6 May 2013 09: 09 New
        This is one of the options for a sports-civilian model for sale over a hill. Only the handle will be plastic to please progress with interchangeable back plates. So this is no longer a concept.
  2. Timeout
    Timeout 6 May 2013 06: 52 New
    Another perspective.
    1. avt
      avt 6 May 2013 15: 40 New
      Quote: Timeout
      Another perspective.

      good Strong! It even seems like a completely different assembly.
      Quote: Timeout
      There are gun mounts that have already fired for 50 thousand shots without damage. So I hope all childhood diseases will be cured and we will have a decent gun.

      God bless you and the state defense order. good
  3. Timeout
    Timeout 6 May 2013 06: 53 New
    And one last look. According to many, the retention of the GSH-18 is better than that of the same Glock. Many just shout about a small resource. There are gun mounts that have already fired for 50 thousand shots without damage. So I hope all childhood diseases will be cured and we will have a decent gun.
  4. Fox
    Fox 6 May 2013 07: 05 New
    Yes, we were waiting for him, this GSh-18 ... I already retired, but I didn’t see him. But I like him: there are useful things in the household !.
  5. omsbon
    omsbon 6 May 2013 08: 16 New
    How many do not say halva - in the mouth will not become sweeter.
    Until I hold the GS-18 in my hands and shoot a dozen clips, I can not judge the gun.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 6 May 2013 08: 24 New
      Now there are no problems in this, many shooting galleries already have GS-18 Sport in their arsenal, you can experience it in practice. There are practically no differences from the combat one, the 10-round limiter is removed before the trigger and in the store. And there is also an IPSC team called GSh-18 and, accordingly, they use this trunk. Go for it!
  6. avt
    avt 6 May 2013 09: 47 New
    good That's how I like this trunk. Not an argument of course, but the constructive solution itself is beautiful. It’s a pity that they won’t fix a big series in any way. Article +
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 6 May 2013 09: 53 New
      As far as I know, the guys from Tula are not slowing down. The trunk will be improved, according to complaints from users, both sports and combat. By the end of the year it will be the most developed pistol along with PM and APS. Well, ergonomics was finally pulled up, compared to Glock it’s just beautiful, but it understands without a nail.
  7. Argon
    Argon 6 May 2013 09: 52 New
    The first time I saw GSh-18 alive in Africa, the guys who guarded us were wearing them. They are generally such guys are not talkative, but I asked one, reliable? Yes, he says a couple of times he helped out there were no problems. It was evident that the guards had the main weapon in disarray is mainly devices similar to the M-16, but Heckler and Koch are written on them, one Kalash had a pair of some bullet dads. But the general staff as a personal barrel for all the polls. The pistol interested me, everything that was I read it, and that's what is the regularity everyone writes about the shortcomings without really specifying which ones. Here is the respected Kiril carefully walked about the reliability, obviously hinting at the open shutter. But as far as I know, the device passed state tests where this feature was highlighted in a separate study. , I would love to read the review of a person who has experience with this pistol.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 6 May 2013 09: 57 New
      In which country were, if not secret? At the expense of open combat stops, they do not affect reliability. Locking occurs when turning 18 degrees, the copy grooves have a shape that allows locking even if they get any kind of dirt such as sand, checked!
  8. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign 6 May 2013 10: 36 New
    For a year and a half, I used the P-96S (the marking on the shutter was 6P48 plus a four-digit number).
    The quality of metal processing is depressing (bluing wretched, milled parts with scuffs and irregularities, rubber-plastic with beads and tumbling burrs). On shooting: I fired repeatedly (1UUS; 2UKS, etc. with jumping and jogging) - the accuracy is stable, at 20 meters - the area of ​​the cigarette pack - you can hit. Specifically, my "liked" the lower left corner (at 8 o'clock) - when shooting, it was necessary to take for 2 hours from ten. For colleagues, for whom how ... barrel processing technology is not fully debugged. One got the impression that it (the trunk) is made from scrap waste from production. Wedge several times when shooting. Modified, as in a joke, with a file and a file. It got a little better. But on a good shooting day, when there was a lot of babaching on the second and third magazine, he again began to wedge (not ejection of the sleeve, skewed cartridge). Manual and guidance on a pistol of poor print quality and drawings)
    In the 90s, the culture of production fell sharply. Noticeable even on traditional PM-ah PMM-ah.
    The first pistol was the 1959th PM. Fairy tale! .. Bole did not hold the best in the quality of processing weapons. Pichalka ...
    1. Mairos
      Mairos 6 May 2013 17: 44 New
      Such a mess with many trunks. The fifties and sixties - the highest quality of processing and the best reliability.
  9. pribolt
    pribolt 6 May 2013 11: 35 New
    Nice toy!
  10. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign 6 May 2013 11: 56 New
    Timeout, welcome!
    Tell me, pliz, on your photos GSH of the latest releases? (Shutter shape ...)
    And yet: did you make the overlay on the handle yourself? .. Cap with a stain? ..
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 6 May 2013 15: 06 New
      All the production of Tula, the handle most likely with an engraved cap (IMHO), was not interested. Immediately I say the photos are not mine, but of Andrei Fedorov from the shooting club "Lovchiy +". I also had to shoot both from this instance and from the usual GSh. First impressions: the toss when shooting 0 !, all surfaces and insides are processed for 5+, sighting optical fibers, the pistol itself falls into the hand no matter how you take it, any other grip is incorrect. According to my personal impressions: if I had one, Schadow would have sold it in figs, knocked out a bunch of 20 mm from it the first time. For this barrel, the handle is too wide for me, then I fired from another with replaceable handles, picked up the butt plate on my hand (just a song). This option, with a closed bore and a compensator, was adopted as a modification for export. The Central Design Bureau makes frames and locks for every taste. If desired and possible, you can order personally for yourself.
  11. _KM_
    _KM_ 6 May 2013 11: 59 New
    As the TsKIB employees said, the main idea of ​​the P-96 was an attempt to create a modern pistol in the dimensions of the PM. This was done to maintain continuity, the use of old holsters, etc.
  12. Prapor Afonya
    Prapor Afonya 6 May 2013 12: 12 New
    Quote: avt
    good That's how I like this trunk. Not an argument of course, but the constructive solution itself is beautiful. It’s a pity that they won’t fix a big series in any way. Article +

