Military Publishing House of the People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR SSR Moscow - 1942
“What the Red Army soldier needs to know about the German combat techniques”
The brochure is designed for a mass military reader and, by its content, includes the experience of a war veteran — the senior comrade-in-arms of the soldiers, commanders and political workers of the Red Army.
All the fighting techniques of the Germans in the war against us, from large-scale operations to individual private battles, are designed primarily to create panic and confusion in our troops.
They are trying to achieve this in the following way: in operations, by creating quantitatively and qualitatively (in terms of armaments) in individual areas superior groups of troops; in individual battles - the use of all sorts of techniques and tools, stunningly acting on the non-shot fighters.
In matters of tactics, or, more simply, in matters of conducting individual private battles to achieve the goal of stunning and panic, the enemy uses the following techniques: the advancement of infiltrating groups of machine gunners, haphazard shelling from roving mortar batteries, sudden artillery fire raids throughout the depth of our battle formations, throws tank hedgehogs.
Consider each of these tricks.
1. Machine gunners
Machine gunners are selected fascist thugs who have experience of many battles, who have undergone special training for the best use of their weapons, people bought by fascists with Hitler's awards and coupons for the right to receive after the war 100 hectares of land in the territory seized from us.
Methods of action of machine gunners in each separate type of battle are varied.
So, in a head-on fight, i.e. when the units engage each other from the march (from the march), the submachine gunmen are sent in whole batches (platoons, companies) forward to meet our troops and, using all the power of their fire, strive to turn all our forces against us so that the main the forces of German columns, hiding behind the fire of machine gunners, supported by artillery, could bypass the flanks of our troops and even go to the rear.
Commanders, who have hardly studied the enemy’s cunning reception, sometimes succumb to this provocation, introducing their main forces into the battle against small groups of machine gunners.
The enemy, as a rule, does not immediately engage machine gunners in an offensive battle. Acting cautiously, under the guise of carefully adjusted reconnaissance, supported by parts of their main forces, the enemy seeks to grope the joints of our parts, flanks, and any gaps that have formed for one reason or another.
When the enemy has achieved this goal, he engages his machine gunners. Small groups of 2-3 man, hiding behind the natural terrain masks (forest, valley, stream valley, ravine, residential buildings), separate groups of machine guns unnoticed, "quietly", one by one make their way (seeping) on the flanks and to the rear of the battle formation our troops.
The first time (sometimes this time is determined by the day), the machine gunners do not betray themselves. They occupy convenient positions (individual houses, trenches, ravines, tree tops, craters from shells) and carefully study the location of our military formations and the actions of our troops.
By the time the main forces of the enemy began their actions, this “quiet glanders” was coming to life, and our troops were suddenly subjected to a sudden fire attack by machine gunners from the flanks and rear.
The material damage from the fire of these sub-machine gunners is insignificant, they often shoot without even aiming, but they can catch up with panic on the un-gunned troops. By the way, for this purpose they use glowing explosive bullets to create more panic.
Undirected fighters as a result of such actions of enemy machine gunners, it seems that they fell into the trap, that the enemy surrounded them and that the situation is hopeless.
Experienced fighters know the real value of this random fire of the enemy and almost do not pay attention to it. Without panic, they continue to fight with the main forces of the enemy, and the destruction of high-handed submachine-gunners is provided to special groups of fighter-submachine-gunners, who, knowing the techniques and tricks of the submachine-gunners, soon and decisively destroy them.
In a defensive battle, the Germans use machine gunners to attract large forces from the attacking side.
In populated areas and in forest areas, small groups of machine gunners, using their fire to the utmost pressure, supported from the depths of mortar and artillery fire, create an impression on the advancing German defense force.
Not experienced in this trick of the Germans, the fighters and commanders often deploy their great forces against small groups of machine gunners.
This is a big mistake. Any defense of the enemy, relying on submachine gunners, must be overcome by circumventing and covering the resistance units of submachine gunners, who, cut off from their main forces, will not be able to resist for a long time. This method of defense of machine gunners must be borne in mind especially when we are fighting for human settlements. Each settlement, defended by machine gunners, is not recommended to take from the fight in the forehead, as our experience shows. A settlement defended by machine gunners must be covered and surrounded by troops in order to cut off machine gunners from its main forces.
