Russian rich urgently transferred capital to the West. The outflow of capital acquired such a scale that it became not enough cash. Often, delays in salary payments to military, civil servants, and workers began to occur, which contributed to the growth of protest sentiments in society. The Provisional Government decided to overcome the financial crisis by printing money that was not secured in any way (“kerenok”). This only made the situation worse. The financial system of Russia began to crumble. Industrialists, entrepreneurs closed or frozen enterprises, many of which became unprofitable due to the constant strikes and economic collapse. By October, up to a thousand of only large plants and enterprises were closed. Thousands of people became unemployed, deprived, unnecessary to anyone. The degree of discontent was constantly rising.
The Bolsheviks at that time did not chat, but acted. Yes, and talkers they found better than the opponents. One Trotsky so "ignited" the crowd that the popularity of the party has seriously increased. Particularly strong impact of his speech had on people with an unstable psyche, women. Many went to the performances of Trotsky as a theater. In July, he was arrested, like other Bolshevik leaders, but after the failure of General Kornilov’s speech in September, Trotsky was released on bail. But in the bustle of events that a criminal case was brought against him, and the investigation should be conducted, was forgotten. Even during his imprisonment, Trotsky was elected to the Central Committee; at the VI Congress of the RSDLP (B), the “Mezhrayonts” (Trotsky was their leader) merged with the Bolsheviks. On September 20, Trotsky was elected chairman of the Petrograd Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies. At the same time, he joined the Pre-Parliament (advisory body to the Provisional Government), where he headed the Bolshevik faction. True, it cannot be said that Trotsky was the main organizer of the new revolution. While he was breaking up his applause at rallies, revolutionary practitioners Sverdlov, Stalin, Dzerzhinsky, Molotov, Ioffe and others worked modestly but much more effectively.
Preparation of the coup went confidently and without hindrance. Sverdlov, with only one skillful placement of personnel, achieved control over party organizations and main Soviets. Competently planned the actions of a few more forces, they had to capture key points in the capital. The operation was scheduled for October 25 (November 7). On this day, the II Congress of Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies should pass. The Council was supposed to legalize the coup, on its behalf preparing to form a government.
In October, Lenin returned, the course for an armed uprising was finally approved. A Military Revolutionary Committee (WRC) was formed. It must be said that the Provisional Government had both time and energy to liquidate the Bolshevik party and other supporters of the armed change of power, like the Left Social Revolutionaries and anarchists. The fact that a speech is being prepared was known to all and sundry. October 18 Zinoviev and Kamenev in the newspaper "New Life" expressed their disagreement with the course of an armed uprising. In fact, they merged the whole event. Trotsky at a meeting of the Petrograd Soviet openly declared his readiness to seize power. And Lenin 19 of October in the newspaper "Work Path" published a "Letter to the comrades," where he directly called for an uprising. As a result, the Bolsheviks themselves gave rise to arrest and the most severe punishment - they announced a desire to seize power. Their leaders could be arrested and shot.
Any government would have had time to prepare for resistance and decisively crushed the conspirators. But the Kerensky government was not only inactive, but also seemed to deliberately, in every way, worsen its position. In October, an order was issued to send units of the Petrograd garrison to the front. But this huge mass of soldiers was already completely decomposed and completely unwilling to fight. The government’s order was recognized as “counter-revolutionary” and the garrison declared that it was withdrawing from subordination to the Provisional Government.
Instead of restoring order in the country, Kerensky, on the advice of the American Red Cross missionary’s deputy head, Raymond Robins, began “to take the ground from under Lenin’s feet.” The government tried to intercept the slogan: "Peace, land and bread." In October, the government "temporarily", until a decision of the Constituent Assembly, transferred all the land to the peasants. This decision led to a new wave of anarchy in the village (then almost the whole of Russia was the “village”), and desertions from the army — the peasants ran to divide the land. The law on peace was also adopted, it was planned to start an “energetic peace policy”. In Paris, at the next inter-allied conference, the Entente, Tereshchenko and Skobelev made such proposals that they would honor the Bolsheviks. The proposed "world without annexations and indemnities", the abolition of "secret diplomacy", equal economic opportunities for all peoples. The fate of Lorraine and Alsace, which the French considered their own, was proposed to be solved by a plebiscite. Germany offered to leave all the colonies, which angered the British. Even more, the British "liked" the proposal to "neutralize the Suez Canal", which was the key point of England in the region. For the United States, a "neutralization of the Panama Canal" was proposed. The Provisional Government managed to insult all the allies on the Entente. Western countries responded by questioning the legitimacy of the Kerensky government. Although after the February Revolution, he was instantly recognized and willing to help. Thus, on the eve of the Bolshevik speech, the Provisional Government itself deprived itself of the support of the Western powers. And crossed the sympathy of the Western public.
