Military Review

Place ekranoplanov in the transport system. Areas of effective use

70



(A.I. Maskalik, R.A. Nagapetyan, A.I. Lukyanov. Ekranoplans-transport ships of the future. Ed. Shipbuilding. St. Petersburg, 2013)

Ekranoplans (EP) provide speed of movement by an order of magnitude and higher than traditional ships, have higher aerodynamic quality and seaworthiness than seaplanes [5, 7]. In addition, EPs possess such a unique quality as amphibiousness. All these qualities combine with any one generalized indicator is problematic. Therefore, an approximate comparative assessment of ES with other types of transport
means produce according to the diagram proposed by Karman and Gabrielli [5, 6]. (Diagram. Attached) The ordinate axis of this diagram shows the value of the vehicle perfection (TS) in the form of road performance K (ratio of TS mass to force resistance to its movement), which for ships is equivalent to hydrodynamic or hydroaerodynamic quality; for airplanes, helicopters and electric propulsion - aerodynamic quality. The abscissa axis of this chart is plotted speed.

A Karman – Gabrielli diagram is given for a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of various vehicles, including an EDS. It can be seen that in the speed range 200-500 km / h, the aerodynamic efficiency of the EP, determined by the product of KV, is significantly higher than that of other TSs. From the point of view of prospects for the development of electronic signature, it is of interest to evaluate the values ​​of their KV value, which is widely used in forecasting the development of aircraft, as well as in a comparative analysis of the achieved level in the field of aerodynamics and design. This assessment is based on the well-known Karman hypothesis, according to which a wide class of transport vehicles, including displacement vessels and ships, submarines, and airplanes at this technical level, is characterized by the same value = const. This value is determined by the slope of the envelope of the corresponding dependencies. The universality of the limit line is confirmed practically and serves as the basis for forecasting the development, and also opens up the possibility even for single experimental points for TSs constructed. judge the fundamentally achievable level of aerodynamics of a wide class of aircraft and at the same time evaluate the degree of their aerodynamic perfection.



Each level of technical development of any vehicle corresponds to its value KV = const. The estimation of the limiting values ​​of the aerodynamic efficiency of the ES and its comparison with the similar estimate for the aircraft shows that at the same technical level the limiting values ​​of the KV ES and the aircraft are close.

The main advantages of an electronic signature over surface vessels are almost an order of magnitude greater speed and amphibiousness. The latter provides the EA with the ability of independent access to relatively

smooth unequipped shore, including the presence of ice fast ice, and basing on the shore. The ability of an EA to move over snowy and icy surfaces, as well as above the ground, makes them all a seasonal form of water transport.

Having high seaworthiness, the EA greatly surpasses seaplanes when used in marine and ocean conditions.
The efficiency of using ES for passenger and freight traffic is obvious [5, 7, 15, 16, 22].

Rescue ES will effectively solve the problem of rescuing people from ships in distress, ships, submarines, aircraft
arats and flooded space objects, as well as provide them with first aid. Both in terms of speed capabilities and seaworthy qualities, autonomy and heavy load capacity of EF will be indispensable when conducting rescue operations.

EP occupies an important place in the naval navy.

Regarding the military use of electronic signature, we note that the first in stories world technology practical samples of these high-speed ships, the airborne "Eaglet" and rocket "Lun", were created under the leadership of R. E. Alekseev for the domestic navy and were adopted by him in the 80-ies of the last century.

According to military experts, ships - WIG can significantly increase the combat effectiveness of the Navy.

As noted in [4]: “The main advantage of WIG before surface ships and boats is significantly (5-10 times) high speed, which gives WIG a short time to solve problems, high search speeds in anti-submarine operations, freedom to maneuver in combat with surface ships, the possibility of rapid redeployment to build up forces in a threatened area, practical invulnerability from mine and torpedo weapons. Approaching in terms of speed indicators for airplanes, WIGs have a number of significant advantages: increased secrecy from radar detection due to very low flight altitudes, the ability for amphibious WIGs to independently reach the unequipped coast, including the presence of ice fast ice, the ability to
landing on the agitated surface of the sea (much higher wave than seaplanes) and be afloat in the area of ​​action, while maintaining combat capabilities.

Ekranoplans can be used to create fundamentally new naval warships designed to combat enemy surface and submarine forces, transport and unload landing forces and various military cargoes, rescue crews in distress at sea.

Rocket wig, as an integral part of the shock forces of the fleet, are able to successfully solve the tasks of delivering rocket attacks on surface ships. Significant superiority in speed over other types of surface ships, including those with dynamic principles of support, will make it possible in a short time to deploy rocket-effect vehicle to enhance the groupings of surface forces and create superiority of impact forces in a given (threatened) direction. Having a short time to solve the problem and quickness of maneuver, the rocket WIG will be less affected by the enemy in comparison with surface ships of other types both at sea crossing and in the area of ​​solving the problem when launching rocket attacks.

The advantage of missile ekranoplanes, compared with missile aviation, will consist in the possibility of their dispersed basing, which does not require runways and expensive stationary aerodrome equipment. This will make it possible to disperse in advance rocket ekranoplanes in marine areas directly adjacent to combat zones.

Anti-submarine ekranoplanes can have qualitative advantages over other types of anti-submarine surface ships and airplanes in terms of search capabilities, which will expand the range of tasks to be solved in the fight against high-speed multi-purpose submarines. The long range of the course will provide anti-submarine ekranoplanes with the task of searching for underwater targets at relatively significant distances from our naval bases.

Amphibious airplanes can successfully accomplish the mission of landing small, advanced tactical assault groups to capture the coast and ensure the landing of the main forces, building up amphibious forces, delivering military equipment and military cargo, and evacuating the wounded. High speed, stealth and surprise of action, the possibility of landing amphibious forces directly on the coast (the property of amphibiousness) give reason to consider the amphibious airborne wrecks very promising for amphibious operations.

Rescue ekranoplans will allow solving the tasks of rescuing the crews from ships in distress, submarines, transports, aircraft and space objects, as well as providing them with first aid. In terms of speed capabilities, they will be inferior to rescue aircraft, but their navigability, autonomy and high payload are undeniable advantages when conducting a rescue operation.

It is of interest WIG and as an aircraft carrier. Having a speed corresponding to the take-off and landing speeds of airplanes (200-300 km / h), WIG can provide take-off and landing modes of modern deck aircraft without special expensive devices (catapults, brakes, etc.), as well as ensure the use of aircraft in conditions of intense excitement.

All this in perspective allows us to consider WIGs as effective military equipment of the Navy. ”

No less than the prospects for the introduction of electronic signature in various areas of passenger and transport shipping.

Since 90-s of the 20th century, Russian designers have been actively working on the creation of transport EPs, which are now represented by the first marine recreational EP “Aquaglide” and projects of advanced transport EPs of various purposes [6, 7, 8, 22, 23].

Thus, already at the beginning of the twenty-first century, mankind had a real opportunity to realize a new type of high-speed all-season vehicle - EP, allowing highly efficient, with speeds approaching aviation, and it is safe to transport passengers and cargo at speeds up to 500 and above km / h at small screen heights in the conditions of water (wave height to 3,5 m), the ground, ice and snow-covered surface, with amphibious qualities, the possibility of independent access to the coast, movement and basing.
Particular attention is paid to the development of electronic signature for the development and life support of the North and the Arctic. A large-scale design development in the Russian Federation of promising EPs, including those for the North and the Arctic, created the scientific and technical background that can be demanded and implemented in the coming years [6,7,8,22].

This is facilitated by the legal framework created so far for creating an electronic signature at the level of the International Maritime Organization IMO and the Russian Federation [7,8].
To the greatest extent, the lack of transport is felt in the North with its richest natural resources. So the northern regions of Russia occupy almost 70% of its territory. More than 90% of natural gas, copper and nickel, 80% gold and diamonds, 75% oil, 25% forest products and 18% electricity are currently produced here.

The unique natural conditions, difficult ice conditions, and the shallow waters of the shelf make it difficult or impossible to use traditional waterways and other types of transport [7,8] in this region.

Great difficulties with the delivery of goods living and working in the North. The Northern Sea Route (SMP) no longer provides for the modern needs of the North of Russia, not only for exporting the natural resources extracted there, but also for delivering the goods necessary for the North. Therefore, the project of creating the Arctic Integrated Production and Transport System (AKTPS), [7,8,22], relies on the use of non-traditional means of transport for the Russian North, which are promising for these conditions. One of these types of transport is undoubtedly new high-speed vessels - EP, possessing not only high speed, seaworthiness, amphibiousness and economy, but also the possibility of their all-season use, the most important qualities for the North and the Arctic.

