During the first Chechen campaign (1994-1996), a number of Ural-4320 vehicles with local armor protection appeared in the military units of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Despite certain imperfections of the design and construction, their practical application received a positive assessment.
Army (AF of the Russian Federation) "Ural 4320" with local armor protection, Chechnya, Khankala, September 2002
The experience gained was also taken into account during the second Chechen campaign, that is, the counter-terrorist operation in the North Caucasus region, which lasted from August 1999 to the present. Armored "Urals" in fairly large numbers appeared in the troops of the Ministry of Defense and military units and bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, members of the United group of troops (forces).
In the grouping of the Armed Forces, they entered into service both military units and commandant companies of military commanders of the regions.
Reservations for these cars were made on a single model and, as a rule, include:
- full closure from three sides (front and sides) of the front of the car with the engine and other units in it;
- complete closure of the driver’s cab with armor plates, and bullet-proof glass blocks (but noticeably smaller than conventional glazing) are installed in the corresponding armor plates instead of ordinary glasses;
- cover by armor sheets of the fuel tank and some transmission units;
- installation on the cargo platform (in the back) of an open-top “box” assembled from steel armor plates. To enter and exit this "armored box" there is a double door that can be closed from the inside in the rear part.
Army (AF of the Russian Federation) "Ural 4320" with local armor protection, view from the left side and behind, Chechnya, Khankala, September 2002
For firing from small weapons in the sides and stern sheet there are loopholes, the design is the same as on the BTR - 60PB. If necessary, the fire on the upper floors of buildings or mountain slopes can be conducted over the sides.
The height of the walls of this armored box equals approximately the size of the average person. The personnel is placed along the walls on the usual folding benches. Moreover, in order to protect from the weather, such machines are often staffed with tents covering the upper armor with special cutouts for loopholes (there are also necessary arcs). The thickness and quality of the armor plates is such that, according to the testimony of the military personnel who performed tasks on such vehicles, it fully provides protection against small arms fire and mines fragments.
But given that the enemy has recently very often used such powerful ammunition such as 152-mm and 122-mm artillery shells, or 120-mm mines, installed on the side of the roadbed as land mines , there was an urgent need to increase the thickness of armor and the overall security of these trucks.
And in general, according to the author and the estimates he heard from many military personnel, during the seven (!) Years of hostilities in the North Caucasus region, it was long ago possible and necessary to qualitatively improve the reservation scheme and increase its impenetrability (the author means that the strength of armor can be increased not only due to the thickening of steel armor plates). But, apparently, as always there is no financial means for it, but as for the price of soldiers' lives ... At what times were they valued above all in Russia?
Army armored "Ural" one of the commandant's mouth with mounted on it by skilled craftsmen 12,7-mm machine gun NSV. Very competent and convenient, the author himself tried. Such “improvements” on army vehicles were not uncommon, October 2002, Chechnya
Another version of the armored “Ural” of one of the intelligence units of the Interior Ministry troops, November 2002, Chechnya
Armored “Ural” of military units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (with barbet on the roof and three doors), June 2000, Khankala, Chechnya
These armored cars are rarely used for their intended purpose - for the transport of material resources. In the overwhelming majority of cases, these vehicles are used for transporting personnel (especially in commandant companies of military commandant's offices) to the place of performance of service and combat tasks or for transporting rifle units of direct escort of convoy. In these cases, their close interaction with machines armed with ZU-23-2 is organized.
But the most interesting, from a technical point of view, samples of armored machines were created for military units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and units of the Interior Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. Apparently, their specialists thoroughly studied the experience of using such vehicles in the Armed Forces and made the appropriate conclusions. Therefore, they are made more thoughtful and of good quality.
The peculiarity is that these vehicles were originally created just as a protected transport for the transport of personnel of the units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (including - MVD troops) in the areas of special operations.
The front part of the cars with the driver's cab is assembled immediately with built-in and mounted armor protection, large enough for a better view, double-glazed windows of the armored glass.
