Military Review

20 April 1843 of the year issued a decree on the organization of the resettlement of peasants in connection with the development of Siberia. From the history of the development of Siberia

36
20 April 1843 of the year issued a decree on the organization of the resettlement of peasants in connection with the development of Siberia. From the history of the development of Siberia

20 on April 1843. The Ministry of State Property issued a decree on the organization of the resettlement of peasants in connection with the development of Siberia. He regulated the resettlement of state peasants from the provinces of the European part of Russia to the Urals. According to this decree, resettlement peasants were given an irrevocable cash loan, helped to get labor tools, cattle, they were given an eight-year privilege (exemption) from taxes and duties, they even made up the arrears of their former residence. In addition, immigrants were given 15 land plots of tithes (a unit of area equal to 1,09 ha) per capita in places of settlement, benefits and exemptions from recruitment for three regular appeals were provided. This decree was a turning point in the development of Siberia. Up to this point, a significant part of the immigrants went beyond the Urals as a punishment; they were exiles and convicts. In 1845-1855 the possibility of relocation took advantage of 90,6 thousand peasants.


Of stories development of Siberia

The initial development of Siberia was reflected in the rapid advance of Russian explorers to the Pacific Ocean and the construction of strong points (forts). The development of Siberia was due to two prerequisites: (1) a treasury devastated by the Troubles and wars with external enemies required funds; 2) the presence of certain passionary groups of the population, mobile and able to occupy, retain and develop vast territories. Such a social group were the Cossacks, who gradually lost their “will” and were included in the system of “state service”; for a part of the Cossacks, it was tempting to leave the “Stone” away from the state hand. An active role in the development of Siberia was played by the black soil and posad population of the north of the Russian state (the former Novgorod land), which was traditionally associated with the Ural region.

However, the pioneers could not so effectively move and develop Siberia, if there was no state behind them. With its human and material resources, it provided a quick dash to the east. The creation of a network of jails was focused on consolidating Russian positions in the region and collecting yasak, a special tax on the native population, which was collected exclusively by fur. Garrisons and villages near them were replenished by “recruitment” and service people. The first settlers in Siberia were Cossacks, archers, gunners, who were sent here by imperial decree.

In the future, the "European" population of Siberia was replenished at the expense of the exiles, Cossack officers from Ukraine and the Don, who were "tidied" into the armed forces of the townspeople and peasants, and so on. "Lithuania" - subjects of the Commonwealth who were captured or transferred to the Russian service (residents of Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland). At the end of the 17 century, there were about 10 thousand servicemen in the Siberian region, about a third of them were from Lithuania. Gradually, local residents, primarily Tatars, became involved in the composition of service people. Since 1640's the garrisons of the Siberian towns began to be replenished due to the natural increase; men took Aboriginal women as wives, and families were created. As the situation stabilized, especially in the outposts-towns that became rear, service people, especially the Cossacks, began to shift to agricultural work.

The need to supply the garrisons with food, fodder and the organization of the fur-bearing animal industry forced the state to relocate to Siberia and the peasants. They received a decent "lift" from the treasury. For example, in 1590, the peasants of Usolsk district who resettled beyond the Urals gave the state 25 rubles. per family, another 110 rub. Zemstvo authorities added.

Some of the first settlers were runaway private peasants, as well as participants in uprisings, riots. Siberian farmers were replenished at the expense of marginal groups: former Cossacks, archers, soldiers, etc., who became "rebels", "convicts", "thieves", "traitors", "kramolniki", etc. As one governor said describing the local population: “All men are eager from different cities, all the theft of a begayuchi” (M. Lubavsky K. Review of the history of Russian colonization from ancient times to the twentieth century. M., 1996.).

Responsibility of the state for immigrants reached their personal lives. When the plowed peasants of the Kuznetsk district appealed to the sovereign, as “lonely and unmarried” people who have to do all the work not only in the field, but also at home, “send strolling little women to whom they marry,” the king immediately responded. In the diploma of sovereign Mikhail Fedorovich to the Verkhoturye military commander M. Plescheyev from 1630, it was ordered to take free-of-charge and walking people to Siberia on Vologda, Tot'ma, Ustyug Veliky and Vychegodskaya Salt, and “people serving and plowing peasants to get married 150 people of females and of girls ”(Rezun D.Ya., Shilovsky M.V. Siberia, end of XVI - beginning of XX century: frontier in the context of ethnosocial and ethnocultural processes. Novosibirsk, 2005.).