Under conditions of normal defense, the enemy uses machine gunners to break up the combat order of the attacker. This is achieved by the fact that inside the defense in well-hidden places the enemy leaves separate groups of machine gunners. These groups are hiding in separate trenches, carefully masked by covers (flaps) from above, like hiding firing points (in separate houses, on trees, etc.).
At the time of the onset of our troops, these machine gunners are dead on their points. But as soon as our troops, attacking the enemy, penetrate into the depth of his defense and pass by these hiding machine gunners, the latter suddenly come to life, get out of their shelters and open fire to the rear (back of the head) at our advancing troops. They shoot, as a rule, with tracer and explosive bullets, trying to create an impression among our troops about the scope and surroundings from the rear.
This cunning trick of the enemy makes a great impression on inexperienced fighters and commanders. The fighters and commanders, fired upon, do not go for such a trick of the enemy and perform their main task, knowing well and knowing that in reality there is no environment and coverage, and only some German machine gunners remained in the rear.
In all cases and in all types of combat, machine gunners are liquidated, as already noted above, by groups of fighters. Each group of fighters is 2-3 of experienced Red Army soldiers armed with rifles or machine guns whose main task is to detect enemy submachine guns and destroy them.
“Hunting for machine gunners” is done in the same way as hunting for black grouse or wood grouse. There are such birds - black grouse and wood grouse, which differ from all other birds in that in the spring, and sometimes in the fall, they tok (sing). Hunters know that black grouse and wood-grouse are very cautious birds and they will not allow themselves close to themselves under normal conditions.
But when the black grouse or wood grouse talks, he is so keen on his song that during his singing he sees no one and hears nothing. When he finishes singing, he is alarmed all over, pulls up his neck, turns his head in all directions and, with tension, tracks down if there is no enemy nearby. Making sure that there is no danger, the black grouse or wood grouse continues to sing his song — to flow. And again she sings with intoxication, with selflessness. Knowing the similar nature of these birds, the hunters came up with a way to get them (kill). The hunter goes to the forest, not knowing where the wood grouse or black grouse sings. He only knows that in this forest, where he goes, wood grouses and black grouse are found.
With a gun behind his shoulders, in a calm, even step, the hunter goes deep into the forest. At times he stops and listens. Everything is quiet. In addition to the noise of the tops of the pines, the hunter does not hear anything. He continues to walk, stops again, and again everything is quiet. He goes further. Suddenly a grouse or wood grouse comes to his hearing. The hunter stops and freezes. A few minutes pass, sometimes weary and long. Grouse starts the song again. The hunter froze again, alert. An experienced ear determines the direction where the black grouse sings. The hunter changes direction and goes to the sound of the song. The grouse fell silent. The hunter stood tensely, waiting. Teterv sings again. The hunter is convinced that he has correctly determined the direction. It speeds up the steps and goes in the direction where the black grouse or wood grouse goes. He is getting closer and closer. The song is becoming clearer and more definite.
In the intervals between the singing of the bird, the hunter freezes and waits, but when the black grouse or wood grouse sings, the hunter runs straight, straining all his strength, and runs as fast as possible to the sound of the song. The hunter does not see the black grouse, but he has already determined his exact direction. It's all about who outsmarts whom. Grouse sings - the hunter runs. Grouse pauses - the hunter freezes. This continues until the hunter sees the black grouse.
But here the hunter saw the bird. Stretching his neck, covering his eyes, the black grouse is poured. The hunter takes off his gun, cocks the trigger and comes even closer to his target.
Here he is almost at a distance of a sure shot. But the black grouse suddenly fell silent, as if he felt the danger. The hunter waits with bated breath. Wait a minute, another, wait a few minutes. Minutes last painfully long and seem long-long. Grouse nervously tosses his head, glaring his eyes into the surrounding space. He seemed to be looking for an enemy, but the hunter stopped. He held his breath, fingers digging into the butt of his gun. He hears the beat of his heart. Who who, who has more exposure? An experienced hunter always wins. At the critical moment he does not give himself away. Grouse calms down and starts singing again. There is nothing more to wait for. The hunter throws up his gun, pulls the triggers. Shots. Grouse killed.