In particular, the tactical and technical data of the projects developed by us provide them with travel speeds up to 400 km / h, the cruising range to 6000 km, seaworthiness to 5 points, amphibiousness and fuel consumption of 30-40 g for transporting one passenger per km . [6,7,22].

Ekranoplans are capable not only at any time of the year to provide flight at very low altitudes above water, snow, ice, and ground at high speeds, but also to move in amphibious mode over snow, ice, land, overcoming obstacles up to 1,5 m.

One of the most important areas of work is the expansion of the field of electronic signature use. At present, work has already begun on preparing for the serial construction of EP for walking and tourism. EPs are very effective, and therefore promising, as ambulance vehicles in remote and remote areas, especially in the northern regions, and also for promptly solving urgent tasks within the framework of the Russian Emergencies Ministry. Great hopes are placed on the ES in solving the problems of the northern delivery and export of products of processing of the natural resources of the North.

The Arctic seas washing the Russian Federation include the Barents Sea, the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea and the Chukchi Sea. This region is generous
saturated with mineral deposits. The Russian Arctic shelf is the world's largest oil and gas basin, which contains at least 100 billion tons of standard fuel in oil equivalent [8]. The role of the development of the Arctic bowels of the Russian Federation over time, no doubt everything will be
increase more. Huge and unique deposits of platinum minerals, oil, gas, copper, nickel, tin, diamonds, apatites, gold, mercury, rare metals, and other types of mineral raw materials [20] are concentrated in the Arctic.

To solve the above-mentioned transport tasks of the North and the Arctic, we have proposed electronic substations of various displacements and purposes for the transportation of goods, including along the beds of large and medium rivers, as well as along the tundra.

This should provide a solution to a number of actual problems, primarily, year-round transport support for the tasks of developing the North and the Arctic.

Effective use of electronic signature in the conditions of the North and the Arctic depends not only on their tactical, technical, economic and other important characteristics, but also on the safety of their operation. Issues of the safety of operating the ES have so far been resolved to a much greater extent than, for example, for aircraft that are used in the North and in the Arctic.

Thus, on the cruise mode of the movement of the EA, on the one hand, they are tightly tied to the screen with a screen effect), on the other hand, in the case of an emergency, they are able to land at any time, since "Airfield" is always under them. Even the occurrence of a high non-specification sea state on the route of an ES flight is not a threat to the ES security. And in these conditions, he has the choice of a safe continuation of the movement: either increasing the height and continuing the flight, or landing on the water and moving (or swimming) in a displacement mode.

High amphibious qualities of EF allow him to confidently move on the surface of the earth, ice, snow at different speeds, overcoming significant surface irregularities (protrusions, depressions, hummocks), surface slopes; provide him with the ability to enter
relatively flat beach or a specially equipped platform for loading and unloading operations, basing, repairing, refueling, etc.
The successful development and implementation of electronic signature is facilitated not only by the fact that so far the necessary scientific, technical and operational background has been created in the Russian Federation, including to solve topical issues of designing electronic signature for various purposes [7] Russian legal framework. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 2002 approved the “Interim Guidelines for the Security of VCs”, and the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping in 1998 D approved the “Rules for the Classification and Construction of Small Type VPs” [8].
Ekranoplanostroenie in other countries is also undergoing boom. In particular, the work of German designers in the field of
EPs by A. Lippish, G. Jörg, and H. Fisher are brought to the creation of small experimental samples of EPs of various aero-hydrodynamic layouts [7,27]. Scientists and designers of Australia, China, Great Britain, Korea and other countries are actively working in the direction of creating an electronic signature [7,26, 27].

A particularly high degree of activity in the field of creating electronic signature of various purposes has been observed since the 90 of the twentieth century in China, where the topic of electronic signature is set among the top priorities in programs for the development of science and technology, known as the “National Program for Research and Development of Key Technologies” and “Development Program High-tech "Torch" [25]. In this regard, of interest is the modern Chinese concept of the most relevant areas of application of electronic signature. As follows from [26], Chinese scientists and designers of EPs distinguish three main areas of application of EPs: military, civil, and in power structures.

The military aspect of the use of electronic signature is characterized by them from the standpoint that “the electronic signature is an ideal high-speed tool that is difficult to detect both by air defense systems and coastal radar radars ... that it is an ideal power platform for rocket weapons of ships and coastal targets and an excellent landing craft ". Mentioned are plans for the development in China of an ES of this direction for 500 people and 250 people, as well as special-purpose ES for 400 tons.

The second, civilian direction of the use of ES, is characterized by them from the standpoint of “that ES are perfectly suited for transporting passengers and goods on domestic cabotage lines in the South China Sea and international traffic in the complex interlacing of straits and fairways of Southeast Asia. Large load carrying capacity can compete with ferry services developed in this region, reducing travel time. In addition, the need for a power supply facility as “means of a coastal rescue service, fish protection ... providing urgent medical care to people living on the islands, oil producing platforms, advanced exploration platforms in areas of disputed islands, etc. ”.

The third direction, the use of electronic signature by the power structures of the country, involves using them by customs in the fight against smuggling to reduce the volume of illegal goods in the country's markets. Similar hopes are pinned on the ES by the police, migration and quarantine services. The emergence of maneuverable, high-speed EF will, in the opinion of Chinese experts, have a significant impact on the situation in the protection of coastal fishing areas by the forces of the maritime border guard.

The importance of using ES in the fight against piracy on transport routes is highly appreciated, since “At the beginning of the 21 century, the problem of piracy became one of the most important problems in the South China Sea and the straits of Southeast Asia”.

And although at present, the Russian ekranoplanostroenie admittedly [8,24] is ahead of foreign, in the coming years in other countries, such as China, Germany, Australia, Korea, really expect practical results in the creation of electronic signature of various purposes.

In conclusion, we note that a large contribution to the creation of ekranoplans in our country was made by leading aviation scientists and designers: general designers A.N. Tupolev, V.M. Myasishchev, A.I. Mikoyan, O.K. Antonov, V.M. Simonov, scientists TsAGI and LII, and others, which can be found in the literature. Work on the creation of Russian ekranoplans in 1984 g were awarded the highest awards, Lenin and State Prizes.
And, finally, we note the highest assessment of the created Alexeev ekranoplans by the largest US scientist prof. Tulin at the international conference on high-speed vessels in Amsterdam in 1998 g:

“The success of the Russians is a phenomenon of Alekseev, who made two technical revolutions in shipbuilding (the first ships on hydrofoils) ... The creation of ekranoplans is an outstanding achievement of the Russians.”


So we have something to be proud of, including ekranoplans, and no “pug” can prevent us from doing so.

But the fact that after the collapse of the USSR, Russia is not yet able to support the realization of its creative potential - this is our misfortune, which we hope to overcome in time.



