Such respect for the figure of Trotsky and his mythologization, glorification was characteristic of the Western public from the moment when, in 1929, this fiery revolutionary was expelled from the USSR. In 1936, Trotsky was met with great respect in Mexico; President Lazaro Cardenas even sent him a special train. Trotsky was housed in the villa by artists Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera. There he worked on the book "Devoted Revolution". In it, he "denounced" Stalin, who was accused of Bonapartism and called what is happening in the USSR "Stalinist Thermidor" (the Thermidorian coup of 1794 of the year in France led to the overthrow of the Jacobin dictatorship and the establishment of the Directory). Trotsky portrayed himself as a disinterested soldier of the revolution, who, occupying the highest posts in Soviet Russia, had no benefit from it.
It is clear that the Western press picked up these ideas and began to promote the "bright image" of Trotsky. Stalin became the "perverter" of the bright heritage of Lenin and Trotsky. Later, Khrushchev, the ideological heir to Trotsky, will do the same. At the same time, the Western media will “forget” that during the Civil War in Russia they called Trotsky “the heir of the Jacobins” and “the creator of revolutionary terror”. In 1937, Time magazine called Trotsky “the knight of European democracy.”
For the “Trotskyists”, Trotsky became an idol. In 1938, Trotsky and his supporters created the Fourth International in France, which was based on the theoretical legacy of Leon Trotsky and was considered an alternative to Stalinism. The Fourth International set itself the task of implementing the world revolution.
Indeed, Trotsky is one of the main figures of the October Revolution, the Civil War, Lenin’s closest ally, one of the “fathers” of the founders of the Soviet Union, who was chosen to become the leader of Soviet Russia. However, if you look closely at Trotsky more attentively, it will become obvious that even at this cruel time it is difficult to find a more bloody and cynical figure than Trotsky. He was ready to go, and he was already walking, over thousands of corpses, for the sake of achieving the "bright" goal of the world revolution (building a "new world order").
Youth and the beginning of the revolutionary activities
The beginning of Trotsky’s revolutionary path was typical of many revolutionary-minded young people at the beginning of the 20 century. Leiba Bronstein was the son of a wealthy landowner and grain trader of the Kherson province. Mother was from a family of large entrepreneurs Zhivotovsky. With 7 years, the boy studied at the synagogue, then at the school in Odessa. While studying at a real school, the young man lived in the family of his maternal relative, the owner of the printing house and publisher of Moses Shpenzer and his wife Fanny Solomonovna, the headmistress of the Jewish girl school. Bronstein graduated from the seventh grade of the school in Nikolaev, then entered the Odessa University in the Faculty of Mathematics. While still a student at Leiba School, he became interested in politics, as a result he soon abandoned the university and became actively involved in the activities of the South Russian Workers Union. True, there were almost no workers in this “workers'” union, the majority were from well-to-do families. In January, 1898 was first arrested.
Bronstein himself hurt his youthful maximalism - trying to "let the fog", impersonate a more important bird, changed testimony. As a result, the investigation was delayed - he was transferred from Nikolaev to Kherson, he spent another year and a half in Odessa prison, only in 1900 was the sentence passed - 4 was exiled. At the same time, Trotsky married Alexander Sokolovskaya, who was one of the leaders of the Union, 7 years older than him. In Siberia, left husband and wife. We lived in Ust-Kut, then in Verkholensk. They had two daughters. Bronstein worked as a clerk at a local merchant. I tried myself in the literary activity, while still in prison I wrote a treatise on stories freemasonry. In Siberia, a number of his articles published "Eastern Review". He was "noticed," on the recommendation of G. M. Krzhizhanovsky, who gave him the nickname "Feather", became an employee of Iskra. And in 1902, they organized an escape abroad. According to Trotsky, he wrote down the name Trotsky in the false passport “at random”, after the warden of the Odessa prison (Trotsky L. D. My Life. M., 2001.). Apparently this is a lie, Trotsky loved to throw dust in his eyes, he hid some facts of his biography, others stuck out, embellished. Leibe got the passport of a retired colonel Nikolai Trotsky, who died in Yekaterinoslavl (there was a centralized system for supplying passports to opponents of the regime). He left his wife and young children in Siberia without hesitation. They parted forever, Trotsky's first family was no longer interested. Daughters will be brought up by parents of Bronstein-Trotsky.
Bronstein's escape was well organized. He traveled to Irkutsk without interference, here from someone he received good clothes, money, a ticket and documents. The path was prepared in advance. Leiba drove to Samara, where the Iskra headquarters was located, here Krzhizhanovsky gave him a further route, turnouts and money. In Ukraine, in the area of Kamenets-Podolsk, they were already waiting for him and prepared a “window” at the border. On the territory of Austria-Hungary, he was also waited, provided with everything he needed and put on a train. In Vienna, Trotsky went straight to Viktor Adler, who was a “shadow” personnel officer of the socialist international. A prominent Austrian politician greeted Trotsky cordially, spoke with him and, apparently, was pleased. Bronstein was considered a worthy figure of attention and advancement.
