(A.I. Maskalik, R.A. Nagapetyan, A.I. Lukyanov. Ekranoplans-transport ships of the future. Ed. Shipbuilding. St. Petersburg, 2013)
Ekranoplans (EP) provide speed of movement by an order of magnitude and higher than traditional ships, have higher aerodynamic quality and seaworthiness than seaplanes [5, 7]. In addition, EPs possess such a unique quality as amphibiousness. All these qualities combine with any one generalized indicator is problematic. Therefore, an approximate comparative assessment of ES with other types of transport
means produce according to the diagram proposed by Karman and Gabrielli [5, 6]. (Diagram. Attached) The ordinate axis of this diagram shows the value of the vehicle perfection (TS) in the form of road performance K (ratio of TS mass to force resistance to its movement), which for ships is equivalent to hydrodynamic or hydroaerodynamic quality; for airplanes, helicopters and electric propulsion - aerodynamic quality. The abscissa axis of this chart is plotted speed.
A Karman – Gabrielli diagram is given for a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of various vehicles, including an EDS. It can be seen that in the speed range 200-500 km / h, the aerodynamic efficiency of the EP, determined by the product of KV, is significantly higher than that of other TSs. From the point of view of prospects for the development of electronic signature, it is of interest to evaluate the values of their KV value, which is widely used in forecasting the development of aircraft, as well as in a comparative analysis of the achieved level in the field of aerodynamics and design. This assessment is based on the well-known Karman hypothesis, according to which a wide class of transport vehicles, including displacement vessels and ships, submarines, and airplanes at this technical level, is characterized by the same value = const. This value is determined by the slope of the envelope of the corresponding dependencies. The universality of the limit line is confirmed practically and serves as the basis for forecasting the development, and also opens up the possibility even for single experimental points for TSs constructed. judge the fundamentally achievable level of aerodynamics of a wide class of aircraft and at the same time evaluate the degree of their aerodynamic perfection.
Each level of technical development of any vehicle corresponds to its value KV = const. The estimation of the limiting values of the aerodynamic efficiency of the ES and its comparison with the similar estimate for the aircraft shows that at the same technical level the limiting values of the KV ES and the aircraft are close.
The main advantages of an electronic signature over surface vessels are almost an order of magnitude greater speed and amphibiousness. The latter provides the EA with the ability of independent access to relatively
smooth unequipped shore, including the presence of ice fast ice, and basing on the shore. The ability of an EA to move over snowy and icy surfaces, as well as above the ground, makes them all a seasonal form of water transport.
Having high seaworthiness, the EA greatly surpasses seaplanes when used in marine and ocean conditions.
The efficiency of using ES for passenger and freight traffic is obvious [5, 7, 15, 16, 22].
Rescue ES will effectively solve the problem of rescuing people from ships in distress, ships, submarines, aircraft
arats and flooded space objects, as well as provide them with first aid. Both in terms of speed capabilities and seaworthy qualities, autonomy and heavy load capacity of EF will be indispensable when conducting rescue operations.
EP occupies an important place in the naval navy.
Regarding the military use of electronic signature, we note that the first in stories world technology practical samples of these high-speed ships, the airborne "Eaglet" and rocket "Lun", were created under the leadership of R. E. Alekseev for the domestic navy and were adopted by him in the 80-ies of the last century.
According to military experts, ships - WIG can significantly increase the combat effectiveness of the Navy.
As noted in : “The main advantage of WIG before surface ships and boats is significantly (5-10 times) high speed, which gives WIG a short time to solve problems, high search speeds in anti-submarine operations, freedom to maneuver in combat with surface ships, the possibility of rapid redeployment to build up forces in a threatened area, practical invulnerability from mine and torpedo weapons. Approaching in terms of speed indicators for airplanes, WIGs have a number of significant advantages: increased secrecy from radar detection due to very low flight altitudes, the ability for amphibious WIGs to independently reach the unequipped coast, including the presence of ice fast ice, the ability to
landing on the agitated surface of the sea (much higher wave than seaplanes) and be afloat in the area of action, while maintaining combat capabilities.