The resettlement of peasants to Siberia, not counting the fugitives, took place in two forms: 1) the transfer of peasants by "decree", when the peasants selected by local authorities together with their families were "transferred" to Siberia; 2) others were sent "on the device," at the expense of recruiting volunteers who wanted to move to new places. Both forms differed somewhat in the degree of voluntariness, but were similar in the field of assistance to the peasants in organizing resettlement from the central, local authorities of the old and new places of residence. The amount of monetary assistance ranged from 25 to 135 rubles and more. The peasants were exempted from paying taxes for a certain “time-lag” time, they were helped by food, tools, livestock, etc. As a result of government activity in this area, an independent estate of the Siberian peasantry was created at the end of the 17 century. In 1699, the number of state farmers in the region was determined in 9428 yards, and in 1719, the 105230 male souls. In 1699, a place with courtyards and serfs, this constituted 40,8% of the tax-paying population of Siberia, and in 1719, 63,8% of the total population of the region. In a similar way, the formation of the posad population of the region took place: in 1699, the 2521 yard (19,5% of the tax-paying population) and in 1719, the 13146 male shower (13,1% of the total population of Siberia).

A distinctive feature of the Russian colonization of Siberia was the fact that if the British settlers in America paid for themselves all the way, they themselves bought the necessary supplies. weapon, equipment, etc., then in Russia most people, both serving and just peasants, moved to Siberia mostly at the expense of the state. Resettlement from the very beginning was a state matter. And at the new place, the settlers were not left alone: ​​local authorities, on the orders of Moscow, allocated to settlers considerable monetary “help”, working equipment and livestock, were exempted from taxes for some time, and provided other benefits and exemptions. The usual thing was the fact that the allocated assistance, loans were grants. Moreover, the treasury in some cases paid damages in connection with hostilities, raids of nomads, redeemed captives. Nothing of the kind was observed in America or Australia.

Another feature of the resettlement to Siberia was the fact that the development of America by Spain and England was due to the relative overpopulation of these countries, the excessive rural population. In England, there was a process of “enclosing”, which destroyed the traditional English village. Peasants from the destroyed courtyards had to go somewhere. Part of the peasants, deprived of the house and the traditional occupation, went to the colony. In the Russian state, such a population density as in Western Europe was not, it was due to the initial vastness of the Russian land, compared with other states. Therefore, the displacement of the population in the 17-19 of the century was no longer due to migration due to overcrowding, land shortages, but was the mobilization of the population to deal with matters of national importance. It was a distinctive feature of the Russian state since ancient times - military-state tasks were always in the first place. It was a matter of survival. Russia was looking for its natural boundaries. In the east it was the Pacific Ocean.

It should be noted that the theory of the “free-folk” settlement of Siberia was born in the 19 century in the midst of the liberal-revolutionary intelligentsia, which, it seemed to them, was fighting the “suffocating oppression” of the autocracy. In the Soviet period, the thesis about the driving force of the people in the settlement of Siberia found full support (Preobrazhensky A. A. Ural and Western Siberia at the end of the 16th - early 18th centuries M., 1972.). It is impossible to deny the fact that a certain number of people migrated to the region in a cursory manner, that is, secretly from the authorities, without permission. But to say that the "free-will" factor was not decisive. There is no information about this.

It is clear that at the first stage, fluent, “free”, “thieves” people played a large role in the development of Siberia (but not the main one). They were the strike force of the Yermak detachments, the Yerofei Khabarov detachment, they were the first to penetrate new, unknown lands, the first to build forts, they began to develop the region economically. “Thieves' Cossacks built and defended Albazinsky prison, there were a lot of free people in animals and fishery in Mangazei, in Yakutia. Later, especially since the time of Peter I, who maximally “screwed up the screws” in the state, the role of “free-lance” colonization has sharply decreased.

Commercial (commercial) industrial colonization played a major role in the development of Siberia. In the area of ​​the future cities of Berezov, Surgut, Mangazeya and some other "sovereign" cities, even before their official foundation, temporary Russian commercial and industrial settlements existed. More than once, the Russian trade people came first to the places where the service people came later. If necessary, they went to military campaigns with servicemen. The number of industrialists in some years reached a very significant number: in Mangazeysky district - to 930 people (1629 year), in the Yenisei region - to 509 people (1629 year), in Central Yakutia - to 721 people (1643 year), in North-West Yakutia - up to 365 people (1642 year), in Northeastern Yakutia - up to 760 people (1645 year), etc. Only by the end of the 17 century did their numbers fall, which was due to the depletion of the fur trade and the tightening of the state rules for fur hunting and trade. Most of the Siberian industrialists were from Pomerania, a less significant number were residents of the central counties of the European part of Russia. Commercial colonization continued to exist in the 18-20 of the century, becoming more and more Siberian, that is, the proportion of Siberian natives among the fishermen was constantly growing.

