The domestic and foreign press has long been discussing the comparative assessment of the Ukrainian T-84 tank and the Russian T-90 tank, but the prospect of a possible confrontation between the Russian and Ukrainian tank building is not on a testing ground, but in real combat situations makes us think about a lot.
Paradoxically, but история human development confirms the fact that the most significant success is achieved in the development and implementation of military technology.
In order to clearly imagine the outcome of a possible fire collision of T-90C and T-84 tanks, it is necessary to refer to the history of their creation and analyze their design and manufacturing technology.
Both tanks have their pedigrees, the roots of which are descended during the Soviet era, when the efforts of several giants of the domestic tank building, including the Kharkov A. Morozov Design Bureau (KKBM) and Uralvagonzavod Design Bureau (Nizhny Tagil), were designed to develop an improved version of the tank. T-64A - the first post-war serial tank of the third generation. The T-64A tank (the developer of the same KMDB) was equipped with the most powerful 125-mm smooth-bore tank gun at that time, had a loading mechanism that replaced one crew member, had a remarkable protection provided by a welded hull made of combined materials and a cast tower of the same materials . The appearance of this tank triggered foreign tank manufacturers to create their own tanks capable of withstanding the T-64A. However, possessing certain advantages, the T-64 family tanks also had a number of disadvantages, the main ones of which were the low reliability of the undercarriage and the complexity of operating the power plant, where the two-stroke 5TDF diesel engine with 700 hp power was used. The result of the long and multi-stage work of the Soviet tank industry for the deep modernization of the T-64 tank was the appearance, in addition to the T-64 tank family, of two more families (T-72 and T-80), various structurally, but similar in concept and tactical and technical characteristics . And by the time the independent sovereign states — Russia and Ukraine — emerged, the latest modifications of these family tanks — the modern Russian T-90 tanks (exported by T-90C) and the Ukrainian T-84 (T-XNUMHUD in post-Soviet version) .
Some sources reported that the T-84 was installed on the TMS on the basis of the 1А45 OMS using day and night sights of French production (manufactured by Thompson). Yes, such studies were carried out, but attempts to reach an agreement with the suppliers of these components did not lead to success, so the JMA of the T-84 tank supplied under the contract to Pakistan remained almost unchanged. In addition, the shutter declared by the developers of the optical-electronic suppression system is installed on single samples of T-84 tanks and is not included in the package on the Pakistani contract, as well as the 6TD-2 engine 1200 HP, which the Pakistani side refused to use several reasons. Instead, the tanks are equipped with 6TD engines with HP 1000 power.
Like any other, the T-84 tank has its advantages and disadvantages. Possessing the same characteristics of firepower and security as the T-90C. the car turned out highly dynamic, easy to drive. It has a high average speed in a variety of driving conditions.
In order to exclude a possible subjectivity in the estimates. consider the design features of the tank T-84. First of all, with the installation of an opposed two-stroke engine 84TD (6TD-6) on the T-2 tank, the same drawbacks of the T-64А and T-XNUMHUD tanks affecting its operational capabilities remained.
The aforementioned boxer 6TD and 6TD-2 engines, which undoubtedly have high structural performance (for example, overall power), as noted during the tests, have unsatisfactory starting characteristics due to the characteristics of the operating cycle. For reliable engine start, high-speed starting equipment is necessary. The main type of 6TD engine start is not airborne, as in the B-84 engines of T-90 tanks, but electrical starting, more energy-intensive and less reliable in operation.
When operating in conditions of high ambient temperatures on the T-84, serious restrictions have been imposed on the temperature conditions of the engine, which makes it much more difficult to use this machine in summer conditions. The fanless cooling system used on the tank has limited capabilities to ensure reliable operation during further engine boosting and does not provide the normal temperature of the engine (even 1000-strong) when the ambient temperature is above 30 — 35'С at all speed and load modes of the engine. Perhaps this was the reason for installing an unforced 84TD engine on the T-6 tanks under the Pakistani contract.
It should be borne in mind that a two-stroke diesel engine has significantly greater (compared to a four-stroke) power loss when operating in a tank in the so-called object conditions (due to its particular sensitivity to the resistance created at the inlet and outlet systems of air cleaning and exhaust gases). These losses increase even more in high-altitude conditions due to rarefied air.
Not fully resolved for the T-84 tank is the problem of cleaning the air supplying the engine. On Kharkov machines equipped with two-stroke diesel engines, tapeless inertial air cleaners of the cyclone type are traditionally used to ensure the lowest possible resistance in the intake tract. But the effectiveness of such air cleaners is quite small. Prolonged operation of the T-64 and T-80UD tanks revealed frequent failure of the tank engines due to dust wear of parts of the cylinder-piston group. To eliminate this drawback, a preliminary air purification system and dust wear sensors were installed on the tanks, but this did not give much effect. In this regard, designers will have to continue to search for new design solutions to ensure reliable operation of the air cleaning system for this type of engine, including by installing additional cassettes, which in the conditions of super-dense layout of the engine compartment seems extremely difficult power loss.