    Yes, PMs will still be in service before the 22nd century, but it would be better for us to invest money in summer cottages, if not for our thick-assed minds, a lot of new weapons have been in service for a long time!
  13. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign 6 May 2013 12: 48 New
    I’ll add a little more:
    1.Thanks to the author for the article, because for a very long time I tried to understand what a 6P48 pistol is, although from 2000 to 2002 I had to work with it - it was more expensive for the bosses to ask themselves - "Wear what they gave!" - the most harmless answer. Now everything has fallen into place ... Great respect to Vasily Petrovich Gryazev, for the fact that even in the miserable nineties he continued to work hard and, as a result, pleased all the shooting professionals, the military and other power fraternity with one of the best in the world today with a pistol ! .. (although, of course, in co-authorship with Comrade Shipunov)
    2. I did not quite understand the author’s passage about 9X19 mm ammunition ... What is the author’s position dictated by? Since its appearance at Luger, the cartridge has been constantly improved by a number of manufacturers of weapons and ammunition. It was recognized by the armed forces of all NATO countries. Only the types of bullets of this cartridge, there are something about 25 ... In the end, ours were born. The ammunition is good, with sufficient power, punching and stopping action. His time has not passed yet.
  14. nnz226
    nnz226 6 May 2013 12: 56 New
    But Shipunov - died! Eternal memory - to the great gunsmith ... He will no longer be able to upgrade the gun ...
    1. Argon
      Argon 6 May 2013 13: 26 New
      Unfortunately, Vasil Petrovich is no longer with us either, it happened, however, both lived a fruitful life, one might even say one for two. More than left to the descendants, let us remember them with a kind word for that.
      1. Raphael_83
        Raphael_83 6 May 2013 22: 30 New
        The first time I learned about this pistol was from the film "Unknown Kalashnikov's grandchildren", which I watched on ORT in 2003, Gryazev told great stories in an interview, illustrative comparisons were made (in terms of size, weight and dimensions).
        Both designers are great people, it's a pity that they left. We must be able to equip both aviation and the SV equipment and the fleet with our guns so that everything works (and will still work).
  15. Chicot 1
    Chicot 1 6 May 2013 13: 27 New
    GSh-18 (detail)
    1. Aleks21
      Aleks21 6 May 2013 16: 06 New
      Thank! Just do not understand what is the high cost of the device? In addition to the sophisticated in the processing of the barrel and the shutter frame, everything seems to be quite simple.
      1. Timeout
        Timeout 7 May 2013 01: 25 New
        High cost? I believe that 30000 rubles for GSh-18S is cheaper than Glock for 54000 rubles. from Orsis. The price of GSH for export is about 600 euros.
  16. _KM_
    _KM_ 6 May 2013 13: 43 New
    Quote: Scary ensign
    The ammunition is good, with sufficient power, punching and stopping action.