The population of Siberia replenished and at the expense of the military-service class. The government sent military contingents to hold territory, built cities and put garrisons in them. Along with service people, teams of auxiliary people — carpenters, blacksmiths, mill foremen, priests, etc. — went. But in general, the number of service people, especially in comparison with the scale of Siberia, was small. So in 1699 year - only 4226 people, without serving Tatars (they were usually recruited from the local population). Part of this contingent was formed from prisoners of war from among the Poles, “Lithuania”, Germans, “Circassians”, Swedes, etc. This was not a reference in our understanding, following the example of the exiled Polish rebels of the 19 century, these people received the rank, money and grain content, as were allotted land, as well as other service people, the Cossacks. Exiled in the full sense of the word, as in the 19-20 centuries., Siberia in the 17 century did not know. This was caused by an acute shortage of human resources, and the scarcity of the material resources of local authorities played some role. There were very few exiled prisoners who were held in custody in Siberia. For the local Siberian administration, this case was extremely not profitable. There were not enough people, but here it is also necessary to support and feed the extra mouths.

Servicemen in Siberia were part of the irregular formations of the Russian state, personnel formations (they were also formed mostly from local residents) appeared only in the 18 century.

In the 17 century, the first change of geographical areas of resettlement of the Russian population also occurs. If in the first half of the century it was Pomorie, the former lands of Veliky Novgorod, then in the second half of the century - the flow of population from the Volga region, the western and southern regions of the Russian state increases.

18 century features

In the 18 century, illegal (“free-people”) resettlement to Siberia was sharply reduced. The police control of the state blocked almost all loopholes to Siberia, and the legal roads were under tight control. Yes, and a certain liberty of the local Siberian authorities was limited. In the 17 century, Siberian authorities often turned a blind eye to the status of new arrivals, were in no hurry to give out the fugitives.

In the 18 century, the government continued the policy of settling Siberia by “decree” and “appliance”. “Under the decree” they sent serfs to the recruitment duties, populated post stations and pits, which took a considerable scope after the construction and commencement of work of the Moscow postal route, the start of state-owned iron production in the Urals, Altai and Transbaikalia. At the same time, the region was also settled “on the instrument”. So are the decrees of the Senate 1734-1745, which allowed the "free" resettlement to Kyakhta people from Moscow, Kazan, Arkhangelsk regions. Even the majority of Old Believers in Siberia appeared by sovereign will. According to researcher F. F. Bolonev, only in 1764-1765. 23 consignments of Old Believers were sent to the region by 150-250 people who were withdrawn from Polish territory. They were settled in Western Transbaikalia and by the middle of the 19 century the Old Believers accounted for about 57% of the total Russian population of this territory (Bolonev F. F. Old Believers of Transbaikalia in the 18th-20th centuries). In addition, in the 18 century increased natural population growth in Siberia.

An important feature of the 18 century (and most of the 19 century) was the significant increase in the “penalty” colonization of Siberia. The appearance of a strong police apparatus under Peter I led to an increase in the number of prisoners, exiles, many of whom were sent to Siberia. Several decrees were issued that formed a wave of “penal” colonization: 1729 year - a decree on the direction of vagrants and fugitives to the soldiers or to Siberia; 1753 year - the death penalty was replaced by a reference to Siberia. In the 1760 year, they began to accept landowners, church, monastic and state peasants with their recruits set off. The peasants who were sent to Siberia instead of enrolling them in the soldiers were exempted from taxes for three years and then equated to state peasants in legal status. By 1795, the share of exiles in the population of Siberia increased to 4,1%, and by 1833, to 10,5%. From 1823 to 1865, thousands of 356 were exiled to the region.
Author:
36 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 April 20 2013 08: 10
    +1
    How many people were killed before we reached the places!
    1. AntonR7
      AntonR7 April 20 2013 13: 43
      +1
      and how without loss ?! with the then medicine and transport system, of course you will bend until you reach.
  2. fenix57
    fenix57 April 20 2013 08: 25
    +2
    Great RUSSIA! But there are also a huge number of officials ... They did not remember the settlement of Sakhalin. In PIKUL's novel "Hard labor" everything is said about this in a similar way (although the novel, but still). And now the Law on the Development of the Far East has come out ... There are no parallels here (by postscripts and embezzlement).
    1. Sirocco
      Sirocco April 20 2013 11: 55
      +7
      Quote: fenix57
      . And now the Law on the Development of the Far East has been issued ..