REFERENCES
4. Laykovsky P.I. Ekranoplans and Views on Their Combat Use. Foreign military review. 1985. No.4
5. A.I. Maskalik, D.N. Sinitsyn and others. Ekranoplans. Features of theory and design. SPb .; Shipbuilding, 2000.
6. A.I. Maskalik, Ekranoplans - transport of the XXI century. СПб., Shipbuilding, №5, 2002.
7. A.I. Maskalik, R.A. Nagapetyan, A.I. Lukyanov and others. Ekranoplans are transport vessels of the XX1 century. S-Pb., Shipbuilding, 2005.
8. A.I. Maskalik, R.A. Nagapetyan and others. Cruise ships of Russia. S-Pb., Shipbuilding, 2006.
9. Otoslavsky I.V. Aircraft aerodynamics. M .: Oborongiz, 1957.
10. Aircraft design. Edited by S. M. Eger. M., Mechanical Engineering, 1983.
11. Serebriysky Ya. M. Influence of the proximity of the earth on the aerodynamic characteristics of an aircraft Trudy TsAGI, 1936. Issue 267.
12. Strugov L. V .. Ekranoplans to be! 21 Century Arsenal Magazine No.2 (7),
2010
3. Yuriev B.N. The influence of the earth on the aerodynamic properties of the wing. Air Fleet Bulletin, #1, 1923.
14. Sculpture for New Generations of the Second Generation of the New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 15-16 1998.
15. AIC, Alabdorus, 5-8 October, KV Rozhdestvensky, DN Sinitsin "Aero-Hydrodynamics of the Russian Federation", 1998-25 1, pp 24 / 11-XNUMX / XNUMX.
16. Dr. A. I. Maskalik, D. N.Sinitsin, "The Ekranoplans in New Type of High Speed Water Transport which can be used in all Seasons", Workshop Proceedings of Ekranoplans & very fast craft, 5-6 December, 1996, Sydney, Australia, p.p. 152-162.
17. Dr. AI Maskalik, DN Sinitsin, "The First Commercial Ekranoplan" and the Prospects for the Development of Passenger Airline, Amsterdam, 5-8 October 1998 , pp 24 / 1-24 / 18.
18. Maskalik A. I., Sinitsin D. N., Litinsky L. O., "The Present Day State and Prospect for the Development of Commercial Ekranoplans", in Proceeding Workshop EKRANOPLANS&VERY FAST CRAFT, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 5-6 December, 1996, p.p. 163176.
19. Fisher H. and Matjasic K., Fisher Flugmechanik "From Airfisch to Hoverwing" in International Workshop Wise up to ekranoplan GEMS, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 15-16 June 1998, pp 69-89.
20. It was a great deal to make it easier for people to practice it. Prepared for the EAGES 2001 International Ground Effect Simposium Toulouse, France, Iune 2001.
21. The question of aerohydrodinamics and the transport economics. International Conference of Fast Sea Transportation. FAST-2005, St. Petersburg, Russia, 2005.
22. RA Nagapetyan, DN Sinitsjn. Сurrent status and transport of the Grand-Effect machines of transport (ekranoplanes). International Conference of Fast Sea Transportation. FAST-2005, St. Petersburg, Russia, 2005.
23. Maskalik A.I., Sinitsin D.N., "The Ekranoplans in New Type of High Speed Water Transport which can be used in all Seasons", Workshop Proceedings of Ekranoplans & very fast craft, 5-6 December, 1996, Sydney, Australia.
24. M. Tulin "Aero- and Hydrodynamics of the Aero- and Hydrodynamics of the United Kingdom" Amsterdam, 5-8 Oktober 1998.
25. Ekranoplans in China. The project "Abirus". http://www.abirus.ru/o/d_eplan.htm, 16.05.2006.
26. RA Nagapetyan, AI Maskalik, AI Lukyanov
The passenger air transport system developed by the CTC “ATTK” has been developed.
International Conference on innovative approaches to further speeds. Super fast FAST X NUMX, 2008-2. July 4, Saint-Petersburg, RUSSIA
27. Janes High - Speed ​​Marine Transportation. 2007 - 2008
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  1. vladimirZ
    vladimirZ April 23 2013 08: 12 New
    -1
    The right thing. But only in the current Putin-Medvedev Russia, this, unfortunately, is impossible. The regime that burns Russia's oil and gas resources to enrich oligarchs and officials is not capable of doing things that can increase Russia's power and prestige.
    1. servant
      servant April 23 2013 08: 29 New
      10
      Well then, you reduce everything to Putiu and Medvedev! At least you wondered when the last ekranoplan was released and development stopped.
      1. vladimirZ
        vladimirZ April 23 2013 08: 52 New
        -8
        Open your eyes.
        This applies not only to ekranoplans. The power of Putin-Medvedev, except for oil and gas, is not interested in anything.
        The development of all other industries and agriculture is just words, nothing more. From the leadership of the economy, this power runs like hell from incense. They are only interested in privatization plans for the remaining public sector in terms of what kind of money they will receive, and not for the purpose of developing this industry.
        Putin's plan to create 25 million jobs is a fiction, which can only mislead people who are not sensible in production.
        Look in the regions everywhere closed and defeated enterprises, everywhere massive unemployment. People are leaving for the Moscow region to get at least some work.
        И в конце концов, кто как ни Путин, как Президент РФ, Медведев - как Премьер-министр, должны на деле организовать руководство государственным сектором экономики. А их министры конкретно руководить этими предприятиями. А у нас медведевские министры занимаются только "стрижкой" и "распилом" бабла от сделок этих предприятий - не более.
        1. Sashka
          Sashka April 24 2013 11: 28 New
          -2
          Paranoid syndrome is not a rare phenomenon ... Especially in relation to power ...
          May be enough?!?
      2. Vadivak
        Vadivak April 23 2013 09: 23 New
        +9
        Quote: Servant
        At least you wondered when the last ekranoplan was released and development stopped.

        В прошлом году МО отказалось от возрождения программы боевых экранопланов, люди которые еще работают в ЦКБ "им. Р. Е Алексеева" говорят, что идут только разговоры и обещания, но конкретных заказов нет.
        1. Armata
          Armata April 23 2013 09: 56 New
          +5
          Quote: Vadivak
          В прошлом году МО отказалось от возрождения программы боевых экранопланов, люди которые еще работают в ЦКБ "им. Р. Е Алексеева" говорят, что идут только разговоры и обещания, но конкретных заказов нет.
          Greetings to Vadim. There are orders, but only for civilian electronic signatures. And then their units.
          1. Vadivak
            Vadivak April 23 2013 10: 01 New
            +2
            Quote: Mechanic
            Greetings to Vadim. Orders are, but only for civil


            Hi Eugene and I are about the same, just below
      3. Armata
        Armata April 23 2013 09: 53 New
        +2
        Quote: Servant
        At least you wondered when the last ekranoplan was released and development stopped.
        Alekseev was a brilliant designer. It is a pity that they closed this topic with him, although they are now trying to resume this work. Although he later made 6 a series of hydrofoil ships with an air carpet. And I think the debate about GDP and DAM in this topic is not appropriate, forward to the branch of geopolitics.
        1. wk
          wk April 23 2013 13: 09 New
          -3
          Quote: Mechanic
          Alekseev was a brilliant designer. It’s a pity that they closed this topic

          Alekseev’s genius cannot serve as a criterion for the suitability of ekranoplanes .... of course, it’s a pity the work of a designer and a talented team, but it must be admitted that ekranoplanes have a dead end path of development and this is always found in science .... at the beginning of the 20th century there were combat airships and their designers were ingenious , and in the 1XX century, sailing ships reached their perfection ... nobody seriously considers balloons either ...
          in Russia it is necessary to seriously think about a full-fledged aircraft carrier group and sharpen forces, means, and not spray funds for another miracle weapon.
          1. vladsolo56
            vladsolo56 April 23 2013 14: 34 New
            +4
            Here the aircraft carrier group is an anachronism of incredible high cost. and dubious military effectiveness. Russia is not going to become a gendarme in the world in the future, I hope. Accordingly, she does not need aircraft carriers as everything that accompanies them. But ekranoplanes are a weapon of deterrence. significantly cheaper than an aircraft carrier, but quite capable of destroying it
            1. Armata
              Armata April 23 2013 14: 46 New
              +1
              Quote: wk
              Alekseev’s genius cannot serve as a criterion for the suitability of ekranoplanes .... of course, it’s a pity the work of a designer and a talented team, but it must be admitted that ekranoplanes have a dead end path of development and this is always found in science .... at the beginning of the 20th century there were combat airships and their designers were ingenious , and in the 1XX century, sailing ships reached their perfection ... nobody seriously considers balloons either ...
              Yah? Do you work in science? and do you know a lot about dead-end branches of development?
              Quote: vladsolo56
              But ekranoplanes are a weapon of deterrence. significantly cheaper than an aircraft carrier, but quite capable of destroying it
              You are right dear. There is no stronger argument in the coastal line.
              1. wk
                wk April 23 2013 15: 18 New
                -3
                Quote: Mechanic
                You are right dear. There is no stronger argument in the coastal line.