An interesting fact is that the American Robins, after giving Kerensky a bunch of “helpful advice,” immediately washed his hands. He stated that "he does not believe in Kerensky and his government." According to him, it was ineffective, incompetent and "lost all value." Moreover, Robins began to argue that the Russian people need another power: "This people should have a whip over themselves."
The liberal-democratic wing of the “fifth column” in Russia did its job — the autocracy was overthrown, the empire was destroyed, and destructive processes quickly gained momentum. Moor did his job, moor can leave. Completely different people were to replace the liberals of the Provisional Government, with a “whip”.
Kerensky, a freemason and a protege of behind-the-scenes forces, did everything to intercept power without a hitch. The Russian public, the liberal parties demanded decisive action from him, and he was justified by the fact that the new regime was completely free from repression and cruelty. Headquarters Headquarters Duhonin was worried, offered to send reliable parts. In particular, there were shock volunteer battalions, Czechoslovak formations that could carry out the order, without a doubt. Kerensky said there was no threat. He even forbade sending troops. Like, everything is under control. Although even the Petrograd garrison had already left the submission. The coup showed that the garrison had decomposed so much that it didn’t support the Bolsheviks, waited - whose will it take.
In the evening of October 24, small groups of Bolsheviks (10-60 people) began to occupy important points - stations, bridges, banks, telegraph, telephone exchange, etc. But it turned out that there was no one to fight. Power itself fell into the hands of the Bolsheviks. The government, which itself did not want to defend itself, was not supported by anyone. Kerensky went to the meeting of the Pre-Parliament asking for permission to suppress the uprising. A long speech was made, another discussion began. On the morning of October 25, when the Bolsheviks had actually taken power in the city, Kerensky hid in the American embassy. Then he was taken from Petrograd by ambassadorial car.
At the Congress of Soviets, Trotsky read an appeal about the overthrow of the Provisional Government. Revolutionary socialists, anarchists and Bundists (the Bolsheviks had 300 mandates from 670) made a noise, shouted a plot and left the Congress. This was required by the Bolsheviks. Soldiers, sailors and other revolutionary publics gathered at the Congress and quickly adopted a resolution that the Congress takes power into its own hands. At the second meeting, the decrees on peace and land were adopted and the composition of the government was approved. Trotsky became foreign minister. Trotsky knew that he would be the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia before the coup, he told about this a week before the revolution in an interview with John Reed.
Trotsky, as Minister of Foreign Affairs, immediately declared himself: October 26 (November 8) sent out a note with the proposal "about a truce and a democratic world without annexations and indemnities." It was reported that if the Allies did not support this proposal, then Russia itself would begin negotiations on peace. In Germany and Austria-Hungary did not hide their joy. Considered the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks as their victory. Britain, France and Italy protested, stating that a unilateral search for peace violated allied agreements. It was decided not to recognize the Bolshevik government, not to establish official contacts with it. In the US, the news of the revolution was taken differently. Part of the public was delighted by the fact that “our Trotsky from the Bronx” seized power in Russia. President Wilson instructed not to interfere in the Bolshevik revolution. His representative House in Europe urged the British and French to be more restrained in assessing the Bolshevik government. The United States conducted its game, bypassing the European allies.
Trotsky's next step was in the interests of the United States. He published secret agreements from the archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It was a purely custom operation, undermining the authority of the traditional great powers, revealing their "dirty laundry." Until the beginning of the 20 century, the United States adhered to the traditional policy of isolationism, not participating in European clashes. Wilson and House were carrying out a plan for “actually revising the system of international relations”, under the slogans of “equal economic opportunities” and the abolition of “secret diplomacy.” At the same time, the economic power of the United States allowed them to subordinate other countries to American influence if they did not defend their economy. Wilson said: “The economic power of the Americans is so great that the allies will be forced to yield to American pressure and adopt the American peace program. Great Britain and France do not have the same views of the world, but we can make them think our way ”(Colonel House’s archive. Favorites. In 2 volumes.). And for the abolition of "secret diplomacy" it was necessary to destroy the entire old system. Earlier, Kerensky undertook the same step, it was not for nothing that the Americans saved him. The US itself could not initiate such a campaign. Trotsky solved the problem brilliantly.