      Oh, these barbells from the State Duma have been ringing for years, about the development of Siberia and the Far East. Only for some reason, it is not developed by citizens of the Russian Federation, but citizens of China, and c. former republics cf. Of Asia. How much forest and other biological resources are barbarously cut down, killed, and transported to China in the dark. We give them a forest, and they give us pencils, rulers, and other rubbish. Really the state men from the State Duma do not give a damn about Siberia, or they live by their own interests, on the principle of the day passed and fucked with him.
  3. Pagan13
    Pagan13 April 20 2013 08: 32
    -2
    Quote: aszzz888
    How many people were killed before we reached the places!

    Huh and don't say crying
  4. omsbon
    omsbon April 20 2013 09: 04
    +7
    "The wealth of Russia will grow in Siberia" M.V. Lomonosov.
    These words are relevant to this day!
    1. Krapovy32
      Krapovy32 April 20 2013 11: 57
      +8
      Quote: omsbon
      "The wealth of Russia will grow in Siberia" M.V. Lomonosov.
      These words are relevant to this day!



      The fact of the matter is that they are dragging from Siberia and dragging, money is coming from the region and they have to beg for back. Salaries are small, doctors in small towns are sorely lacking. The mood among older people in the light of low living standards as fertile ground for different Gudkov and the like. Local mayors grab money and dump mainly in St. Petersburg and a little less often in Moscow. Work further for the good of the country, so to speak recourse If for five years nothing has changed for the better, then edro here will generally lose control over several areas. And no need to say that this cannot be, I live and see everything that happens.
      1. djon3volta
        djon3volta April 20 2013 18: 08
        -1
        Quote: Speckled32
        If for five years nothing has changed for the better

        but did something change for the better from 1991 to 2000? and then from 2000 to 2012 it suddenly got worse and worse? to mine, worse than in the 90s, no one lived if you take modern Russia for a period of 20 years.
        1. Krapovy32
          Krapovy32 April 21 2013 06: 17
          +3
          [quote = djon3volta] [quote = Krapovy32] If in five years nothing has changed for the better [/ quote]
          but did something change for the better from 1991 to 2000? and then from 2000 to 2012 it suddenly got worse and worse? to mine, worse than in the 90s, no one lived if we took modern Russia for a period of 20 years. [/ quote

          You know, many old people still live in the 90s, especially in small towns and inaccessible villages.
          1. djon3volta
            djon3volta April 21 2013 06: 57
            -7
            Quote: Speckled32
            You know, many old people still live in the 90s, especially in small towns and inaccessible villages.

            you know, under the USSR, in general, many villages were drowning in wood, but that many - EVERYTHING !!! agree? here, under Stalin or Khrushchev, how many villages were gasified? And what pensions did they pay? And what were the houses then? interviewed, went to them? you already know for all the old people I watch, as if I personally visited everyone. I got a negative report on TV and let's think about everyone like that? Maksimovskaya probably saw enough on REN TV?
            1. Krapovy32
              Krapovy32 April 21 2013 07: 40
              +2
              Quote: djon3volta
              Quote: Speckled32
              You know, many old people still live in the 90s, especially in small towns and inaccessible villages.

              you know, under the USSR, in general, many villages were drowning in wood, but that many - EVERYTHING !!! agree? here, under Stalin or Khrushchev, how many villages were gasified? And what pensions did they pay? And what were the houses then? interviewed, went to them? you already know for all the old people I watch, as if I personally visited everyone. I got a negative report on TV and let's think about everyone like that? Maksimovskaya probably saw enough on REN TV?