The T-90C tank is more adapted to the conditions of high temperatures, high dustiness and high mountains, which is caused by the installation of the well-proven B-84 engine on it. It is convincing that according to the results of the road tests of T-90 tanks in one of the regions of Central Asia, when daily 350 — 450 km were conducted and average speeds of movement at ambient temperature above 40 ° С and high dustiness of desert forest roads were 35 — 42 km / h As mentioned above, this year, tests were carried out at Indian test sites, within the framework of the same export order for this country, several T-90 equipped with a B-92 engine, whose power was increased to 1000 hp. (on the experimental stand, the engine developed all 1200 hp and without any problems). This eliminated the main argument cited by Ukrainian opponents, namely lower power compared to the T-84 (although tank crews say that the 840 hp is enough for the eyes).
bench power hp
object power hp
Specific fuel consumption g / hp
As follows from the data presented in the table, the 6TD and B-92 engines have virtually identical engine conditions. However, the Russian engine has an adaptability factor on 10%. Due to this, all other things being equal, the T-90 tank has better acceleration characteristics and higher average speeds on smooth dirt and sandy roads.
The fuel consumption of both engines at maximum power mode is almost equal, however, a comparative analysis of fuel consumption at the most probable operation and combat use of tanks in engine load modes (0,6-0,8 from full power) showed that for T-84 on 10 — 15% fuel consumption is higher than that of the T-90. Practically in the same range, the T-90 tank has an advantage in terms of reserve compared to the T-84 tank. Higher fuel consumption of the 6TD engine is associated, as mentioned above, with the features of the working process of a two-stroke diesel engine, and it is unlikely that there will be a significant reduction in engine tuning.
Sufficiently convincing arguments against the T-84 tank are the results of the tender tests conducted in Greece in 1998 for the tanks of the leading tank-producing countries - the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Ukraine. According to the results of one of the tests conducted in the highlands, the Greek side noted a number of deficiencies in the T-84 tank, one of which is the “unsatisfactory environmental performance” of the 6TD-2 engine. When making a march, the Greek crew of the Challenger-84 tank in the convoy behind the t-2 tank was poisoned by exhaust gases in front of the vehicle in progress and refused to continue further movement, but they were persuaded to wear respirators to continue the march. No less depressing, which is also associated with the design features of the power plant, was the refusal of the Ukrainian delegation to participate in the test for dismantling and installing the engine by the crew for a while. The crew of the T-84 really understood that with respect to the M1 Abrams, Leopard-2А5 and our T-80, where the temporary indicators were: 40 / 45 min., 35 / 45 min. And 1ch.40 / 1ch./20 min. accordingly, it simply did not make sense for them to stand as candidates, since their average numbers ranged from 12 to 15 hours. By the way, in India, where the T-90 had to dismantle the B-92 engine, the crew’s temporary indicator was just over two hours. Since the combat weight of the T-84 in relation to the basic version of the T-80UD increased significantly and amounted to about 49,5 tons, and the engine power remained the same, this could not but affect the tractive characteristics of the tank. So, for example, the Ukrainian crew could not climb with a stop on the slope in 32 degrees. By the way, the Challenger-2E and Leopard-2A5, which had a combat weight of 60 tons with hooks (only from the second attempts, with new tracks and on clean asphalt).
Summarizing all of these drawbacks characteristic of the T-84 tank power plant, one can say that in general it is a wonderful car, a wonderful fruit of engineering, but the fruit is quite “exotic” for hot and dusty operating conditions.
As for the T-90С tank, on the purchase of which by India, negotiations with the Russian side are already coming to an end, it can be said without a doubt that in terms of its combat characteristics (firepower and security) it is identical to the T-84 tank, with the only difference that the complex "Curtain" is an indispensable element in the acquisition of all T-90 tanks. Moreover, according to the developer of the T-90С tank, certain measures were taken to modernize the T-90С tanks, related to the possibility of integrating into the tank's MSA, at the request of customers, various components (mainly sighting and observation instruments, communications equipment) as developed by the national industry and foreign production. Now it is possible to install a new welded tower with a higher percentage of protection and allowing to use more advanced BPS in the T-90, with an extended core of enhanced armor penetration. The same can be said about other systems of the T-90C, but the developer does not intend to prematurely disclose all the prospects for the modernization of his brainchild.
Thus, answering the question asked about the results of a possible battle of two unjustly separated brothers, as is the case in Indian films, it remains to wish only one thing - that such a possibility does not arise. T-84 and T-90С are practically twins, analogues in their firepower and security, although, as is the case in life, the older the twins are, the clearer their differences in individual development are. In the real confrontation of military formations armed with T-84 and T-90С tanks, the success of one side or another will depend only on the strategy and tactics of using these tanks, the professional training of their crews.
Comparative characteristics of the T-84 and T-90С tanks
Combat weight, t
Average specific pressure, kg / cm3
1,8 (with OPVT-5)
1,2 (with OPVT-5)
Maximum power, hp
Fuel capacity, l
Power density, hp / t
Maximum speed km / h
Cruising on the highway, km
Optical electronic suppression complex
missing (single samples "Curtain-1")
twin machine gun
7,62 mm PKT
7,62 MM PKMB
anti-aircraft machine gun
Guided weapons complex
Fire Control System
Gunner night sight
Night sight commander