                сильнее только "ковёр самолёт" "мечь кладенец" и "печь скороход"
                Where? in which conflict? what arguments? ....
                1. Armata
                  Armata April 23 2013 15: 56 New
                  0
                  [quote=wk]сильнее только "ковёр самолёт" "мечь кладенец" и "печь скороход"
                  Where? in which conflict? In general, have you ever seen how a high-speed rocket launcher works?
                  1. wk
                    wk April 23 2013 16: 09 New
                    0
                    I didn’t see how the rocket launcher works, but apparently you also don’t have information on the successful use of ekranoplanes ...
                    1. Armata
                      Armata April 23 2013 17: 43 New
                      0
                      Quote: wk
                      I didn’t see how the launch vehicle worked, but apparently you have no information on the successful use of ekranoplanes.
                      Well no. Because EPs have never been used in hostilities. But then they impress with their performance characteristics and even those who have worked in shipbuilding for many years.
            2. Mikhail3
              Mikhail3 April 23 2013 19: 35 New
              +3
              In a matter of hours, capture Turkey. At the same time, capture Japan. Transfer as many people and equipment as you like to almost any part of the Arctic. I completely agree - the deterrence weapon is simply magnificent!
              1. postman
                postman April 23 2013 22: 44 New
                +1
                Quote: Mikhail3
                In a matter of hours, capture Turkey. At the same time, capture Japan.

                1.Турция в НАТО+ждут тип F-24? (типа MEKO 200),MEKO A-100,корвет типа «MILGEM»,ну и старички 6 корветов типа D'Estienne D'Orves,7 фрегатов типа "Перри";Флотилия ракетных и торпедных катеров (Умурьери)

                Navy Sinop and Samsun

                + McDonnell Douglas F-4E (124 pieces) + Canadair NF-5A (26) + Tusas F-16C (126)
                2. Japan has a JAPAN-AMERICAN AGREEMENT (ON MUTUAL COOPERATION AND WARRANTY) SECURITY 1960

                type "Hyuga", type "Atago", type "Akizuki", type "Takanami" and so on only 33, type "Abukuma" -6 and trifle 6 missile boats of the type "Hayabusa"

                7 air wings and 34 air squadrons (172 aircraft and 133 helicopters)
                American base in Okinawa

                3.
                Quote: Mikhail3
                Transfer as many people and equipment as you like to almost any part of the Arctic.

                Well, not as much as you like and not in any.
                AND WHY TO THROW ON ICE? What is there to do? to drive polar bears?
                4.
                Quote: Mikhail3
                containment weapon

                Наверное всё же нападения?( "ударный")
                When were sea-based airborne assault ships and anti-ship missiles?
          2. Gregazov
            Gregazov April 23 2013 19: 03 New
            +1
            This is the genius of Bartini, to be more precise, realized by no less talented Alekseev
    2. Civil
      Civil April 23 2013 09: 40 New
      +2
      if in the USSR they abandoned the ekranoplanes ... then now moreover nobody will do this ...
      1. not good
        not good April 23 2013 11: 18 New
        +4
        В СССР от экранопланов не отказывались,более того в планах МО они планировались на принятие на вооружение в 90-х годах,были внесены соответствующие корректировки в документы регламентирующие жизнедеятельность штабов,были наработки по тактике применения и экранопланов-ракетоносцев, и противолодочных экранопланов.Более того,звено экранопланов ПЛО по эффективности сравнимо с бригадой кораблей ОВРа,а по критерию эксплуотационной стоимости ПЛОшный экраноплан сравним с кораблём з-го ранга.Кроме того оборудование ПБ экранопланов аналогично имеющимся на 90-е годы ПБ Бе-12 и "подушек".Если же брать Экраноплан в варианте поисково-спасательного, то альтернативы по эффективности и возможностям,кроме "Альбатроса" нет.Что касается мореходности ,то принципиальной разницы с кораблём 3-го ранга нет.А отсутствие на сегодняшний день в планах МО экранопланов,в большей степени зависит от отсутствия "экраноплонного" лобби,а не объективными трудностями или отсутствием средств.
      2. Denis
        Denis April 23 2013 18: 46 New
        +1
        Quote: Civil
        In the USSR abandoned ekranoplanes.
        What years? 8
        That's it, in those damned times, many refused a lot
        Everyone remembers and do not want to repeat
      3. Gregazov
        Gregazov April 23 2013 19: 08 New
        -1
        The ekranoplan was created in the USSR for lightning landing on the territory of a sworn friend of the United States. I think that questions about the reasons for the termination of financing of EP should not arise, since their answer is obvious from the appointment of EP.
  2. mogus
    mogus April 23 2013 08: 14 New
    0
    http://www.arms-expo.ru/055055049054.html

    "Caspian Monster"
    back

    The Russian government instructed the Russian Central Design Bureau named after Alekseev in the next few years to resume production
    ekranoplan, which ceased in the early 1990s. It is planned to resume design and development work in two stages, the last of which will begin in 2012. However, when exactly the new “Caspian Monster” will appear in Russia, experts do not speak yet.
    In Taiwan, the development of ekranoplanes began thanks to the former designer of TsKB Alekseyev Dmitry Sinitsin, who in 1992 transferred to work in the Taiwanese company Amphistar. Under the terms of the contract of employment, Sinitsyn received financing, and in exchange transferred to the company patents and rights to created vehicles. In case of termination
    financing, all rights and patents were returned to the designer. Amphistar devices currently manufactured are capable of speeds up to 150 kilometers per hour and fly up to a distance of 600 kilometers. China is also developing its own developments, having already created the Tianyi-1 civil ekranoplan. This ekranoplane made its first flight in 1998, and since 2000 went on public sale. In addition to it, a Tianxiang-2 cargo-passenger vehicle was also created and a 50-seater Tianxiang-5 is being created. WIG research is also conducted by Japan, South Korea, Germany, New Zealand and Australia. It is expected that South Korea will be the first to test its own device in 2012. Rebirth
    ekranoplanostroeniya for Russia today is a matter of prestige, if you do not take into account the benefits that will bring
    ekranoplanes. The USSR was the only state in the world to develop
    and built ekranoplans. Russia also so far takes the first place in terms of the accumulated technologies in the field of “screen” ships. Especially when it comes to large lifting vessels. But this state of affairs without serious interference in the coming years may change.
  3. akm8226
    akm8226 April 23 2013 08: 30 New
    +1
    Thank God my border guards began in Petrozavodsk the design and construction of ekranoplanes for border troops. This can not but rejoice. And then such a potential was completely ruined by our Tan.
  4. Denis
    Denis April 23 2013 08: 32 New
    +1
    Будь такой тогда так с АПЛ "Комсомолец" всех бы спасти могли,успел бы
    Yes, and P-270 "Mosquito" (URAF Index Navy - 3M80, NATO classification SS-N-22 Sunburn, literally "Sunburn", with its weight up to 4,5t can easily carry
  5. Canep
    Canep April 23 2013 08: 39 New
    +3
    I think the scope of ekranoplanes is limited to inland waters, I doubt that they can be used with strong excitement. I think five points of excitement for them is the limit.
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak April 23 2013 09: 20 New
      +5
      We are waiting for Oleg Kaptsov

      He will write something like the following

      Безусловно, эффектная, но дорогая и узкоспециализированная разработка с сомнительными преимуществами, фактически (за исключением, быть может, двигательных установок и носимого вооружения) не унифицируемая в производстве с "мейнстримовыми" образцами техники. Типичный "белый слон": красивый, элегантный, но – ни к чему.

      I’m talking about it, in 2012, we really crowed that they would start building combat ekranoplanes, but the case ended with the Oriole (speed up to 250 km / h and capacity up to 10-12 people) for border guards and police. And the Ministry of Defense and the Navy itself abandoned the ekranoplanes, relying on the BE-200 amphibian, and
      недостроенный "Спасатель", в лучшем случае поставят в музей, а в худшем - порежут на металлолом.
      1. Santa Fe
        Santa Fe April 23 2013 16: 55 New
        +2
        Quote: Vadivak
        Безусловно, эффектная, но дорогая и узкоспециализированная разработка с сомнительными преимуществами, фактически (за исключением, быть может, двигательных установок и носимого вооружения) не унифицируемая в производстве с "мейнстримовыми" образцами техники. Типичный "белый слон": красивый, элегантный, но – ни к чему.

        Greetings!

        Vadim, everything has been said many times already:
        экраноплан не в коей мере не является кораблём - его грузоподъемность в лучшем случае, сравнима с г/п тяжелых транспортников Ан-22 и Ан-124. Тот же "Орленок" кое-как поднимал всего 20 тонн - как древний поршневой Ан-12

        the ekranoplan is just a slow and low-flying aircraft, with poor maneuverability and severe restrictions on its use (the sea surface and, in the best case, the tundra - the Central Russian Upland is too tough for him)
        1. Armata
          Armata April 23 2013 17: 46 New
          +1
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          Тот же "Орленок" кое-как поднимал всего 20 тонн - как древний поршневой Ан-12

          the ekranoplan is just a slow and low-flying aircraft, with poor maneuverability and severe restrictions on its use (the sea surface and, in the best case, the tundra - the Central Russian Upland is too tough for him)
          It is not necessary to cite for example the Eaglet. How about almost xnumx tons for looney? And do not talk about a sediment-free ship as a low-flying aircraft, simply because it looks a lot like it.
          1. Santa Fe
            Santa Fe April 25 2013 02: 03 New
            +1
            Quote: Mechanic
            How about almost xnumx tons for looney?