              Why are you so knowledgeable yourself? I live in the Irkutsk region and often travel to villages. And I see everything with my own eyes. The north of the region remained so moral in the 90s.
            2. mogus
              mogus April 21 2013 08: 01
              +5
              I live for 700 km. east of Irkutsk. I can see with my own eyes that practically nothing has changed since the 90s. Believe me, Moscow and Russia are two different states, and Moscow itself is trying to separate.
            3. Kazakh
              Kazakh April 21 2013 11: 44
              +5
              Quote: djon3volta
              you know, under the USSR, in general, many villages drowned on firewood, but that many - EVERYTHING !!! agree?
              And not a single iPhone was in the country. Your comparison is similar to those that were written during the union under the king of tractors it was not, but now it is like evon. "
    2. Sirocco
      Sirocco April 20 2013 12: 00
      +9
      Quote: omsbon
      "The wealth of Russia will grow in Siberia"

      So it grows, this wealth, only who gets richer? Obviously not the population of Siberia and the Far East. Take even the gasification of these regions, heated houses and apartments with wood and coal in the 21st century, when all of Europe sits on our gas. It's time to change this situation.
    3. mogus
      mogus April 20 2013 12: 27
      +1
      "... but neither me nor you will have to live in this wonderful time"
  5. Nikolai N
    Nikolai N April 20 2013 11: 24
    0
    Well, yes, and this time the state is doing everything to drive us from the Far East. Starting with prices and ending with the delivery of ebony And just try to say that they earn a lot in Kamchatka am
  6. Nikolai N
    Nikolai N April 20 2013 11: 24
    +6
    Well, yes, and this time the state is doing everything to drive us from the Far East. Starting with prices and ending with the delivery of ebony http://s017.radikal.ru/i430/1304/c7/141a97f32857.jpg And just try to say that they earn a lot in Kamchatka am
  7. 120352
    120352 April 20 2013 12: 13
    +9
    When they moved to Siberia and the Far East in accordance with Stolypin's reforms, each family was allocated a "Stolypin carriage". It easily accommodated the entire peasant family, and all belongings, implements and all domestic animals: horses, cows, goats, pigs, poultry. And there were no dead! People received a decent non-repayable loan with money, grain, and other planting material. The villagers were assigned to one place, so as not to destroy their ties and relations with neighbors, with whom they had previously lived in conditions of mutual support and mutual assistance. I know this not only from books. I have many acquaintances whose ancestors arrived in Siberia and the Far East under the Stolypin reform. All became prosperous peasants. I saw their houses, and now they are no worse in quality than those built in our days (there was technology, but now it is not), I saw their photographs, read their records (letters, notes, notes). Among them were not unfortunate before Khrushchev's destructive agricultural reforms. And they lived through three wars, although not without losses, and somehow survived from the commissars who tried to dispossess them (with rare exceptions): there was no "hired labor", and hired labor was an independent reason for dispossession. Families were large, they managed themselves, and who would you hire if everyone had a household, and there were no poverty or beggars, everyone lived by their own labor and mutual assistance.
    Including, the Stolypin reform turned out to be a boon to thousands of peasants and Russia and the preservation of Russian lands.
    There were attempts to organize something similar in Soviet times: Komsomolsk-on-Amur, construction projects in Siberia, Bam, but everything was somehow inconsistent, unsystematic. Therefore, few consequences of these movements have been positively developed. Today Siberia is depopulated. Whoever does not pretend to this territory! Almost nothing remained to the north of Khabarovsk in the Far East: where is the city of Okhotsk, which used to have a navigation school? What remains of the cities of Chaybukh, Gizhiga? They are simply not there! There is no state policy to preserve Russian people and lands, the need for which was still written by Lomonosov, but was heard. And now, it seems, there is no one to hear. Other priorities of the current authorities: the sacking of the country, disguised as rhetoric (but not action) on the fight against corruption. What Russia has next is not difficult to assume. From the concept of political-geographical, it will turn into a historical concept. From the history of the PAST. If nothing is done.
    1. Earthman
      Earthman April 21 2013 00: 29
      0
      Siberia was not depopulated today, it was just a stolypin that depopulated
      1. Kazakh
        Kazakh April 21 2013 11: 50
        0
        justify please
        1. Earthman
          Earthman April 21 2013 12: 10
          +1
          Quote: Kazakh
          justify please

          What are we dissatisfied with. Search for materials and read. In general, Siberia and almost all regions except islands on the oceans were populated.
          Stolypin reform was involved precisely by the settlement of Slavs in the eastern regions, Siberia, and Kazakhstan.
          The fact that he promised and threw another conversation, but precisely because of the destruction of the original lifestyle led to the famine of Siberia
    2. erg
      erg April 21 2013 02: 28
      +1
      It is interesting why General Brudberg (one of Kolchak’s associates), like his other supporters, called Stolypin settlers in their memoirs supporters of the Bolsheviks. Pointing out as the reason that many of the immigrants did not take root in Siberia, but were actually thrown by the government to their fate.
    3. SCS
      SCS April 23 2013 05: 54
      0
      Quote: 120352
      Including, the Stolypin reform turned out to be a boon to thousands of peasants and Russia and the preservation of Russian lands.
      There were attempts to organize something similar in Soviet times: Komsomolsk-on-Amur, construction projects in Siberia, Bam, but everything was somehow inconsistent, unsystematic. Therefore, few consequences of these movements have been positively developed.