In the hunt for machine gunners, the techniques of hunting for black grouse and wood-grouse are used. The fighter group of machine gunners, knowing the area where enemy machine gunners operate, goes in the direction of their probable location.
The group goes, sometimes stops and listens. And suddenly the enemy's machine gun spoke. The group strains hearing, freezes, determines the direction of firing of machine gunners. "For me, go ahead!" - commanded by the head of the group. Fighters run to the shot-gunner German. The submachine gunner shot the line and went silent. The head of the group raises his hand, This means: attention, silence! The fighters froze, held their breath. No movement and noise. Waiting for the new line - the fire of the machine gunner. A fascist machine gunner after each turn of shots, during which he hears nothing and does not see, except for the purpose he is shooting at, looks around like a black grouse after his songs, looking around and looking for the enemy. Fighters are silent and do not reveal themselves. The gunner calms down and opens fire again. Fighters in full swing go to a rapprochement with a machine gun. They still do not see him, but they have already determined his direction and go straight to the target.
This rapprochement goes by jumps (throws). For some period of time the machine gunner shoots, the fighters approach him. The machine gunner stops firing, the fighters freeze and wait. Finally, they discover a machine gunner. Two or three more lines of the machine gunner, and fighters surround him. Finally, the last line of the German machine gunner, and our fighters shoot the fascist or capture him.
Such work of fighters, as a rule, fully justifies itself. So, during the battles of our units near Novosel and Kholm, in September 1941, the fighter groups destroyed: on the first day, 26 machine gunners, on the second day, 18, on the third day, 12, on the fourth and fifth day, according to 6, in the sixth, 4 . From the seventh day all the German machine gunners left our site to the rear.
Any other methods of combat with machine gunners, which we have used so far, have not given such results.
Later, in each company, we created several extermination groups of 3 people in each.
Mortars are the main melee weapons of the Germans. In the production of mortar is simple and cheap. His shells - mines - are made easily and quickly. Handling a mortar does not require much training.
According to the captured Germans, each infantry company has a platoon of light mines.
Comrade Each battalion has a company of medium or heavy mortars.
The Germans use mortars primarily to sow panic and confusion among enemy troops.
This is proved, firstly, by the fact that the Germans, as a rule, conduct unsystematic mortar fire, besprilelny, in areas; secondly, by the fact that they use howling mines, about which our troops say: “Howling tantrums, like Hitler himself”; thirdly, the Germans, trying to create the impression that the mortars they "apparently-invisible," used wandering mortars, i.e. mortars quickly transferred from one site to another.
The enemy carefully masks his mortars, hides them under the foundations of houses, in ravines, in stone buildings.
How to overcome the mortar fire of the enemy? Here, first of all, we must remember the proverb: "A coward himself goes to his death."
The greatest misfortune will be when the unit that came under fire from the mortars begins to scatter: here every fragment of a mine will find a goal, and the proverb will be completely justified.
Victory should be considered such a situation when the troops that came under fire will cover for cover (in the trenches, crevices, trees, houses). Losses from mines in this case are significantly less.
The best means of countering the enemy’s mortar fire must be considered to be the rapidly rapprochement of our troops with the enemy. Simply put, a mortar hits you, and you run towards the enemy for battle.
The mortar does not give accurate shooting, but at large distances it gives a large dispersion. When our troops, who fell under enemy mortar fire, approach enemy forces on 150, on 100, the Germans stop the mortar attack, they stop because they are afraid to hit their troops at the same time. This is proved by numerous fights, and an experienced fighter from his experience can confirm this to a young fighter.
For the destruction of enemy mortars, night actions of small groups of fighters should be used, preferably volunteers who destroy or capture mortar batteries and the Germans serving them with a sudden blow from the rear.
The artillery of the Germans in quality and training of gunners is significantly inferior to our artillery. No wonder the Germans have an order: do not take Russian artillerymen into captivity. The Russian artillerymen have painfully crushed them!