    More interesting ammunition appeared, for example .40. OD and them are higher than 9x19, but the return is more comfortable. This is especially important at the current level of shooting training. For example, I have repeatedly observed people who shot well from the PM, but anointed from the PM with a plastic frame.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 6 May 2013 15: 14 New
      ПЯ and ПМ is first different grip, second different cartridge (ballistics), weight and length of the sighting line. In short, there are many factors. What is bad in the USSR and Russia is disgustingly taught to shoot from service weapons, with the exception of special forces and special services. I myself, while not being a shooter (even a beginner), smeared from any short-barrel. Well, then I got into the training of one knowledgeable person, and now I can shoot from everything. At the expense of money laundering, if a person is not under the influence of drugs and combat stimulants, 9 mm is enough to incapacitate. Once I saw a man who was stopped by 4 PMs and 9 5,45 mm. AK, the expert then said that 11 bullets were deadly! So the difference of 1 mm does not solve anything.
  17. Ch0sen1
    Ch0sen1 6 May 2013 16: 51 New
    Article plus. The gun is interesting: lightweight, comfortable in the hand, very comfortable when shooting, and of course beautiful smile
  18. Locksmith
    Locksmith 6 May 2013 17: 15 New
    Quote: Timeout
    The trunk will be improved, according to complaints from users, both sports and combat.

    A couple of months ago, they shot at a shooting range from GSh18, the coach said something unflattering about his stores and did not let us equip them, they fired from a Viking, I saw a couple of GSh18 in the box and asked to shoot from it, struck a tight trigger, and at the same time much more accurate shooting compared to the Viking, there is just a class in the hand, but at the same time it is inconvenient to juggle the shutter, it is somehow slippery, we were specifically warned, like, I'm not sure, do not touch the shutter, it pinches the skin for "one time", but it seems to work wink , a beautiful infection, in the picture it’s not like live, I don’t want to let go of my hands, a good memory of the designers remains.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 7 May 2013 01: 54 New
      In the new series, the problem with the store and cocking was fixed. Stores by the way the contractor releases. For ease of cocking, a notch was made in front of the shutter housing. Well, the descent is tight because of the spring reinforced by 3 kg, on the Glock the descent is still clumsy. That there would be no problems during cocking, the shutter must be taken back and thrown without accompanying hand, as on AK.
  19. uzer 13
    uzer 13 6 May 2013 18: 16 New
    There is much, much more talk about GSH18 than real events. First you need to make a sufficiently large test batch of the pistol and give it to the troops for testing. Wouldn’t go broke (given the billions that have flown into the tube on nanotechnology) I am confused by the principle of locking the shutter. Such a shutter was on Berdan rifle No. 2. What does this lead to - everyone knows. A worn shutter breaks off the combat stops. And on the GSh18, the shutter angle is even less. For this design, good metal and high precision machining are required.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 7 May 2013 01: 45 New
      The locking principle is normal, for example, the K-100 works in a similar way and the arrows are satisfied. In the past, Steyr was locked in such a way in 1912, this machine stood for 30 years in service despite the well-charged charge and cursed at it, and not at locking. At the expense of the reliability of the combat stops, on the K-100 the copier groove is riveted from the cartridges + P +, and the main gun is designed to fire cartridges 1,5 times more powerful than + P + and there are already many guns that have worked out the warranty period 10 times.
  20. Bad_gr
    Bad_gr 6 May 2013 22: 31 New
    ".... it uses a non-widespread barrel bore locking system, which is not common not only in pistols, but also in firearms in general. The barrel bore is locked when it is turned, ..."

    Stechkin TKB-0116 submachine gun:
    "... The barrel is locked by turning the barrel in the extreme forward position, while the lugs on the barrel engage with the notches of the bolt carrier ... "
    1. scrabler
      6 May 2013 23: 51 New
      This is all clear, I myself recently wrote about this small-sized machine, but here you need to understand that "rare" does not mean "not used" wink
  21. _KM_
    _KM_ 7 May 2013 11: 25 New
    Timeout, that’s why I don’t understand the meaning of the transition from Pmovsky ammunition to 9x19. If you need to increase power, that is, 9x21 (for ATP), and for mass wearing, you can put the old ammunition.
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 7 May 2013 13: 07 New
      There is such a bourgeois concept as marketing, the General Staff shoots the whole range of 9x19 cartridges and, accordingly, can be in demand on the world market. 9x18 PM is already a pretty weak cartridge for firing at protected targets, for civilian it will go, but not for military use.
  22. _KM_
    _KM_ 7 May 2013 17: 37 New
    Let them shoot, but why should they deliver new ammunition to the troops ?!
  23. smershspy
    smershspy 13 May 2013 14: 52 New
    Quote: Timeout
    And how do you like this GSh-18?

    Interesting model!
  24. kay040976
    kay040976 24 May 2013 14: 10 New
    In my opinion - The best modern combat pistol released in Russia, one of the best designers of the USSR good ! It is a pity there are no comparisons with PY.
    But they didn’t accept the General Staff, due to the adoption of the PY, that's all. hi