            Как насчет 60 тонн Ан-22 "Антей"?
            Как насчет 160 тонн для Ан-124, аналогичного по размерам "Луню"?
        2. Vadivak
          Vadivak April 23 2013 19: 04 New
          +2
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          Greetings! Vadim, everything has been said many times already:


          Hi Oleg, after a dispute with you, I thought, and how the WIG actually differs from Do X, he could climb a kilometer, but actually flew like a crocodile
    2. Armata
      Armata April 23 2013 10: 01 New
      +3
      Quote: Canep
      I think the scope of ekranoplanes is limited to inland waters, I doubt that they can be used with strong excitement. I think five points of excitement for them is the limit.
      Да ну? На испытаниях "Каспийский монстр" спокойно поднялся при 3 баллах и совершил посадку. По документам "Лунь" мог эксплуатироваться при 8 баллах.
    3. avdkrd
      avdkrd April 23 2013 11: 20 New
      +2
      экранопланы замечательно эксплуатируются при сильном волнении, кроме того они различаются по классам и самый продвинутый имеет возможность полета "по самолетному". Основная проблема их внедрения связана не с их эксплутационными недостатками, а с отсутствием необходимой инфраструктуры и к сожалению невозможностью приспособить существующую (порты и базы ВМФ). Есть еще ведомственные непонятки, так как никто, ни ВМФ ни ВВС не хочет брать лишний "геморой" на себя, так как экранопланы не имеют внятной концепции применения. Всем понятно, что скажем ракетный экраноплан может являтся ударным оружием, по мощи залпа сопоставимым с ракетным крейсером, но зона применения будет ограниченна наличием приспособленных баз. Скажем тот же крейсер можно обслуживать в любом порту (лишь бы позволяла акватория и глубина). Кроме того для ударных экранопланов нужно создавать комплес целеуказания, видимо все вместе довольно дорого. В настоящий момент действительно целесообразней развивать традиционный флот.
      It is foolish that the topic was largely closed, and taking into account the achievements of the USSR, it would be advisable to launch the series in trial operation in the interests of the Armed Forces and to work out the real use of strike and landing variants.
    4. Argon
      Argon April 23 2013 14: 04 New
      +2
      I completely disagree with you, dear Minesweeper. With an EP of its own mass equal to 360t (which is far from the limit), landing on the surface of the open sea with an excitement of 6 points is normal. Note that with an increase in the platform mass (cargo reception) seaworthiness increases, it is difficult to say to what limits, for this you need to consider a specific project. And in the river to any EP closely, you really will.
  6. Nesvet Nezar
    Nesvet Nezar April 23 2013 09: 13 New
    +1
    A niche not occupied by anyone. Finish the test and produce. Brazil, Australia, India will grab these EPs like hot cakes. We, as always, have a problem in the regulatory framework and in dug-out production. Prokhorov did not have to climb into the yo-mobile (not on the layout of the Russian YO), but invest in this technique. The exhaust from it will be frantic, in spite of doubts and criticism .... This is a powerful weapon and cheap transport ....
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak April 23 2013 21: 50 New
      +1
      Quote: Nesvet Nezarya
      Prokhorov did not have to climb into the yo-mobile (not on the layout of the Russian YO), but invest in this technique.

      That’s why, what kind of fantasies do you excuse from people? Why the hell does he need it? “Russian aluminum”, “Polyus Gold” (sold in 2013), “Intergeo”, “Quadra”, this is stupid loot, but here the production and the mobile car were empty rubble and EP in general is a state affair and means for the minds of commodity magnates overwhelming
  7. Nayhas
    Nayhas April 23 2013 09: 18 New
    +5
    Russia is a strange country. Everyone knows the example of Kalashnikov, Korolev, but few know Rostislav Aleskeyev. But this is a brilliant designer who first tore the ship from the hydrofoils, and then lifted into the air ... To understand the complexity of this topic, you need to understand that Alekseev could not use other people's developments stolen by intelligence, peeped in world practice, because no one in the world has dealt with this topic. It was easier for the same Korolev, there is a rocket of V.F. Brown, there are blueprints, there are engineers who designed and tested it, there is even a plant and a test bench, develop the theme using the support of Beria himself. And here is nothing but aerodynamics ...
    1. Alibekulu
      Alibekulu April 23 2013 11: 40 New
      +3
      Quote: Nayhas
      Alekseev could not use other people's developments stolen by intelligence, peeped in world practice, because no one in the world has dealt with this topic.


      But what about Bartini ?! request Более того приведу такой пример: " Бартини сделал доклад в сентябре 1974 года, в котором он предложил авианосцы на подводных крыльях. На скоростях 600—700 км/час шел авианосец, так что самолет мог садиться без гашения скорости. When Bartini made his report, Alekseev from Sormov refused to make his report, citing the fact that his report was worse".[ ↑ Инженер истории. Побиск Георгиевич Кузнецов С. П. Никаноров, П. Г. Кузнецов, другие авторы, альманах Восток, Выпуск: N 1\2 (25\26), январь-февраль 2005]
      In this regard, why him, i.e. Bartini in no way mentioned in the article ?! negative
      In conclusion, we note that the leading aviation scientists and designers: general designers A. N. Tupolev, V. M. Myasischev, A. I. Mikoyan, OK K. Antonov, V. M. made a great contribution to the creation of ekranoplanes in our country. Simonov, scientists of TsAGI and LII, etc.
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas April 23 2013 14: 09 New
        0
        They worked in isolation, moreover, Bartini began to deal with this topic much later.
  8. Parabelum
    Parabelum April 23 2013 09: 36 New
    0
    There was an article about ekranoplanes, here it is http://topwar.ru/21233-ekranoplan-morskoe-oruzhie-xxi-veka.html in brief you can quote:
    1. Экраноплан потребляет значительно больше топлива чем обычный самолет такого же размера. На одном "Каспийском монстре установаленно 10(!) двигателей. При этом значительно устпает последнему в радиусе действий.
    2. Comparison of an ekranoplan with a sea vessel does not make sense - built using aviation technologies, it does not look like a ship at all. Maritime transport is unparalleled in carrying capacity and cost of transportation - the ekranoplan lost all these qualities. Its carrying capacity corresponds to a conventional transport aircraft, and the cost of cargo delivery exceeds the performance of transport aircraft.
    3. The Ekranoplan does not require an airfield with a long runway. Yes, this is the first serious argument. However, due to all the above disadvantages, this only advantage does not yet provide sufficient grounds for the construction of ekranoplans. In addition, the ekranoplane is not as disinterested as they are imagined - a dry dock with all infrastructure is needed for its maintenance.
    1. vladsolo56
      vladsolo56 April 23 2013 09: 57 New
      +6
      Who wrote all of the above? You are not surprised that since the end of the 80s all the most modern developments in the Soviet Union have been blocked. Pseudo-scientists and clever people of various stripes criticized much of what was ahead of Western technology for decades, as a result of many inventions, the latest developments were destroyed. I wonder why you believe those who write that the ekranoplane eats fuel unnecessarily, and do not believe those who claim that it is much more economical than an airplane? 10 ekranoplan engines only in order to almost instantly create a screen effect and start flying without acceleration. Only two engines operate in cruising flight.
    2. Nesvet Nezar
      Nesvet Nezar April 23 2013 10: 03 New
      +1
      I’ll also add that specifically the Caspian monster is a prototype for specific tasks. Other figures for EP harrier and eaglet .....
    3. Armata
      Armata April 23 2013 10: 07 New
      +2
      Quote: Parabelum
      Экраноплан потребляет значительно больше топлива чем обычный самолет такого же размера. На одном "Каспийском монстре установаленно 10(!) двигателей. При этом значительно устпает последнему в радиусе действий.
      Only when separated from the water's edge, then, like on an ordinary airplane, only the 2 engine is operated.
      Quote: Parabelum
      Comparison of an ekranoplan with a sea vessel does not make sense - built using aviation technology, it does not look like a ship. Maritime transport is unparalleled in carrying capacity and cost of transportation - the ekranoplan lost all these qualities. Its carrying capacity corresponds to a conventional transport aircraft, and the cost of cargo delivery exceeds the performance of transport aircraft.
      That is precisely why the topic was closed. They did not understand that the ship does not have to have draft.
      1. avdkrd
        avdkrd 2 May 2013 23: 49 New
        0
        I fundamentally disagree with the thesis that the ekranoplan was created using aviation technology. Read the story of creation. The aviation approach (not to be confused with aerodynamics) was rejected immediately. All Alekseevsky ekranoplanes have excellent seaworthiness and stiffness of the hull.
        Quote: Mechanic
        That is precisely why the topic was closed. They did not understand that the ship does not have to have draft.
        - they understood perfectly and although the ekranoplan was not a ship, he had a draft.
    4. Argon
      Argon April 23 2013 14: 41 New
      +3
      Уважаемый Parabelum прошу вас,отбросить все,что вы где то узнали и просто внимательней перечитать данную статью.Согласитесь,что скорость перемещения груза весом 200-300т со скоростью 700-800 на 1000-2000км неплохо.ЭП в принципе экономичнее любого ЛА тяжелее воздуха т.к.использует для движения две силы:подъемную силу крыла и реакции приповерхностных слоев воздуха(сам экранный эффект).Все регламентные работы "Орленка" например,можно выполнять на любом пустыре длинной в 3 футбольных поля,наличие траншей и рытвин не страшно посадка-взлет без выпуска шасси.Главное рем бригаду с собой взять.
  9. Takashi
    Takashi April 23 2013 10: 07 New
    +2
    I remember I studied and the e-books were always on the table at the department head. :) :):

