20 on April 1843. The Ministry of State Property issued a decree on the organization of the resettlement of peasants in connection with the development of Siberia. He regulated the resettlement of state peasants from the provinces of the European part of Russia to the Urals. According to this decree, resettlement peasants were given an irrevocable cash loan, helped to get labor tools, cattle, they were given an eight-year privilege (exemption) from taxes and duties, they even made up the arrears of their former residence. In addition, immigrants were given 15 land plots of tithes (a unit of area equal to 1,09 ha) per capita in places of settlement, benefits and exemptions from recruitment for three regular appeals were provided. This decree was a turning point in the development of Siberia. Up to this point, a significant part of the immigrants went beyond the Urals as a punishment; they were exiles and convicts. In 1845-1855 the possibility of relocation took advantage of 90,6 thousand peasants.
Of stories development of Siberia
The initial development of Siberia was reflected in the rapid advance of Russian explorers to the Pacific Ocean and the construction of strong points (forts). The development of Siberia was due to two prerequisites: (1) a treasury devastated by the Troubles and wars with external enemies required funds; 2) the presence of certain passionary groups of the population, mobile and able to occupy, retain and develop vast territories. Such a social group were the Cossacks, who gradually lost their “will” and were included in the system of “state service”; for a part of the Cossacks, it was tempting to leave the “Stone” away from the state hand. An active role in the development of Siberia was played by the black soil and posad population of the north of the Russian state (the former Novgorod land), which was traditionally associated with the Ural region.
However, the pioneers could not so effectively move and develop Siberia, if there was no state behind them. With its human and material resources, it provided a quick dash to the east. The creation of a network of jails was focused on consolidating Russian positions in the region and collecting yasak, a special tax on the native population, which was collected exclusively by fur. Garrisons and villages near them were replenished by “recruitment” and service people. The first settlers in Siberia were Cossacks, archers, gunners, who were sent here by imperial decree.
In the future, the "European" population of Siberia was replenished at the expense of the exiles, Cossack officers from Ukraine and the Don, who were "tidied" into the armed forces of the townspeople and peasants, and so on. "Lithuania" - subjects of the Commonwealth who were captured or transferred to the Russian service (residents of Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland). At the end of the 17 century, there were about 10 thousand servicemen in the Siberian region, about a third of them were from Lithuania. Gradually, local residents, primarily Tatars, became involved in the composition of service people. Since 1640's the garrisons of the Siberian towns began to be replenished due to the natural increase; men took Aboriginal women as wives, and families were created. As the situation stabilized, especially in the outposts-towns that became rear, service people, especially the Cossacks, began to shift to agricultural work.
The need to supply the garrisons with food, fodder and the organization of the fur-bearing animal industry forced the state to relocate to Siberia and the peasants. They received a decent "lift" from the treasury. For example, in 1590, the peasants of Usolsk district who resettled beyond the Urals gave the state 25 rubles. per family, another 110 rub. Zemstvo authorities added.
Some of the first settlers were runaway private peasants, as well as participants in uprisings, riots. Siberian farmers were replenished at the expense of marginal groups: former Cossacks, archers, soldiers, etc., who became "rebels", "convicts", "thieves", "traitors", "kramolniki", etc. As one governor said describing the local population: “All men are eager from different cities, all the theft of a begayuchi” (M. Lubavsky K. Review of the history of Russian colonization from ancient times to the twentieth century. M., 1996.).
Responsibility of the state for immigrants reached their personal lives. When the plowed peasants of the Kuznetsk district appealed to the sovereign, as “lonely and unmarried” people who have to do all the work not only in the field, but also at home, “send strolling little women to whom they marry,” the king immediately responded. In the diploma of sovereign Mikhail Fedorovich to the Verkhoturye military commander M. Plescheyev from 1630, it was ordered to take free-of-charge and walking people to Siberia on Vologda, Tot'ma, Ustyug Veliky and Vychegodskaya Salt, and “people serving and plowing peasants to get married 150 people of females and of girls ”(Rezun D.Ya., Shilovsky M.V. Siberia, end of XVI - beginning of XX century: frontier in the context of ethnosocial and ethnocultural processes. Novosibirsk, 2005.).