Armored "Ural" one of the intelligence units of the Interior Ministry of Russia. Cab antennas and body arcs belong to a removable EW system, Chechnya, November 2002.
On the roof of the driver's armored cab over the place of the commander of the car there is also the top hatch. It is convenient for observation and, if necessary, for firing. In the event of certain adverse circumstances, which is quite possible during the performance of service and combat missions, it is possible to leave the car through it.
On the cargo platform (in the back) mounted armored. In its sides and stern sheet there are loopholes opening from the inside. Above each of them there is a sufficiently large glass pane of bullet-proof glass, which provides the best conditions for observing and adjusting the fire.
The thickness of the armor of the armored boxes of these machines (MVD) is almost three times the thickness of the armor plates of the army "Urals" with local protection.
It should be noted that on many armored machines a special EW equipment is installed, reliably suppressing the radio channels of the control of radio-controlled land mines.
During his business trips to the Chechen Republic, the author saw two types of armored vehicles used in military units of the MVD and military units (bodies) of the RF Ministry of the Interior. The differences, in general, are not fundamental. Some of them have two broad round barbets on the roof of the armored box, for firing in the upper hemisphere and over the sides, as well as three doors - in the rear stern and in the front of each side. Others have a much better protected front end with an engine, as well as a driver's cabin, even in bulletproof glasses of which there are closing small loopholes for firing the vehicle commander from personal weapons. On this type of vehicles there are two single-door doors, on the board, but only in the stern sheet, packages with bulletproof glass are mounted from the outer part of the boards, loopholes in the boards are round.
The armored "Urals" of military units and subunits of the Armed Forces (Russian Army) are operated, as a rule, without awnings and have a monotone, dark green color burned out in the sun. Often, skilled contract soldiers from the commandant's companies of military commanders of the districts set machine-guns on the front of their armored boxes (12,7-mm large-caliber machine guns NSV "Cliff" on the machine or 7,62-mm PCM).
The armored "Urals" of the military units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (with round barbetas on the roof of the armor case) are painted in the usual, also burnt out in the sun, dark green color. But most often both these vehicles and the armored “Trawls” of the units of the internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation are painted in a single dark yellow color.
Front view of the cockpit and the left-hand view of the armored box of the armored “Ural” of one of the reconnaissance units of the MVD of the RF, Chechnya, November 2002
Interior of the car of this car, November 2002, Chechnya
No special inscriptions and drawings, as a rule, on these machines of all law enforcement agencies are not available. The only exceptions are some army vehicles, on the doors of the cabins of which large white letters “K” of arbitrary size can be inscribed in the white circle or without it, which is also indicated by their belonging to the commandant companies of military commandant's offices.
The results of the use of these machines in the performance of combat and special tasks in the first and second Chechen campaigns, in general, turned out to be positive.
Especially widely used armored cars are found in the course of performance of service and combat tasks by military units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (OMONS, SOBRY, etc.) and some units of the Interior Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. As a rule, with one goal - the safe transportation of personnel to the place of the tasks and back.
Almost created a situation in which these vehicles actually perform the functions of armored personnel carriers (BTR). But they are much cheaper to manufacture and operate, although they provide adequate protection for personnel and their timely delivery to the area of special operations in difficult road conditions. Moreover, due to the large volume of the armored box, under normal conditions it is possible to transport (if necessary) a relatively large number of personnel and necessary military equipment, as well as to transport prisoners captured during the operation. You cannot do this in super-cramped internal volumes of army, combined-arms BMP and BTR.