    I strongly disagree with the author.

    1. Despite the positive qualities of electronic warfare, they have not yet been developed by either the military or civilian. If they were cost-effective, I think from New York to Germany \ London would fly EP, and not ordinary aircraft.

    2. The author convincingly indicates that for the development of the Far East / North, it is necessary to use electronic signature. I had the seditious thought that this is another ROSPIL, or an attempt to swell money into an impossible. Even in the period of the USSR-EP did not get wide distribution, although in the economic and technical plan of the USSR it was more developed than the current RF, and much more money was swelled ..
    Развитие Арктики ЭП - это "волюнтаризм"@Кавказская пленница.

    3. Развитие Севера\Арктики необходимо проводить легкой авиацией. Средними траспортниками, строить дороги (как Китай в Тибет) и жд тоже.. Развивать вертолетостроение. Наконец, дать свободу и возможность обычному человеку -"ЛЕТАТЬ", а не пытаться решать проблему освоения вбухиванием госденег в нИКУДА.
    ----------------
    I think that the same AN-2 \ 3 (with American engines) at the cost of a Niva car will be much more economical and cost-effective than EP.
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak April 23 2013 10: 24 New
      +2
      Quote: Takashi
      Even in the period of the USSR - EPs were not widely used, although in the economic and technical plan the USSR is more developed than the current RF,


      The Union was already torn, the space program alone was worth what, tanks, planes, navy, and the EP was an expensive machine, and then its fleet or air force were not decided yet?
    2. Gahprom
      Gahprom April 23 2013 14: 45 New
      -1
      1

      this is the point, there would be economic benefits, torn off with hands
    3. Santa Fe
      Santa Fe April 23 2013 17: 01 New
      +2
      Quote: Takashi
      The development of the North \ Arctic should be carried out by light aviation.

      I totally agree




      An-74, landing on cleared ice.
      Barneo Drifting Polar Camp, North Pole
  10. leon-iv
    leon-iv April 23 2013 10: 17 New
    +3
    Chito again raised a topic about them
    Like trucks they don’t drive
    Like drummers all the more
    As lifeguards, nothing
    As a passenger, modern aviation is also more profitable.
    In general, at the moment this is a suitcase without a handle in the future, perhaps yes.
    1. Armata
      Armata April 23 2013 11: 05 New
      +1
      Quote: leon-iv
      Chito again raised a topic about them
      Like trucks they don’t drive
      Like drummers all the more
      As lifeguards, nothing
      As a passenger, modern aviation is also more profitable.
      In general, at the moment this is a suitcase without a handle in the future, perhaps yes
      Hello my friend. Now let's bet. As for the protection of the border zone, they, as drummers, have no equal. The services of a conventional surface ship will not even have time to spit out a cigarette when the ES enters the affected area. Yes, these are not trucks, but it is very normal for a landing. He walked over the coastline and didn’t even need to shoot, some corpses and cars without wheels are standing, planted to your health. But I agree with the passengers. It is not profitable, the plane is cheaper.
      1. leon-iv
        leon-iv April 23 2013 11: 45 New
        +1
        As for the protection of the border zone, they, as drummers, have no equal.

        So how is guard or how are drummers? Security needs autonomy and awareness and good seaworthiness. See FSB ships
        but it’s very normal for a landing.

        And who will cover the landing? It’s not enough to land him. He needs to provide cover and security.
        Passed over the coastline and do not even need to shoot, some corpses and cars without wheels are standing, planted on health.

        if so it was just that the adversary doesn’t sit on the shore, but equips the fortified areas and digs into the ground. Etc.
        1. Armata
          Armata April 23 2013 15: 18 New
          +1
          No need to pull out of context. It can be equipped with a shock in the area of ​​the coastline and this will be protection. And the landing force will no longer need to be after the Lun passes in 10-20 meters from the ground. There stupidly everyone will rest from the difference in pressure and sound. And fortifying areas will not help them with a pressure drop, even a concrete hopper will not help.
          1. leon-iv
            leon-iv April 23 2013 16: 42 New
            +1
            No need to pull out of context

            Yes, I do not jerk it is necessary to take reality.
            It can be equipped with a shock in the area of ​​the coastline and this will be protection.

            So it is necessary to decide what it will be, but the patrol and shock functions are poorly combined. As a coastal drummer controversial aircraft are better and more versatile
            . And the landing force will no longer need to be after the Lun passes 10-20 meters from the ground.

            It will be very necessary to cover. The problem is not how much to land, but how much to cover air defense helicopter support, Evacuation both from the depths and near the shore (these can be ekranoplans) and much more. As amphibious assault forces, they can be used, as elements of an amphibious assault, and then I am against it as well as against ordinary BDKs because they can cover both MLRS and TA and the receiver.
        2. abc_alex
          abc_alex April 23 2013 16: 12 New
          +2
          Does security need awareness? Undoubtedly. Intelligence by electronic means from a height of 1-3 kilometers is good?
          The eaglet could fly and it was tested at heights of up to a kilometer. He didn’t fly, God knows how, but no worse than a nighthock, in any case, the pilot could lead him manually.

          Seaworthiness? Of course. The seafarer Moon was 4-6 points. Few? And what patrol ship will go into the sea in a seven-point storm? And what should he do there?

          Экранолет, конечно, не потянет на себе весь оружейный комплекс сторожевого корабля, но даже с парой "металлорезок" он вполне справится с подавляющим числом нарушителей.

          Who will support the landing? This is definitely a question. Only there is one subtlety. Classic naval landing is thrown on a certain type of coastal strip. Which any normal adversary will equip. From the ekranoleta you can land an landing almost anywhere. The same Eaglet could go ashore at near zero speed, hanging almost like a helicopter. In theory (I say that because I don’t know if there were real tests), he could land on any flat surface, even on the road or flat field.
          In this regard, it can become part of a major landing operation, delivering, for example, armored vehicles to a parachute landing.

          Well, landing support is also possible with helicopters.