The resettlement of peasants to Siberia, not counting the fugitives, took place in two forms: 1) the transfer of peasants by "decree", when the peasants selected by local authorities together with their families were "transferred" to Siberia; 2) others were sent "on the device," at the expense of recruiting volunteers who wanted to move to new places. Both forms differed somewhat in the degree of voluntariness, but were similar in the field of assistance to the peasants in organizing resettlement from the central, local authorities of the old and new places of residence. The amount of monetary assistance ranged from 25 to 135 rubles and more. The peasants were exempted from paying taxes for a certain “time-lag” time, they were helped by food, tools, livestock, etc. As a result of government activity in this area, an independent estate of the Siberian peasantry was created at the end of the 17 century. In 1699, the number of state farmers in the region was determined in 9428 yards, and in 1719, the 105230 male souls. In 1699, a place with courtyards and serfs, this constituted 40,8% of the tax-paying population of Siberia, and in 1719, 63,8% of the total population of the region. In a similar way, the formation of the posad population of the region took place: in 1699, the 2521 yard (19,5% of the tax-paying population) and in 1719, the 13146 male shower (13,1% of the total population of Siberia).
A distinctive feature of the Russian colonization of Siberia was the fact that if the British settlers in America paid for themselves all the way, they themselves bought the necessary supplies. weapon, equipment, etc., then in Russia most people, both serving and just peasants, moved to Siberia mostly at the expense of the state. Resettlement from the very beginning was a state matter. And at the new place, the settlers were not left alone: local authorities, on the orders of Moscow, allocated to settlers considerable monetary “help”, working equipment and livestock, were exempted from taxes for some time, and provided other benefits and exemptions. The usual thing was the fact that the allocated assistance, loans were grants. Moreover, the treasury in some cases paid damages in connection with hostilities, raids of nomads, redeemed captives. Nothing of the kind was observed in America or Australia.
Another feature of the resettlement to Siberia was the fact that the development of America by Spain and England was due to the relative overpopulation of these countries, the excessive rural population. In England, there was a process of “enclosing”, which destroyed the traditional English village. Peasants from the destroyed courtyards had to go somewhere. Part of the peasants, deprived of the house and the traditional occupation, went to the colony. In the Russian state, such a population density as in Western Europe was not, it was due to the initial vastness of the Russian land, compared with other states. Therefore, the displacement of the population in the 17-19 of the century was no longer due to migration due to overcrowding, land shortages, but was the mobilization of the population to deal with matters of national importance. It was a distinctive feature of the Russian state since ancient times - military-state tasks were always in the first place. It was a matter of survival. Russia was looking for its natural boundaries. In the east it was the Pacific Ocean.
It should be noted that the theory of the “free-folk” settlement of Siberia was born in the 19 century in the midst of the liberal-revolutionary intelligentsia, which, it seemed to them, was fighting the “suffocating oppression” of the autocracy. In the Soviet period, the thesis about the driving force of the people in the settlement of Siberia found full support (Preobrazhensky A. A. Ural and Western Siberia at the end of the 16th - early 18th centuries M., 1972.). It is impossible to deny the fact that a certain number of people migrated to the region in a cursory manner, that is, secretly from the authorities, without permission. But to say that the "free-will" factor was not decisive. There is no information about this.
It is clear that at the first stage, fluent, “free”, “thieves” people played a large role in the development of Siberia (but not the main one). They were the strike force of the Yermak detachments, the Yerofei Khabarov detachment, they were the first to penetrate new, unknown lands, the first to build forts, they began to develop the region economically. “Thieves' Cossacks built and defended Albazinsky prison, there were a lot of free people in animals and fishery in Mangazei, in Yakutia. Later, especially since the time of Peter I, who maximally “screwed up the screws” in the state, the role of “free-lance” colonization has sharply decreased.