Re-equipped with steel sheets, for greater security, "UAZ-469" of the Chita OMON, September 2002, Chechnya
This fact is a consequence of the fact that for the fulfillment of specific tasks in the conditions of an internal armed conflict, the military units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation did not have enough secure and mobile, universal and simple (inexpensive) machines for police tasks. Armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles with their high firepower, security and mobility are, of course, good, and in some circumstances (under some! - Auth.) They are simply irreplaceable, as well as Tanks. But to perform most military-combat missions against gangs and sabotage (terrorist) groups, a simpler, inexpensive, and universal (multi-purpose) police car (transporter) is still needed. That is why the specialists of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation developed armored modifications of the Urals with the main goal - to provide secure transportation of personnel. And, as combat experience has shown, they have largely succeeded.
At the same time, in the grouping of troops of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, armored machines as an armored personnel carrier were used only by commandant companies of military commandant's offices. This was due to the insufficient number of BTR-80 (70) in them and the need to frequently perform special tasks that are very similar to the tasks of the MVD units.
Inspection of detainees by riot police in Chechnya. The picture shows that the sides of the body of a regular truck are covered with log screens from the inside.
Armored vehicles with riot police on special operations, July 2001, Chechnya
In the military units and combat units of the Ground Forces, Airborne Forces and Marines, all personnel are provided with regular BTR, BMP or MT-LB. Therefore, the main problem for the Armed Forces is the creation of an armored truck, for transporting at least the most important and dangerous goods (for example, ammunition). Therefore, you can not have a "heavy" armor. Here we must look for ways to create a sufficiently “light” armor from light alloys and composite materials, or combinations thereof. This should not be expensive, since there should be quite a lot of trucks with such mounted local armor protection. A separate long-standing problem is the creation of a protected vehicle for transportation of fuels and lubricants (“packers”). However, from the experience of the hostilities in Afghanistan and Chechnya, it seems that this acute problem is not being solved at all. And if some experimental development can be available, then there is nothing in the troops.
At present, we have to admit that in the near future, due to the incomprehensibly prolonged "difficult" economic situation in the country, the solution of these problems cannot be expected.
The trail of a gangster bullet that did not pierce the side window of the cab of an armored car of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (version with barbets on the roof and three doors), September 2002, Chechnya
An example of the refinement of the "UAZ-469" employees of one of the riot police. The front doors were removed, the tailgate was lowered and secured, the upper part of the cargo compartment was covered with steel sheets, July 2001 g., Khankala, Chechnya
As a result of this and other reasons, the command of military units and divisions of all power ministries that were part of the United Group of Forces (forces) in the North Caucasus region of the Russian Federation, from the very beginning of hostilities, measures were taken to increase the security of personnel and cargo transported by road. . The cabs and bodies of cars and trucks were covered with self-made metal shields, screens made of wooden beams, sleepers and logs. Options for retrofitting, depending on the capabilities and skills, there were so many. Some got it pretty neat, others pretty rude. The experience of performing combat and special missions by units and military formations of all ministries convincingly showed that these measures did indeed increase the security of personnel and cargo from the impact of enemy firearms and shrapnel bombs installed near the road.
It should be noted that this kind of "refinement" was very widespread. Moreover, the command of the OGV (s) even demanded from subordinate commanders to take the maximum possible measures to increase the security of vehicles by any means, the special models were shown to officers at special classes. The photographs presented by the author show several samples of such a self-made enhancement of protection and protective painting of cars. And this is not all options.
The body of the "Ural-4320", covered in front and sides of the steel sheets. The low height of the side cover in the rear part of the body is due to the fact that it was planned to install the charger-23-2 on this car. Commandant's company of the military commandant's office of the Kurchaloi district, July 2001, Chechnya
Example of “not quite neat” reinforcement of car body protection, July 2001, Khankala, Chechnya
One of the color options for trucks of airborne units, November 2002, Chechnya
Trophy (captured from one of the gangs) and used for the purpose of the UAZ of one of the riot police, June 2000, Khankala, Chechnya
KraZ tank truck with tank protection, Chechnya, February 2003
Fighters of the 45-GO airborne regiment on the march in the back of the Urals with log board protection, Chechnya, February 2003