          Now it’s clear why the adversary can even bury until blue in the face? The trick is that when using airborne ekranolets, ANY section of the coast becomes airborne.
  11. engineer74
    engineer74 April 23 2013 10: 57 New
    +1
    I think the ekranoplanes are ahead of their time. Their main problem is that, at the moment, they are either trying to create a ship using aviation technology (very expensive), or the ship-building plane (does not fly). There were no attempts to create a specialized power plant for the EP.
    The ekranoplanes' time will come when new sources of energy are developed (ultra-high-capacity batteries, compact reactors, etc.).
    All of the above applies to civilian electronic signatures.
    IMHO
  12. Nitarius
    Nitarius April 23 2013 11: 23 New
    0
    Why not make cheap WIG for ordinary people!
    And then a lot of ambition and just not!
    There is the concept of Hover - they are hovercraft-accelerate on a regular air cushion and then fly like an WIG! Great thing!
  13. 17085
    17085 April 23 2013 11: 24 New
    +2
    Gentlemen, you are talking about ekranoplanes of rather small sizes. Yes, they are not profitable. A cargo ekranoplan with a displacement of 7.5-12 thousand tons would be beneficial. But in Russia there are no ice-free ports and this is the main problem. An ekranoplan of such a displacement needs a sufficiently large water area free of ice. In the rest of the world there are no port facilities capable of receiving them. They wouldn’t let us in there. This is another problem.
    1. Evgeny_Lev
      Evgeny_Lev April 23 2013 17: 01 New
      0
      something about the ports did not understand ((
  14. Alexey M
    Alexey M April 23 2013 11: 41 New
    +3
    Alekseev in his design bureau dozens of models for various applications, both transport and cargo and military. One Lun which cost 6 containers with cruise missiles and all this at a speed of more than 400 km and a height of up to 2,5 km. And missiles can be anti-ship. the moons will take out any aircraft-carrying group in one gulp. And the economy needs only half the engines to maintain the cruise speed to maintain cruising speed. Alekseev mounted decommissioned engines from airplanes on ekranoplanes. Modern engines are much more powerful and economical.
    1. Armata
      Armata April 23 2013 15: 21 New
      +1
      good You are right for everything 1000% But now get ready for the comments of those who defend their political convictions.
      1. Santa Fe
        Santa Fe April 23 2013 16: 47 New
        +1
        Zhenya, no offense, but I don’t agree with everyone who defends the WIG
      2. Santa Fe
        Santa Fe April 23 2013 16: 50 New
        +5
        Eugene, no offense, but I do not agree with everyone who advocates stupid goose unicorns ekranoplans

        The Yankees also tried to ride them - their verdict was in agreement with the opinion of the leadership of the Soviet Navy: the ekranoplanes sucks
        1. Armata
          Armata April 23 2013 17: 50 New
          +3
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          Eugene, no offense, but I do not agree with everyone who defends the stupid goose-unicorns of ekranoplans

          The Yankees also tried to ride them - their verdict was in agreement with the opinion of the leadership of the Soviet Navy: the ekranoplanes sucks
          Hi Oleg. Can you name the one on the photo screen? This is a stupidly planing plane and nothing more.
  15. Eric
    Eric April 23 2013 13: 57 New
    +4
    Together with the construction of highways through Russia, and the creation of a cluster of the Russian system of connecting the Far East and Europe, we also need to create a cluster of some rescue service. Where efficiency and speed will be the main factor. Looking at PMCs, contracts from the private sector and the state will be a fundamental factor for earning and maintaining infrastructure. This is a lot of money, they do not give returns immediately, but control and harmonious development are the main factor of interest. This is also the prestige of the country. If the ship travels at a speed of 31 knots, the ekranoplane flies at a speed of 500-600 km / h, promptness on the face. And again, we had transporters, it’s denyuyka for the prompt delivery of a cargo. Think guys, we are leaders in ekranoplanovoy topics. We must use this chance to good use.
  16. Gahprom
    Gahprom April 23 2013 14: 44 New
    -1
    The place of ekranoplanes in the transport system.
    no
    Areas of effective application
    there are almost none
    очень узкоспециализированное средство, "воздушная подушка" дает фору.
  17. Argon
    Argon April 23 2013 16: 42 New
    +1
    There are basically two main reasons why EPs are not widespread in the USSR: 1It is the need to develop a range of specialized aluminum and magnesium alloys, I want to emphasize not a few, but a certain range. Analogues are of course in aviation but they are too expensive and most importantly they are not resistant to the aggressive effects of the environment require additional protection (for example, anodizing), and technologically assembled aircraft structures are placed in the environment (chamber, bath), which is difficult for EP due to its size. The next aspect is fatigue characteristics. In general terms, in the union the issue was resolved at the level of management of the metallurgical industry. 2 And probably the main reason is the pulling of the blanket between the ministries of the aircraft and shipbuilding industries. Someone did not want to take unnecessary responsibility in view of the large amount of work involved in preparing the production of such a specific product .But then the MO said its word. Moreover, the warrior was interested in the trial operation in order to clarify the whole range of characteristics of a tempting platform. The Council of Ministers was ordered entrusted the production to shipbuilders, who were forced to turn to the aircraft industry for alloys, taking its rather scarce reserves, thereby creating a definite anthogonism between these two structures, which affected both the timing of the test and the timing of the tests, the pilots were the first to control it. As a result of the operation of two EF units, all military expectations were justified, a deployment program was being prepared ... but the USSR fell apart. In the 2000s, when the question arose, the remaining EFs were defective (not all of course), it turned out that most Ashin has significant corrosion damage (the use of ersatz from aviation affected) .An issue was resolved in the absence of an industry in the country that waged war.Putin proposed creating an international system for saving life at sea, based on EP of domestic design. But enlightened Europe refused, out of harm of course.
  18. Santa Fe
    Santa Fe April 23 2013 16: 45 New
    +4
    Work on ekranoplans was carried out in both superpowers. Увы, экрноплан оказался мертворожденным проектом - обмануть природу не удалось. Огромное сопротивление воздуха нивелиует все приемущества "экранного эффекта".

    В результате "чудо техники" оказалось плохим самолетом (медленный, дорогой и сложный в обслуживании, может летать только над морем) и плохим кораблём (малая грузоподъёмность, высокая стоимость перевозок)

    American ekranoplan P6M Sea Master
    1. abc_alex
      abc_alex April 23 2013 17: 00 New
      +4
      Что значит "нивелирует преимущества экранного эффекта"? Вы о чем? Экранный эффект увеличивает lift force wings. And no air resistance is an obstacle here. Thanks to this effect, multi-ton machines can fly in cruising mode with negligible thrust-weight ratio.

      Air resistance does not allow EL accelerate. Well, a plane at that altitude will also fly with the same 400-600 km / h. And in order to squeeze his 1000+ he needs to climb to 5000+.

      Well, from EL it is an apparatus for small, even very small heights!

      What in reality turned out to be a miracle of technology is difficult to say. Eaglet did not pass even the whole complex of tests. In addition, during the tests it was found out that it can take off for more than a kilometer ...
    2. Focker
      Focker April 23 2013 17: 37 New
      +1
      Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
      bad ship (light load

      Если не ошибаюсь, "КМ" по грузоподъемности уступал только Ан-225 "Мрия"!
    3. Argon
      Argon April 23 2013 20: 45 New
      +2
      Я конечно,извиняюсь но на данной фото совсем не "си мастер" а его уменьшенный дублер,"си мастера" вы показали в предыдущем комменте.А к экранопланам они имеют такое же отношение как и к автопрому.Летающая лодка должна была дополнить "орион"
      1. Zerstorer
        Zerstorer April 24 2013 10: 50 New
        0
        Argon, wait, they will now begin to compare ekranoplanes with rail.)
  19. akm8226
    akm8226 April 23 2013 19: 46 New
    +2
    I will allow myself to insert my 5 cents. Here they spoke a lot and correctly about the advantages and disadvantages of ekranoplanes. However, I would like to raise the question in a slightly different way - why was such a new technique ruined in the bud? Why was not brought at least a small installation series for comprehensive tests and verification of performance characteristics? Is it because someone from behind the hill wanted this very much? I am a design engineer and I know that not one, I emphasize - not one! - the product did not immediately go into series. Many had to be corrected and brought to mind. There were several options and often, after a comprehensive study, a product went into the series that was completely different from the first option.
    1. abc_alex
      abc_alex April 24 2013 12: 06 New
      0
      Look, WHEN the time has come to seriously fly around the same Eaglet. With the collapse of the USSR, much more understandable and familiar topics arose, not like EL.