      Well, what are you sculpting! if everything was so beautiful and wonderful, then tell me, what the hell did the revolution happen? think of a good life? the people were brought to the handle and there were no prospects .... !!!!!!!!
  8. mogus
    mogus April 20 2013 12: 20
    +6
    http://gnkk.ru/articles/stsenarii-razvitiya-sibiri.html

    << Siberian export
    today gives more than two
    third of all-Russian
    foreign exchange earnings >> and how does Siberia live (survive)?
    When the military unit near Chita was closed ... in general, there were such words: “the Chinese would better capture us!” - they did not give people any other work, although there were no promises. And Moscow is not rubber. He calls his relatives to the Urals ...
    Last year they talked about a state-owned company for the development of Siberia and the Far East, the amount was determined at 16,1 trillion rubles, this year they adopted a program, but already at 10,6 trillion rubles. How long does it take to get to the place after the ministry?
    It seems that it was forbidden to export "round timber", the trains went on as they went, from 10 cars: 7 round timber, 3 boards.
    We began to live better, the government said, we are happy for you, the people said.
  9. MRomanovich
    MRomanovich April 20 2013 12: 36
    +2
    The attitude of the authorities towards Eastern Siberia and the Far East is surprising. The feeling is that, since the development of these territories, a policy of restraining the overall development and, accordingly, the standard of living, has been pursued. More or less they give rise to cities, but again only to a certain level, which is obviously lower than the average for Russia. Interestingly, the southern parts of Eastern Siberia and the Far East developed without any special obstacles. Whatever you see, you don’t have to go into bookkeeping, you can see everything with the naked eye.
  10. Nikolai N
    Nikolai N April 20 2013 13: 02
    +4
    Quote: mogus
    http://gnkk.ru/articles/stsenarii-razvitiya-sibiri.html