Ekranoplans can be used to create fundamentally new naval warships designed to combat enemy surface and submarine forces, transport and unload landing forces and various military cargoes, rescue crews in distress at sea.
Rocket wig, as an integral part of the shock forces of the fleet, are able to successfully solve the tasks of delivering rocket attacks on surface ships. Significant superiority in speed over other types of surface ships, including those with dynamic principles of support, will make it possible in a short time to deploy rocket-effect vehicle to enhance the groupings of surface forces and create superiority of impact forces in a given (threatened) direction. Having a short time to solve the problem and quickness of maneuver, the rocket WIG will be less affected by the enemy in comparison with surface ships of other types both at sea crossing and in the area of solving the problem when launching rocket attacks.
The advantage of missile ekranoplanes, compared with missile aviation, will consist in the possibility of their dispersed basing, which does not require runways and expensive stationary aerodrome equipment. This will make it possible to disperse in advance rocket ekranoplanes in marine areas directly adjacent to combat zones.
Anti-submarine ekranoplanes can have qualitative advantages over other types of anti-submarine surface ships and airplanes in terms of search capabilities, which will expand the range of tasks to be solved in the fight against high-speed multi-purpose submarines. The long range of the course will provide anti-submarine ekranoplanes with the task of searching for underwater targets at relatively significant distances from our naval bases.
Amphibious airplanes can successfully accomplish the mission of landing small, advanced tactical assault groups to capture the coast and ensure the landing of the main forces, building up amphibious forces, delivering military equipment and military cargo, and evacuating the wounded. High speed, stealth and surprise of action, the possibility of landing amphibious forces directly on the coast (the property of amphibiousness) give reason to consider the amphibious airborne wrecks very promising for amphibious operations.
Rescue ekranoplans will allow solving the tasks of rescuing the crews from ships in distress, submarines, transports, aircraft and space objects, as well as providing them with first aid. In terms of speed capabilities, they will be inferior to rescue aircraft, but their navigability, autonomy and high payload are undeniable advantages when conducting a rescue operation.
It is of interest WIG and as an aircraft carrier. Having a speed corresponding to the take-off and landing speeds of airplanes (200-300 km / h), WIG can provide take-off and landing modes of modern deck aircraft without special expensive devices (catapults, brakes, etc.), as well as ensure the use of aircraft in conditions of intense excitement.
All this in perspective allows us to consider WIGs as effective military equipment of the Navy. ”
No less than the prospects for the introduction of electronic signature in various areas of passenger and transport shipping.
Since 90-s of the 20th century, Russian designers have been actively working on the creation of transport EPs, which are now represented by the first marine recreational EP “Aquaglide” and projects of advanced transport EPs of various purposes [6, 7, 8, 22, 23].
Thus, already at the beginning of the twenty-first century, mankind had a real opportunity to realize a new type of high-speed all-season vehicle - EP, allowing highly efficient, with speeds approaching aviation, and it is safe to transport passengers and cargo at speeds up to 500 and above km / h at small screen heights in the conditions of water (wave height to 3,5 m), the ground, ice and snow-covered surface, with amphibious qualities, the possibility of independent access to the coast, movement and basing.
Particular attention is paid to the development of electronic signature for the development and life support of the North and the Arctic. A large-scale design development in the Russian Federation of promising EPs, including those for the North and the Arctic, created the scientific and technical background that can be demanded and implemented in the coming years [6,7,8,22].
This is facilitated by the legal framework created so far for creating an electronic signature at the level of the International Maritime Organization IMO and the Russian Federation [7,8].
To the greatest extent, the lack of transport is felt in the North with its richest natural resources. So the northern regions of Russia occupy almost 70% of its territory. More than 90% of natural gas, copper and nickel, 80% gold and diamonds, 75% oil, 25% forest products and 18% electricity are currently produced here.