      And then they rightly noticed that EL Alekseev suffered greatly due to the subjective factor.
  20. NAPOLEON
    NAPOLEON April 23 2013 19: 53 New
    0
    if the ekranoplan is so good then why didn’t anyone develop this idea anymore. Only prototypes. The answer is that it is more economical to transport goods by air. soldier
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak April 23 2013 21: 55 New
      +1
      Quote: NAPOLEON
      cost-effective air freight


      Sorry your imperial, but the sea is much cheaper
  21. crambol
    crambol April 23 2013 22: 03 New
    0
    The article is interesting and emotional. Unfortunately, nothing is said about the efficiency of the devices. It seems to me that not everything is so rosy in it.
  22. roial
    roial April 23 2013 22: 23 New
    +1
    I agree with crambol.
    How much fuel does this bird consume to carry 1 ton of cargo per 1 km.?
    How much does it cost to build coastal infrastructure ??
    And most importantly, FOR WHAT PURPOSES DO HE NEED ????
    In our country, they first create some HARSTER (although interesting crap) and then try to use it, somehow tailor it to the needs of the army, and not vice versa to create equipment that is suitable for the tactics and method of warfare of this particular army.
    The Jewish army is an example of this, the equipment of which was created for the needs and in accordance with their method of warfare.
    1. abc_alex
      abc_alex April 24 2013 13: 00 New
      0
      We can talk about transport efficiency only in relation to Orlenok. Lun is still a missile carrier.

      The declared practical range is 1500 km, carrying capacity 22 tons. Tank capacity 28 000 kg. If we take the air navigation reserve in 10% we get ok 1,1.

      For comparison, this power plant has the An-22 Antei transport aircraft.
      60 tons per 5000 + with 96 tons of fuel. Minus the same 10%. We get ok 1,4.

      Convinces?
      Here is another characteristic. Both cars are almost identical in landing capabilities. 200 paratroopers with equipment takes Eaglet. And 150 paratroopers Antei. True, if we are talking about simple infantry, then the capacity of the aircraft is already one and a half times more.
      1. Santa Fe
        Santa Fe April 25 2013 01: 58 New
        0
        Quote: abc_alex
        The declared practical range is 1500 km, carrying capacity 22 tons. Tank capacity 28 000 kg. If we take the air navigation reserve in 10% we get ok 1,1.

        For comparison, this power plant has the An-22 Antei transport aircraft.
        60 tons per 5000 + with 96 tons of fuel. Minus the same 10%. We get ok 1,4.


        Еще показательнее сравнение "Орленка" с Ан-12

        22 tons of fuel
        Flight range 5000 km
        Cruising speed ~ 550 km / h
        Payload (!) - 20 tons
  23. V. Ushakov
    V. Ushakov April 25 2013 04: 40 New
    0
    Экраноплан - ещё пока сырая разработка. Летит, но - может плыть, скорость больше, чем у ПЛ и надводного корабля, но меньше, чем у самолёта. Экипаж, как у самолёта, вооружение - без малого - корабельное. В доведённом до ума "изделии", неком "самолёте-корабле", могли бы помещаться 3 - 4 человека и 20 - 30 ракет средней - большой дальности, кроме всего прочего. Пара таких "изделий", при соответствующем вооружении, могла бы щёлкать как орешки не только авианосцы, но и полные авианосные группировки. Полезная штуковина, надо бы дальше разрабатывать, обкатывать, доводить до совершенства. Не надо выбрасывать на помойку хорошую идею, пригодится...
    1. Santa Fe
      Santa Fe April 25 2013 15: 04 New
      -1
      Quote: V. Ushakov
      WIG is still a crude development.

      For years 70 with this thing are worn. Hundreds of samples were built. And the result is emptiness
      Quote: V. Ushakov
      the speed is greater than that of a submarine and surface ship, but less than that of an airplane.

      Tell me directly - it makes no sense to compare it with an airplane. Speed ​​less than 3. That ship, that ekranoplan - an equally static object compared to aviation

      It can not be compared with a ship either - the payload is two orders of magnitude smaller
      Quote: V. Ushakov
      weapons - almost - ship.

      Are you kidding me?
      1. sumcream56
        sumcream56 18 June 2013 08: 42 New
        +1
        Лунь нес 6 противокорабельных ракет Москит, Хваленный корабль на воздушной каверне "Бора" ("Самум") -8 (восемь) таких ракет при большем в два раза водоизмещении и при 4,5 раза меньшей скорости хода при такой же мощности двигательной установки и при в 5 раз большем экипаже.Лунь поднимался в экрпериментальных полетах на высоту до 100 метров. На экране летал до 5-6 метров и более. То есть волна в 3-5 метров была по барабану. На таком волнении корабль на воздушной каверне "Бора" ("Самум") может двигаться только на скорости 12-20 узлов в режиме плавания.Напомню, экранопланы неуязвимы от минно-торпедного оружия. Подводные лодки против экранопланов абсолютно беззащитны. Экраноплан при оснащении его радиотеплолокаторами, обнаруживающими подводную лодку по кильватерному следу, и буксируемой гидроакустической станцией, а также торпедами и глубинными бомбами будут "щелкать" субмарины как орехи! Аэродинамическое качество Иволги-Ориона -12 П, Х-114 А.Липпиша на экране -25 ( у лучших самолетов -18) -против 15-17 ку Орленка.
  24. sumcream56
    sumcream56 18 June 2013 08: 29 New
    0
    Господа! Разработки экранопланов ворвсе не прекращены, а финансируются государством.В России создан конструктором В. Колгановым 12-местный экраноплан Эк-12 "Иволга", воспроизведен в Китае под руководством этого же В. Колганова под именем CYG-11, испытан в апреле 2013 года. Модификация "Иволги" -"Орион-12П" -экспериментальный сторожевой катер Береговой охраны Погранслужбы ФСБ России, которая создала центр экранопланостроения в России. В России создан и гражданский 24-местный экраноплан " Буревестник-24", который начал испытываться для организации круглогодичной навигации в Республике Саха-Якутии. В Южной Корее построен и прошел сертификацию 47-местный экраноплан WSH-500. построенный по лицензии немецкого конструктора Ханно Фишера -ученика А. Липпиша.И наконец в составе ВМС Ирана уже находится 3 эскадрильи 2-местных экранопланов "Барак-2"
  25. sumcream56
    sumcream56 26 June 2013 13: 38 New
    0
    The key problem of ekranoplanostroeniya is to increase energy (fuel) efficiency. If it were possible to ensure aerodynamic quality within 40 ... 50 with an acceptable level of the price of an ekranoplan (that is, about 2 times less per ton of an ekranoplan than a ton of an airplane), this transport would be unrivaled. Moreover, the most interesting is that, in terms of technical and economic efficiency, the ESKA-1 home-made ekranoplan was much better than the "Orlenka" and "Lunya", created in numerous design bureaus with huge amounts of funding and a powerful technical base. Judge for yourself:
    Modification - ESKA-1;
    Empty curb weight - 234 kg;
    Flight weight - 450 kg;
    Engine type - piston M-63;
    Power - HP 32;
    Maximum speed - 140 km / h;
    Cruising speed - 100 km / h;
    Practical range - 350 km;
    Flight height on the screen - 300-1500 mm;
    Crew - 2 person.
    При часовом расходе топлива в 8,7 кг/час, этот по сути любительский экраноплан тратил на 1 пассажиро-км максимум 32 грамма. Правило «Квадрата-куба» -при росте массы и объема транспортного средства в n раз, расход топлива уменьшается в кубическом корне от n.То есть при росте массы экраноплана в 75 раз, расход топлива составит всего 7,4 грамма против 17…18 грамм у самых лучших пассажирских самолетов.Орленок и Лунь -технологический кретинизм?Примени схему А.Липпиша или Р. Бартини "Составное крыло" (как у Иволги-Ориона ЭП-12, или их копии -китайского CYG-11 оно равно 25 при расходе топлива от 14 ло 20 грамм на пассажиро-км против 42 грамм у АН-2)были бы "конфетки"!
    Here is one way to solve problems.
    Albert Vasilievich Safronov
    Глава из книги"Вихри в упряжке"ЭКРАНОПЛАНЫ XXI ВЕКА
    Installing round volumetric skegs on the ekranoplan instead of flat washers eats quality from 32 to 27,3 units. A detailed analysis of the results of blowing aerotube models showed that the aerodynamic quality falls mainly not due to an increase in the shape resistance and friction resistance of the bulk skegs, but due to a drop in the wing lift. Falls due to an increase in the coefficient of airflow from the airbag when flowing from the sides, around round skegs, depending on the pressure under the wing. Installation of vortex tubes under the wing center section instead of round skegs eliminated leakage from under the wing. The aerodynamic quality of the ekranoplan after these changes increased from 19,9 to 30,77 units.