    << Siberian export
    today gives more than two
    third of all-Russian
    foreign exchange earnings >> and how does Siberia live (survive)?
    When the military unit near Chita was closed ... in general, there were such words: “the Chinese would better capture us!” - they did not give people any other work, although there were no promises. And Moscow is not rubber. He calls his relatives to the Urals ...
    Last year they talked about a state-owned company for the development of Siberia and the Far East, the amount was determined at 16,1 trillion rubles, this year they adopted a program, but already at 10,6 trillion rubles. How long does it take to get to the place after the ministry?
    It seems that it was forbidden to export "round timber", the trains went on as they went, from 10 cars: 7 round timber, 3 boards.
    We began to live better, the government said, we are happy for you, the people said.
    You write a round. And how can fishing and processing fish be handed over to foreign companies? This is a betrayal of pure water. If the Far Eastern fish can feed the whole country. And it is in the hands of foreign bourgeois. They are engaged in processing, storage, transshipment. In South Korea, China, refrigerators in port cities grow like mushrooms (no exaggeration). In P. Kamchatsky, between the two richest seas of the world, 2 refrigerators of the 70s built. We were betrayed and sold
    1. mogus
      mogus April 20 2013 13: 11
      +2
      round timber - untreated forest, log.
      The situation with the fish: several years ago there was a noise about the fact that it is more profitable for our fishermen to hand over the catch abroad than to our port. Reason: registration at our port for several days, in Japan, a couple of hours ... Something has changed in customs?
      1. Nikolai N
        Nikolai N April 20 2013 14: 35
        0
        I know what a round is. With the fishing industry and customs, the same problem. It is not important. The main thing, as with your store
        1. mogus
          mogus April 20 2013 15: 14
          +2
          decided to close. But already I selected logisticians and manufacturers for fish from Primorye, directly, without wholesalers (intermediaries). In price it was supposed to go beyond competition. Until better times ... I hope.
  11. mogus
    mogus April 20 2013 13: 37
    +2
    still recollections, from the sad: in our village there were three attempts to open a peasant farm (peasant farming), people wanted to do meat, they took help from the state, nobody could even start the business. But two stole herds over 20 km., One is thinking about purchasing equipment for canned food. They succeeded because the state did not see how they can be helped. I have my own shop (I try not to bend prices), last year I paid (total expenses: electricity, rent, tax, PF, SES) 80 tr. in year. Since this year, 97 tr .... in Moscow this may be the norm, but it is too much with us (if on average zp 10 tr it is hard to collect a hundred people). Conclusion: let the state do not intervene?
  12. Fox
    Fox April 20 2013 15: 50
    +3
    but I’m curious, and then that there just weren’t people?!, but what about Omsk, Tobolsk, Tomsk and the SEA of other cities? Or did they live there? Some kind of clumsy story. Or did they destroy someone and then populate them? you don’t need to poison fables about Yermak. It's good to reason on 6 hundred square meters, and look at this SEA of Taiga, so even I don’t believe in fable ...
    1. Nikolai N
      Nikolai N April 20 2013 16: 25
      +1
      There was a topic about the warriors of the Chukchi
    2. mogus
      mogus April 20 2013 16: 46
      +3
      river. On the left bank is a Buryat village, on the right is Russian (I'm here). Opposite each other. Buryats are ethnic Mongols, only settled. My grandmother KARYMka (Karyms-Métis are Russians and are drilled from the first settlers). Both of my grandfathers are from villages with exiled Poles. In the north of the Chukchi, Nanai, but rarely. They are closer to the Arctic and more in the tundra. In the taiga with a deer you can’t accelerate :)
    3. ken
      ken April 20 2013 21: 22
      +3
      They were apparently all nomadic. It did not occur to these tribes to put up huts and sit in them. The Chukchi roamed with deer and after walruses and fish, children of the tundra. On the other hand, Asians, nomads walked in the annual circle, children of the steppes. Their interests did not intersect, did they even need this sea of ​​taiga? Here the Americans, or the Japanese, would of course have staged genocide there. Who among the Anglo-Saxons has the rights that other peoples had in Russia? In Russia at the age of 17 there were forty of them, there is no such thing anywhere in the world. In America, Negroes, Untermenschs, Latinos Untermenshes. In China, everything is homogeneous, there is not even a memory left, although mummies are dug up today - different tribes lived there. They would be launched into Russia, "tolerization" would flourish here, or they would all be cut out, or all would be Chinese.
  13. Scythian 35
    Scythian 35 April 20 2013 16: 53
    +5
    in 1590 the state issued 25 rubles to the peasants of the Usolsky Uyezd who were resettled outside the Urals. per family, another 110 rubles. added zemstvo authorities.

    The author of the article is poorly versed in the monetary system of Art. Then the highest dignitaries of Russia did not receive more than 16 rubles a year. A pound of bread was worth one penny !!!! And here 300 rubles to the peasant !!! laughing
    1. Earthman
      Earthman April 21 2013 00: 27
      0
      Quote: Scythian 35
      in 1590 the state issued 25 rubles to the peasants of the Usolsky Uyezd who were resettled outside the Urals. per family, another 110 rubles. added zemstvo authorities.

      The author of the article is poorly versed in the monetary system of Art. Then the highest dignitaries of Russia did not receive more than 16 rubles a year. A pound of bread was worth one penny !!!! And here 300 rubles to the peasant !!!

      and it’s time to remember how the Cossacks appeared. Was Russia far a GOOD country for its people?
  14. MRomanovich
    MRomanovich April 20 2013 17: 32
    +3
    Quote: Fox
    but I’m curious, and then that there just weren’t people?!, but what about Omsk, Tobolsk, Tomsk and the SEA of other cities? Or did they live there? Some kind of clumsy story. Or did they destroy someone and then populate them? you don’t need to poison fables about Yermak. It's good to reason on 6 hundred square meters, and look at this SEA of Taiga, so even I don’t believe in fable ...