The unique natural conditions, difficult ice conditions, and the shallow waters of the shelf make it difficult or impossible to use traditional waterways and other types of transport [7,8] in this region.
Great difficulties with the delivery of goods living and working in the North. The Northern Sea Route (SMP) no longer provides for the modern needs of the North of Russia, not only for exporting the natural resources extracted there, but also for delivering the goods necessary for the North. Therefore, the project of creating the Arctic Integrated Production and Transport System (AKTPS), [7,8,22], relies on the use of non-traditional means of transport for the Russian North, which are promising for these conditions. One of these types of transport is undoubtedly new high-speed vessels - EP, possessing not only high speed, seaworthiness, amphibiousness and economy, but also the possibility of their all-season use, the most important qualities for the North and the Arctic.
In particular, the tactical and technical data of the projects developed by us provide them with travel speeds up to 400 km / h, the cruising range to 6000 km, seaworthiness to 5 points, amphibiousness and fuel consumption of 30-40 g for transporting one passenger per km . [6,7,22].
Ekranoplans are capable not only at any time of the year to provide flight at very low altitudes above water, snow, ice, and ground at high speeds, but also to move in amphibious mode over snow, ice, land, overcoming obstacles up to 1,5 m.
One of the most important areas of work is the expansion of the field of electronic signature use. At present, work has already begun on preparing for the serial construction of EP for walking and tourism. EPs are very effective, and therefore promising, as ambulance vehicles in remote and remote areas, especially in the northern regions, and also for promptly solving urgent tasks within the framework of the Russian Emergencies Ministry. Great hopes are placed on the ES in solving the problems of the northern delivery and export of products of processing of the natural resources of the North.
The Arctic seas washing the Russian Federation include the Barents Sea, the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea and the Chukchi Sea. This region is generous
saturated with mineral deposits. The Russian Arctic shelf is the world's largest oil and gas basin, which contains at least 100 billion tons of standard fuel in oil equivalent . The role of the development of the Arctic bowels of the Russian Federation over time, no doubt everything will be
increase more. Huge and unique deposits of platinum minerals, oil, gas, copper, nickel, tin, diamonds, apatites, gold, mercury, rare metals, and other types of mineral raw materials  are concentrated in the Arctic.
To solve the above-mentioned transport tasks of the North and the Arctic, we have proposed electronic substations of various displacements and purposes for the transportation of goods, including along the beds of large and medium rivers, as well as along the tundra.
This should provide a solution to a number of actual problems, primarily, year-round transport support for the tasks of developing the North and the Arctic.
Effective use of electronic signature in the conditions of the North and the Arctic depends not only on their tactical, technical, economic and other important characteristics, but also on the safety of their operation. Issues of the safety of operating the ES have so far been resolved to a much greater extent than, for example, for aircraft that are used in the North and in the Arctic.
Thus, on the cruise mode of the movement of the EA, on the one hand, they are tightly tied to the screen with a screen effect), on the other hand, in the case of an emergency, they are able to land at any time, since "Airfield" is always under them. Even the occurrence of a high non-specification sea state on the route of an ES flight is not a threat to the ES security. And in these conditions, he has the choice of a safe continuation of the movement: either increasing the height and continuing the flight, or landing on the water and moving (or swimming) in a displacement mode.
High amphibious qualities of EF allow him to confidently move on the surface of the earth, ice, snow at different speeds, overcoming significant surface irregularities (protrusions, depressions, hummocks), surface slopes; provide him with the ability to enter
relatively flat beach or a specially equipped platform for loading and unloading operations, basing, repairing, refueling, etc.
The successful development and implementation of electronic signature is facilitated not only by the fact that so far the necessary scientific, technical and operational background has been created in the Russian Federation, including to solve topical issues of designing electronic signature for various purposes  Russian legal framework. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 2002 approved the “Interim Guidelines for the Security of VCs”, and the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping in 1998 D approved the “Rules for the Classification and Construction of Small Type VPs” .