Commercial (commercial) industrial colonization played a major role in the development of Siberia. In the area of the future cities of Berezov, Surgut, Mangazeya and some other "sovereign" cities, even before their official foundation, temporary Russian commercial and industrial settlements existed. More than once, the Russian trade people came first to the places where the service people came later. If necessary, they went to military campaigns with servicemen. The number of industrialists in some years reached a very significant number: in Mangazeysky district - to 930 people (1629 year), in the Yenisei region - to 509 people (1629 year), in Central Yakutia - to 721 people (1643 year), in North-West Yakutia - up to 365 people (1642 year), in Northeastern Yakutia - up to 760 people (1645 year), etc. Only by the end of the 17 century did their numbers fall, which was due to the depletion of the fur trade and the tightening of the state rules for fur hunting and trade. Most of the Siberian industrialists were from Pomerania, a less significant number were residents of the central counties of the European part of Russia. Commercial colonization continued to exist in the 18-20 of the century, becoming more and more Siberian, that is, the proportion of Siberian natives among the fishermen was constantly growing.
The population of Siberia replenished and at the expense of the military-service class. The government sent military contingents to hold territory, built cities and put garrisons in them. Along with service people, teams of auxiliary people — carpenters, blacksmiths, mill foremen, priests, etc. — went. But in general, the number of service people, especially in comparison with the scale of Siberia, was small. So in 1699 year - only 4226 people, without serving Tatars (they were usually recruited from the local population). Part of this contingent was formed from prisoners of war from among the Poles, “Lithuania”, Germans, “Circassians”, Swedes, etc. This was not a reference in our understanding, following the example of the exiled Polish rebels of the 19 century, these people received the rank, money and grain content, as were allotted land, as well as other service people, the Cossacks. Exiled in the full sense of the word, as in the 19-20 centuries., Siberia in the 17 century did not know. This was caused by an acute shortage of human resources, and the scarcity of the material resources of local authorities played some role. There were very few exiled prisoners who were held in custody in Siberia. For the local Siberian administration, this case was extremely not profitable. There were not enough people, but here it is also necessary to support and feed the extra mouths.
Servicemen in Siberia were part of the irregular formations of the Russian state, personnel formations (they were also formed mostly from local residents) appeared only in the 18 century.
In the 17 century, the first change of geographical areas of resettlement of the Russian population also occurs. If in the first half of the century it was Pomorie, the former lands of Veliky Novgorod, then in the second half of the century - the flow of population from the Volga region, the western and southern regions of the Russian state increases.
18 century features
In the 18 century, illegal (“free-people”) resettlement to Siberia was sharply reduced. The police control of the state blocked almost all loopholes to Siberia, and the legal roads were under tight control. Yes, and a certain liberty of the local Siberian authorities was limited. In the 17 century, Siberian authorities often turned a blind eye to the status of new arrivals, were in no hurry to give out the fugitives.
In the 18 century, the government continued the policy of settling Siberia by “decree” and “appliance”. “Under the decree” they sent serfs to the recruitment duties, populated post stations and pits, which took a considerable scope after the construction and commencement of work of the Moscow postal route, the start of state-owned iron production in the Urals, Altai and Transbaikalia. At the same time, the region was also settled “on the instrument”. So are the decrees of the Senate 1734-1745, which allowed the "free" resettlement to Kyakhta people from Moscow, Kazan, Arkhangelsk regions. Even the majority of Old Believers in Siberia appeared by sovereign will. According to researcher F. F. Bolonev, only in 1764-1765. 23 consignments of Old Believers were sent to the region by 150-250 people who were withdrawn from Polish territory. They were settled in Western Transbaikalia and by the middle of the 19 century the Old Believers accounted for about 57% of the total Russian population of this territory (Bolonev F. F. Old Believers of Transbaikalia in the 18th-20th centuries). In addition, in the 18 century increased natural population growth in Siberia.
An important feature of the 18 century (and most of the 19 century) was the significant increase in the “penalty” colonization of Siberia. The appearance of a strong police apparatus under Peter I led to an increase in the number of prisoners, exiles, many of whom were sent to Siberia. Several decrees were issued that formed a wave of “penal” colonization: 1729 year - a decree on the direction of vagrants and fugitives to the soldiers or to Siberia; 1753 year - the death penalty was replaced by a reference to Siberia. In the 1760 year, they began to accept landowners, church, monastic and state peasants with their recruits set off. The peasants who were sent to Siberia instead of enrolling them in the soldiers were exempted from taxes for three years and then equated to state peasants in legal status. By 1795, the share of exiles in the population of Siberia increased to 4,1%, and by 1833, to 10,5%. From 1823 to 1865, thousands of 356 were exiled to the region.