    it is not necessary to exterminate; subjugation with further assimilation does its job. Although they could have exterminated someone rebellious, there were a great many different nations, now you won’t figure out which of them was left.
  15. ken
    ken April 20 2013 21: 10
    +3
    An interesting coincidence "that in the 19th century the settlement of Siberia took place on the eve of the abolition of serfdom. All this decade, when they settled, there was an increase in peasants' protests, which took place several a day, throughout the country, this is only where soldiers had to be used to pacify. And then Alexander, or his advisor, suggested that he send those who need land to Siberia. Do you need land? Kondybai to Siberia. Stolypin did something similar later. For Alexander, it certainly did not help, since he had to abolish serfdom all the same And Stolypin did not help, The only one who succeeded was Stalin. There people built beautiful cities, infrastructure, factories, and they settled in. Many better intelligentsia, no matter how it sounds, were given by former prisoners, exiles, all this intelligentsia, from these I didn't want to leave the cities, so we stayed there, and now of course they don't know how to escape from there.
  16. Kolya
    Kolya April 20 2013 22: 35
    +3
    modern girls want to live in metropolitan apartments with European-quality repair. Guys are like dogs around. This is the simple truth of the “unpromising” nature of the remote corners of Russia. Yes, no man will go anywhere if there is no woman there, even if there is paradise. Way out: avoiding income tax and switching to consumer tax! Regarding this topic, the owner of expensive apartments in a metropolis pays a lot, a resident of the outback pays little. Whoever consumes more pays more. Also, there is simply no more effective means of combating the division into rich and poor. What we have now: the rich live in Moscow and St. Petersburg and pay a tax percentage on wages the same as the poor rural worker, like the workers of all remote regions of Russia where life is naturally limited.
  17. washi
    washi April 20 2013 23: 04
    +6
    Kazakhs moved the capital to an area with a predominantly Russian population.
    We also need to transfer the capital to the geographic center of the Russian Federation. And the State Duma in Yakutia. To the Oymyakon area. General Staff in Yeniseisk. SRF - Magadan.
    1. Earthman
      Earthman April 21 2013 00: 23
      0
      Quote: Vasya
      Kazakhs moved the capital to an area with a predominantly Russian population.
      We also need to transfer the capital to the geographic center of the Russian Federation. And the State Duma in Yakutia. To the Oymyakon area. General Staff in Yeniseisk. SRF - Magadan.

      Vasya, don’t drive, are you again with your theories?
  18. воронов
    воронов April 20 2013 23: 24
    +4
    It’s time to transfer the capital beyond the Urals, otherwise we’ll lose the entire territory there
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny April 21 2013 13: 37
      +2
      The Russians, of course, know better where it is better for them to transfer their capital, but, in my opinion, it is time to make the capital a new city in the Urals or Siberia. Astana gave a new impetus to the development of the region, Almaty remained a cultural center. The giant construction in Kazakhstan began precisely with the transfer of the capital to the center of the republic. And if the Kazakhs were able to do this in the poor 1997, then Russia will be able to organize the transfer of the capital.
      1) The restructuring of the new capital will encourage the creation of a bunch of enterprises in various sectors of the economy;
      2) The country's logistics will improve if the capital is in the center;
      3) The level of security will increase in the case of a large-scale country;
      4) There will be a recovery in demographic flows within the country;
      5) There will be a new impetus for the development of regions;
      6) Another comfortable modern city will appear in the country instead of the provincial provincial regional center;
      7) Separatism in the regions will decrease, and there will simply be less dissatisfied.
      etc.
  19. ken
    ken April 21 2013 08: 32
    +1
    [quote = 120352] When we moved to Siberia and the Far East due to Stolypin's reforms, each family was allocated a "Stolypin carriage". I have many acquaintances whose ancestors arrived in Siberia and the Far East under the Stolypin reform. All became prosperous peasants.

    The great resettlement of a hundred million peasants to cities, this is not Stolypin. And could it be otherwise, the MTS station (machine-tractor station) cultivates as much land as tens of thousands of poor peasants with their nags will cultivate it. You correctly noticed the "well-to-do". In Russia then there were 120 million peasants, of which ten million were large landowners, twenty million of whom had their own plots of land, but they were also crushed by taxes, and survived only by the exertion of the forces of the whole family .. And there were ninety million peasants who were forced to to hire yourself to your "well-to-do", to these ten million, and twenty small owners. Everyone has these memories of a happy peasant Russia. We are all descendants of those peasants. I would not say that my Nizhny Novgorod ancestors, or ancestors on a different line were generally even cooler, but this was all utopia, for the beginning of the twentieth century.
  20. Fitter65
    Fitter65 April 22 2013 04: 12
    0
    What is instructive, already in those ancient times, from an independent speech, the Russian government sent any so-called "Lithuania" to Siberia. Can we start now while they are still independent? True, we need them here like a hare a stop signal, but still ...