The Germans rarely use the full power of artillery fire. This is primarily due to the fact that the artillery that has fallen far from its rear areas replenishes its ammunition with great difficulty; the Germans are saving shells. However, in some cases, in order to create a panic, the Germans used artillery attacks throughout the depth of our military formations.
This technique is especially used by them when they know that new, unfired parts are standing against them. In this case, the Germans suddenly unexpectedly (having previously been shot with separate guns) open fire simultaneously on the front edge, at headquarters and rear areas. At the same time, machine gunners open fire on the whole front. It seems that the Germans are putting into battle all their forces.
Seasoned, fired troops know this trick of the Germans and sit quietly in the trenches and dugouts, so that any attempt to attack the enemy to meet an organized counter-strike their fire and manpower.
In order to force the Germans to make raids in vain, our units must widely use the device of false positions, trenches and batteries.
At one of our sites, we built such positions and use nomadic guns, which make several shots from different areas. It pays off. The Germans fall asleep hundreds of shells several times a day, but they do not know the real positions.
4. Tank hedgehogs
A tank hedgehog is a tank, a mortar group, an anti-tank gun and some infantry. The Germans use a tank hedgehog for the same purpose - to cause panic among the unstripped troops and create the appearance that large forces of Germans are operating against these troops.
When the Germans make a march (movement), in front of their columns they throw out a group of infantry, a tank, several mortars and a gun attached to the tank.
There are several such groups (hedgehogs) in the head of their column. As soon as the enemy encounters our parts, he immediately throws his hedgehogs forward. In the eyes of our troops, several tanks appear, guns are firing because of them, mortars are near, and machine gunners are ahead or aside.
At first glance, it seems that great forces approached the enemy. Experienced and experienced fighters and commanders are not lost when meeting with hedgehogs. Fighters burn tanks, bombard them with flammable liquid bottles, and undermine them with anti-tank grenades.
The infantry organizes due repulse to the machine gunners; gunners beat on guns and mortars.
The first sign that we are not the main forces of the enemy, but separate groups of hedgehogs, is that after the shooting of one or two tanks, the others leave the battlefield and are no longer shown.
Experienced fighters and commanders of our army all these clever tricks (inventions) of the enemy are known, and the enemy’s calculation of panic and stunned by these tricks is not justified.
Young, undeflected fighters should know all these actions of the Germans in order not to give in to panic and to respond to every enemy’s trick in the way their comrades, already hardened in battles, respond.
And it will be a short time, and by participating in the battles, they will come up with more new methods of counteracting all the tricks of the enemy - such methods that the old people will learn from them. Every art is achieved by practice, but our practice is large, continuous.
5. Tank groups
The use of tanks in battles in groups is the main combat reception of the Germans. This is due to two reasons.
The first reason is that by introducing at the same time a large number of tanks into battle, the Germans, as always, and by all other means, strive to sow panic among untrodden fighters.
The second reason is that the German infantry is afraid to act on their own. In our practice, there is almost no case during the current war, when the German infantry went on the attack against our infantry without tanks and aviation. And only when the Germans succeed in violating the military formations of our troops using a large number of aircraft and tanks, the German infantry is capable of decisive struggle.
The appearance of a large number of tanks on the battlefield at once on an undetermined fighter really makes a strong impression, and even causes the first fear. This is because the unexploited fighters have not yet seen how these very groups of tanks turn into piles of ruins and burnt scrap, when German tanks enter organized defense sectors, in which the main role in the fight against tanks is played by the infantry itself.
The fired fighters know that the devil is not so terrible as he is painted. They know that observation from the tank is bad. Every bush, any hillock restricts the observation of German tankers and prevents them from conducting aimed fire at our fighters.
They know that not every terrain is passable for tanks. For example, snow thickness 70-80 centimeters delayed, and sometimes even stops the tank, bringing it down completely.