In the emigration
Trotsky was again provided with currency, documents and sent to London, to Lenin. Trotsky was well received there. Initially, Trotsky became friends with Lenin. Trotsky was even called the “Leninist club”, because in political debates he defended the Leninist position and theses more than their author himself. Trotsky became an active employee of Iskra, Lenin even wanted to introduce him to the editorial board, but Plekhanov, who did not want to strengthen his opponent’s position, opposed it. Lev Davidovich was sent to various cities. In Paris, he met the “progressive” daughter of the Russian merchant Natalya Sedova, who criticized Orthodoxy at the Kharkov Institute of Noble Maidens, for which she was expelled. Father sent his daughter to continue education at the Sorbonne. In 1903, she became Trotsky's second wife, although illegal, since Trotsky was not divorced from A. L. Sokolovskaya and the marriage to Sedova was not registered.
In the 1903 year, after the collapse of the RSDLP into “Bolsheviks” and “Mensheviks,” Trotsky unexpectedly joined the Mensheviks. His self-esteem grew, Trotsky spoke out against tough party discipline, did not want to obey anyone. In addition, Lenin did not introduce him to the new editorial board of the Spawn, and Trotsky considered himself worthy of this position. Trotsky, like Lenin, used the same methods in disputes, turning to personalities, so they quarreled and turned from comrades into enemies. True, Trotsky did not last long with the Mensheviks. They diverged, a formal pretext was the debate about the role of the liberal bourgeoisie. The main reason was the growth of Trotsky's ambitions. He no longer wanted to follow any flow. I saw myself as an independent politician.
For a political émigré, such a hostility could turn out badly. The very existence of the majority of revolutionaries abroad was provided through an organization that provided them with money, work. However, Trotsky clearly "led". He receives an invitation from Alexander Parvus. My wife and I are going to Munich and meet the most cordial welcome. They are settled in the mansion Parvus, Trotsky lives at the ready. Lev Davidovich clearly liked the owner. Parvus (Israel Lazarevich Gelfand) was a very interesting figure. Born near Minsk, but the family moved to Odessa. Israel graduated from high school, became a revolutionary and emigrated. Abroad, he not only engaged in revolutionary activities and studied, but also noted as a successful entrepreneur, he made a decent fortune. To succeed, he joined the ranks of the Freemasons (Illuminati), had contacts with the special services of Germany and England. Parvus formed a new revolutionary center in Germany (the other was in Switzerland). He was one of the first to introduce Lenin there.
Parvus conducted Trotsky's "special" training, capturing him with the theory of "permanent revolution." In 1905, Trotsky and Parvus are going to Russia. They go to Vienna to Adler, receive documents and money from him, change clothes and try to change their appearance. It was a regular spy operation. So Trotsky embarked on the path of active struggle against Russian statehood. The special services of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at that time actively played the “Ukrainian card”. Galicia then belonged to Vienna and Catholicism, Uniatism were actively implanted in it, the local intelligentsia was “Germanized”. In Russia, Vienna cultivated and supported Ukrainian nationalists, kept under control the “national” movements of socialists and liberals in Little Russia. Parvus, Trotsky and his wife were transferred to Russia through these channels.
1905 — 1907 revolution
In Kiev, Trotsky panicked, it seemed to him that he was "under the hood" and he "lay down on the bottom" (became "sick" in a private clinic). But here he was taken under the care of L. Krasin, who held a high position in the German firm "Simmens-Schukkert" and had good contacts in Germany. During the 1905 revolution of the year, Krasin was supplying weapons for combat squads from abroad. An interesting fact is that at this time Trotsky was not associated with either the Bolsheviks or the Mensheviks, and was not a prominent figure among the Social Democrats, but Krasin began to patronize him. He brought Trotsky and Sedov to Petersburg, arranged them. Here Trotsky had a new breakdown. Sedov was detained, although there was no crime behind her, and Trotsky fled to Finland. Krasin and there helped Trotsky, found him, arranged, gave contacts.
In mid-October, Trotsky returned to Petersburg, and Parvus was there. They launched a stormy activity. The leader was Parvus, he had a connection with foreign sponsors of the First "Russian" revolution. The money for the revolution was considerable, and Parvus arranged for them to release Workers' Newspaper, Beginnings and Izvestia. They were printed in such massive print runs that they overwhelmed Petersburg and Moscow. They also published articles by Trotsky, other Russian and German revolutionaries. Trotsky intensively "unwind." He, who still has no merit, is pushed into the post of deputy chairman of the Petrograd Soviet. Its formal chairman was G. S. Khrustalyov-Nosar, but Parvus and Trotsky were the real leaders of the Council.
From this point on, it becomes clear that the “world behind the scenes,” which at the end of 19 and 20 began its centuries of destroying the Russian empire, considered Trotsky a suitable candidate for the leader of the “Russian” revolution. He was smart, resourceful, manageable and ambitious. That is why Lev Davidovich was "served" by such prominent figures as Adler, Parvus and Krasin. Trotsky in these days shone, flaunted. In addition to the talent of a journalist, he discovered another one - Trotsky was an excellent orator. He himself loved to speak to the public, he lost a good actor. Trotsky himself ignited, brought himself and the crowd to ecstasy. It was not even the content of his speeches that ignited people, but an emotional charge.