Ekranoplanostroenie in other countries is also undergoing boom. In particular, the work of German designers in the field of
EPs by A. Lippish, G. Jörg, and H. Fisher are brought to the creation of small experimental samples of EPs of various aero-hydrodynamic layouts [7,27]. Scientists and designers of Australia, China, Great Britain, Korea and other countries are actively working in the direction of creating an electronic signature [7,26, 27].
A particularly high degree of activity in the field of creating electronic signature of various purposes has been observed since the 90 of the twentieth century in China, where the topic of electronic signature is set among the top priorities in programs for the development of science and technology, known as the “National Program for Research and Development of Key Technologies” and “Development Program High-tech "Torch" . In this regard, of interest is the modern Chinese concept of the most relevant areas of application of electronic signature. As follows from , Chinese scientists and designers of EPs distinguish three main areas of application of EPs: military, civil, and in power structures.
The military aspect of the use of electronic signature is characterized by them from the standpoint that “the electronic signature is an ideal high-speed tool that is difficult to detect both by air defense systems and coastal radar radars ... that it is an ideal power platform for rocket weapons of ships and coastal targets and an excellent landing craft ". Mentioned are plans for the development in China of an ES of this direction for 500 people and 250 people, as well as special-purpose ES for 400 tons.
The second, civilian direction of the use of ES, is characterized by them from the standpoint of “that ES are perfectly suited for transporting passengers and goods on domestic cabotage lines in the South China Sea and international traffic in the complex interlacing of straits and fairways of Southeast Asia. Large load carrying capacity can compete with ferry services developed in this region, reducing travel time. In addition, the need for a power supply facility as “means of a coastal rescue service, fish protection ... providing urgent medical care to people living on the islands, oil producing platforms, advanced exploration platforms in areas of disputed islands, etc. ”.
The third direction, the use of electronic signature by the power structures of the country, involves using them by customs in the fight against smuggling to reduce the volume of illegal goods in the country's markets. Similar hopes are pinned on the ES by the police, migration and quarantine services. The emergence of maneuverable, high-speed EF will, in the opinion of Chinese experts, have a significant impact on the situation in the protection of coastal fishing areas by the forces of the maritime border guard.
The importance of using ES in the fight against piracy on transport routes is highly appreciated, since “At the beginning of the 21 century, the problem of piracy became one of the most important problems in the South China Sea and the straits of Southeast Asia”.
And although at present, the Russian ekranoplanostroenie admittedly [8,24] is ahead of foreign, in the coming years in other countries, such as China, Germany, Australia, Korea, really expect practical results in the creation of electronic signature of various purposes.
In conclusion, we note that a large contribution to the creation of ekranoplans in our country was made by leading aviation scientists and designers: general designers A.N. Tupolev, V.M. Myasishchev, A.I. Mikoyan, O.K. Antonov, V.M. Simonov, scientists TsAGI and LII, and others, which can be found in the literature. Work on the creation of Russian ekranoplans in 1984 g were awarded the highest awards, Lenin and State Prizes.
And, finally, we note the highest assessment of the created Alexeev ekranoplans by the largest US scientist prof. Tulin at the international conference on high-speed vessels in Amsterdam in 1998 g:
“The success of the Russians is a phenomenon of Alekseev, who made two technical revolutions in shipbuilding (the first ships on hydrofoils) ... The creation of ekranoplans is an outstanding achievement of the Russians.”
So we have something to be proud of, including ekranoplans, and no “pug” can prevent us from doing so.
But the fact that after the collapse of the USSR, Russia is not yet able to support the realization of its creative potential - this is our misfortune, which we hope to overcome in time.
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The passenger air transport system developed by the CTC “ATTK” has been developed.
International Conference on innovative approaches to further speeds. Super fast FAST X NUMX, 2008-2. July 4, Saint-Petersburg, RUSSIA
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