This is because the snow is packed between the tracks leading and supporting the tracks of the tracks. From the friction of the tracks on the rollers the snow begins to thaw. When the tank turns, a new layer of snow begins to stick to the thawed snow. Caterpillars incredibly stretched, and creates additional resistance to the motor, pulling so sharply stretched caterpillar. The advancement of the tank slows down, and with large marches in the snow there are often cases when the caterpillar falls off the rinks or even bursts.
The snow cover hides targets and anti-tank natural and artificial obstacles, ravines, hollows, cellars, deep holes, marshy areas that often do not freeze under the snow from the eyes of the tankman. This also benefits us in the fight against enemy tanks.
In winter, tanks can often only walk on roads. This facilitates the organization of the fight against tanks, because you can know in advance where to expect their appearance, and prepare for their destruction.
In winter, in cold weather, the engines of tanks cool quickly, and although the radiator of tank engines is filled with a special non-freezing liquid, the oil, which lubricates the engine, hardens in the cooled engine. If you keep the oil frozen for a long time, you will not start the motor; therefore, from time to time tankers in winter must warm up the engine in order to prevent the oil from freezing.
A running motor is audible over long distances. This helps us to determine in advance where the enemy tanks are in their original and covered positions.
A great role for the timely detection of tanks, of course, should be played by their intelligence. Exploration must be conducted in three ways:
1. To appoint hearers, who are only engaged in that, that they overhear in which direction the engines of the enemy tanks are buzzing.
2. To set up observation posts that should timely detect the appearance of enemy tanks and give a signal to the troops.
3. Scout the location of enemy tanks with specially sent groups.
In addition to the natural obstacles to tanks, which creates a snow cover, in winter, the device of artificial anti-tank obstacles is greatly facilitated. For example, it is easy to make a shaft of snow, and if you still pour it with water, which freezes, a completely insurmountable obstacle is created for tanks.
A number of obstacles are built against tanks in all conditions and at all times of the year: anti-tank ditches, traps, wooden heads, iron, concrete, granite, minefields, etc. But even where there are no anti-tank obstacles, the German tanks, experienced in the battles of the Red Army, will not go through the battle formations.
What should I do to not miss the German tanks?
In order not to let the German tanks through their battle formations, it is necessary:
1. Timely detect the appearance of tanks, which, as mentioned above, makes intelligence.
2. To use against the enemy tanks the terrible means for them that our troops have.
What is the means?
1. Anti-tank grenades.
2. Bottles with flammable liquid.
3. Anti-tank rifles.
4. Anti-tank mines.
5. Artillery of all types and designs.
6. Our tanks.
6. Fighter squads
To fight the enemy tanks, infantry creates special fighter units. Tank destroyers are the most courageous and determined fighters. Their armament is the simplest and easiest: anti-tank grenades and bottles of flammable liquid.
Each infantry battalion must have its own fighter units.
The detachment’s methods of operation: in pairs (2 man), fighters occupy parts of the terrain where enemy tanks appear most likely (along roads, in open glades, on ravines easily accessible to tanks, through which tanks can make their way unnoticed).
Fighting friends - a pair of fighters - burrow into the ground. They pull out small trenches - two round holes with a depth of 1 meter, with a diameter of up to 3 meter. In one of the walls of the hole, they tear out a small niche in which they put bottles of flammable liquid and grenades. The wells interconnect with each other by the progress of the message; in the course of the message, the platforms to which the carbines or rifles are put off come to the right and left.
The depth of the hole is determined by the fact that the fighter sitting in it, standing at the approach of the enemy, could freely swing his hand and throw a grenade or a bottle of fuel.
Fighting combat friends build their trenches (dimples) at a distance of one meter from each other 1. If you look from above, you get something like two chain links connected by a jumper.
The fighters are located in pairs, because they are around the clock and rest in turns in these one (holes): one is on duty, the other is resting. The duty officer is watching the appearance of enemy tanks. As soon as the soldiers noticed the enemy tank that had appeared, they were made for battle. Eyes - on the enemy, in the hands of one - a grenade, the other - the bottle. The tank is approaching, both fighters are closely watching the progress of the tank. Tank closer and closer ... Fighters bend down. A few more seconds - and the tank a few meters from the fighters.