The materials were prepared very quickly, and the publication of documents began on November 23. 25 November, they were reprinted by the New York Times. Somewhat later, in December, the British editions began to print. The scandal was a big deal. This was required by the Americans. Trotsky, commissioned by American friends, actually smashed the foundations of European diplomacy. The American president said that the former European diplomacy is no good, that it must be condemned and buried.
The Americans immediately thanked the Bolshevik government. The Bolsheviks had financial difficulties. At the end of November, the head of the Federal Reserve, William Thompson and Colonel Raymond Robins, visited Trotsky and after a secret conversation with him, December 2 Thompson sent a request to Morgan to transfer $ 1 million (E. Sutton. Wall Street and the Bolshevik revolution). Through the American Red Cross, the Americans had already concealed various secret missions and activities with the help of humanitarian organizations, and negotiations were underway to allocate 2 million dollars. The mission of the Red Cross served as the unofficial representation of the United States in Soviet Russia. By the way, when the Bolsheviks nationalized the banks (they were united with the State Bank), they made an exception for the two banks. These were the Lyon Credit and the National City Bank, through which the money was used for the revolution in Russia.
Trotsky during the onset of the Cossack detachment Krasnov on Petrograd for the first time tried to prove himself as a commander. But he did not succeed. He was late, the case did without him. Cossacks and sailors Dybenko have already made peace, no one wanted to fight. When Trotsky tried to give orders, nobody listened to him. For the first time, Trotsky's bloody hypostasis was revealed. Having spat on the abolition of the death penalty by the Soviet government, he began to agitate at rallies for "merciless executions," "revolutionary guillotine." He demanded to kill for every revolutionary five counter-revolutionaries. In December, referring to the Cadets, declared the beginning of mass terror against the enemies of the revolution: “... not later than a month later, terror will take on very strong forms following the example of the great French revolutionaries. Our guillotine will be waiting for our enemies, and not just a prison. ”
During this period, communication with the Bolsheviks-internationalists was maintained, as the special services of the Entente (mainly the United States and Britain), and Germany. Germany and Austria-Hungary simultaneously supported all kinds of separatists and nationalists, and the Bolsheviks. In November, the intelligence service of the German General Staff informed SNK about the dispatch, according to previous agreements, of several officers for intelligence and counterintelligence activities. The Americans continued to contact Trotsky, the British formed their unofficial mission. The same mission under the cover of the Red Cross was created by the French. At the same time, the Kornilov, Kaledin, Alekseev appealed to the Entente's camps for help. Representatives of the liberal parties. For them, it looked quite natural - once the Bolsheviks were officially considered “German agents”, then the allies should help in the fight against them. The Entente countries did not refuse, promised help. The war between Russians and Russians was an excellent strategy for the destruction of the “Russian danger”.
Official enemies and "allies" of Russia were in a hurry to take advantage of the processes of the collapse of the Russian state. Supported the Finnish, Baltic, Ukrainian and other separatists. Romanians, with the support of their patrons - the French, sent troops into Bessarabia (Moldova). Active supporters of unity with Russia, both red and white, were shot. Moldova "voluntarily" became part of Romania. On December 23, in Paris, British Secretary of War Milner and French Premier Clemenceau signed a secret agreement on the division of spheres of influence in Russia. The sphere of influence of France included: the Crimean peninsula, Ukraine and Bessarabia. England got the Don, North and South Caucasus. Later the United States and Japan joined this agreement. Considered projects for the development of the Russian North and Siberia.
At the same time, the Japanese government expressed its readiness to immediately send troops to overthrow the power of the Bolsheviks and restore the Eastern Front against the Central Powers on its own. Actually at that moment it was quite possible. The forces of the Bolsheviks were miserable and weakly capable. They could not resist the Japanese army. It is obvious that the Japanese, behind whom stood the great Western powers, were supported by diverse anti-Bolshevik forces. It was not at all difficult to land the landing army and move along Transsib. But Japan agreed to carry out such an operation only if the three conditions were fulfilled: 1) intervention in this direction will be carried out only by their own forces, without the intervention of other powers; 2) Western powers should recognize the predominance of Japanese interests in China; 3) Japan should have received the exclusive right to exploit the natural resources of Eastern Siberia. France as a whole was ready to accept the demands of Japan, but they were unacceptable for the United States and Great Britain. In their opinion, the Trans-Siberian Railway and Eastern Siberia were too large for Japan in Russia. In addition, the British and Americans were too strong in China to give it to the Japanese.