At the same time, the process of "rubbing up" of Lenin was going on. He is being pushed back from leadership, the Central Committee adopts a declaration against him, forbidding direct contact with Russia. In response, Lenin leaves the Central Committee. Earlier, he finally fell out with Plekhanov and left the editorial board of Iskra. Lenin did not know about Krasin’s arms supply activities. In Russia, he was going to go in October, after the amnesty, but the pad came out. A courier with documents was supposed to arrive in Stockholm, but Lenin was waiting for him for two weeks to no avail. One gets the feeling that he was deliberately detained. Lenin was able to come to the Russian Empire only in November, when all the leading posts were occupied. Lenin was not a destiny! He spent the night with friends, began to publish in the newspaper "New Life" of Gorky. I went to Moscow, but I did not find a suitable place for myself there either. The contrast compared with Trotsky was amazing. One was carefully guarded, “moved”, the other, more honored and authoritative, became useless to no one.
However, at this time the immunity of the empire was still strong. The virus of revolution was suppressed. The authorities, having overcome the first confusion, began to take active steps. 26 November 1905 was arrested Khrustalev. The executive committee of the Petrograd Soviet officially elected Trotsky as chairman, but already on December 3 and a group of deputies were taken under the ruts of white to the place where such figures should be. Soon Parvus was also arrested. 1905-1907 events show that the 1917 revolution of the year, with the political will of the supreme power, could be suppressed.
In September 1906, the court opened. Trotsky burst into such a speech that he brought himself to an epileptic seizure, causing excitement with his oratory abilities of the public. The laws for "political" that did not personally kill anyone, did not blow up, were soft. Although the leading role of Trotsky was taken into account, he was condemned to the eternal settlement in Siberia with deprivation of all civil rights. Trotsky was sent to Tobolsk Province. Parvus was exiled to Turukhansky region. But neither did they reach the destination. The money was transferred to them in the capital, and the documents were transferred on the way. "Political" was carried without austerity. Trotsky fled from Berezov. Then Trotsky composed a beautiful story, how he deceived the royal secret police with his mind and cunning, and raced on deer across the winter tundra. It was obvious that Trotsky was helped to get to the nearest train station, then he traveled by train to Finland. Parvus also escaped. Trotsky and Parvus without difficulty left for Western Europe. Unlike Lenin, who was hiding in the forest and went to the islands on the ice, he almost died, falling into a wormwood.
Trotsky wrote the book "There and Back." It was immediately published and promoted, made a bestseller. It must be said that some time after the defeat of the revolution in Russia, the fledged revolutionaries were in poverty. Funding channels are dry. However, Trotsky and then stood out. He did not have to look for means of existence, everything around him arose in a “magic” way. I rented a good apartment in Vienna. He joined the Social Democratic Party of Austria and Germany, and became a correspondent for the German newspaper Forverts.
At this time, when the Social Democratic emigration was in decline, quarreling and disintegrating into groups, the Ukrainian socialist organization Spilka also withered. Their newspaper Pravda, which was published in Lviv, fell into disrepair. Then the Austrians, who oversaw the "Ukrainians", suggested that the newspaper be headed by Trotsky. But the negotiations between the Spilka delegation and Trotsky did not lead to success, Lev Davidovich’s candidacy was rejected. Then someone suggested that Trotsky head the newspaper without the consent of Spilka. And Trotsky opened a newspaper in 1908 year, not in the provincial Lviv, but in the imperial capital, Vienna. Spilka tried to protest, but no one heard it. One of the leaders of the German Social Democrats, the editor of Forverts, Hilferding, began to allocate money for the newspaper. The first cadres of “Trotskyism” —A.Ioffe, M.Uritsky, M.Skobelev, etc. — began to be grouped around the newspaper.
During this period, Trotsky became close to the Freudians, read the works of Freud with interest, and even attended his lectures. Trotsky was so delighted with this teaching that he compared in value and depth with the works of Marx.
Victor Adler still patronized Trotsky. He introduced him to the Austro-German political elite. Trotsky regularly visited the cafe "Central", where he was going to high society. And Trotsky, the revolutionary loser, one and the editors of numerous immigrant newspapers, was accepted as an equal! This cannot be explained by the greatness of his mind and personality. He was not a great scientist, traveler, writer, a man worthy of attention. Trotsky has not committed any important historical act. Although he was bursting with ambitions, he tried to pretend to be a historical person. All this in it was combined with the habits of a small shtetl shopkeeper. Trotsky was petty, greedy, sank to a petty scam. He loved to borrow, but did not like to repay debts. Regularly did not pay in the cafe and "forgot" about it. Periodically moved out of the apartment to the apartment, without having paid off with former owners. Another person would have been punished long ago. But he got away with it. The Austrian Upper Light turned a blind eye to his antics, he was allowed to feel part of the “elite”. Before him did not close the doors of the cafe, rented a good shelter.
Trotsky was taken care of for the future. We were patiently working with him, preparing for the Great Game ...
To be continued ...