- It's time! Grenades! - commands the first. The second deftly throws a grenade under the tracks. Both bend down. Explosion!
You must take shelter, otherwise you may be wounded by a fragment of your grenade. If the tank continues to move, the fighters wait a few seconds while the tank leaves.
children on the line of the hole. The hum of the engine and the ringing slapping of the caterpillars suggest that the tank is already on the line of the hole.
- Bottles! - commanded by a fighter.
Again a clever wave of the hand, - the sound of broken glass, the liquid flows around the tank, flashes, and the tank burns. Burning fluid penetrates the gap. The crew of the tank opens the hatches to jump out of the tank.
- The fire! - commanded by a fighter.
Fighting friends take rifles, and each German gets out of the tank is shot.
Since the fighter groups are located throughout the depth of the military order, each enemy tank will encounter these fighter groups on its way and will be destroyed by them.
Regardless of the presence of fighter groups in battalions, fighter groups must be in every platoon, in every company. In addition, every infantryman, from the Red Army man to the commander and political worker, must also be able to use bottles with flammable liquid and anti-tank grenades. They act against enemy tanks in the same way as fighters from their trenches in defensive combat and because of the nearest shelters (trees, craters from shells, houses, stumps) in offensive combat.
Fighter battalion groups and companies with great success can and should be used for sabotage actions against enemy tanks and tank groups. Whenever reconnaissance establishes that enemy tanks are located in a particular area or point, fighter groups should be sent to destroy these tanks by order of the senior commanders. They are escorted and guided by scouts who have discovered enemy tanks.
At night, hiding in approaches, ravines, bushes, and forests that were previously reconnoitered by the scout, fighters go to the enemy tanks. The closer to the tanks, the more cautious. Where it is necessary - they crawl, are selected from the flanks and rear, creep close.
The signal of the head of the group - dozens of grenades and bottles are flying at the enemy tanks. Following the anti-tank grenades and fighter jets throwing hand grenades. Tanks light up, the enemy panic, the crews are running. On the running Germans opens fire from rifles and machine guns.
Making sure that the task is completed, the fighters crumble and after some time gather in a pre-arranged place, after which they return to their unit.
With great success for the destruction of tanks can and should be used sappers. Weapons of fighter-sappers - anti-tank mines, anti-tank grenades, bottles of flammable liquid in the covers.
Fighter demining squad occupies a sheltered part of the terrain, where the appearance of enemy tanks is possible. He does not give himself away until the tanks appeared. He is ready at any moment to transfer to another area where enemy tanks may appear.
But then came the moment when the engines of the enemy tanks, which are getting closer and closer, buzzed. Fighter sappers go to the noise of crawling tanks, go hidden, disguised by all possible means (hiding between individual trees, crawling through the bushes, run across the ravines).
The distance between them and the tanks is reduced. A few more minutes - and the fighters see the enemy tanks that have appeared. Now it's time to act.
- Mines! - the fighter squad leader signals.
The sappers cut the way to the tanks and quickly scatter their mines along the way of their movement. This is done almost under the nose of the enemy.
- Get down! - gives the next signal to the head of the fighter squad.
Sappers fighters are pressed to the ground; hiding behind the first sheltering items (trees, individual houses, sheds), they are prepared for battle and await the approach of tanks closely.
As soon as the enemy’s tanks approach the distance from which it is possible to throw grenades and bottles of flammable liquid, the sappers storm the tanks, throwing grenades and bottles at them and shooting German tankers running from the tanks.
Regardless of the fact that against the enemy tanks, active means of combat are used, such as anti-tank mines, grenades and bottles of flammable liquid, all Red Army soldiers should fire on them with rifles upon the appearance of enemy tanks. Of course, rifle bullets do not pierce armor of tanks, but individual bullets can get into the inspection cracks and hit tankers. Bullets trapped in the observation glass of the tanks, break them and blind the tankers.
In addition, the bullets that hit the tank, drumming on the armor. The crew of the tank does not know that it hits the armor, but he feels that the tank is under fire. German tankers are lost, nervous, shooting start badly, and sometimes even, not the names of defeats, get out of battle.
It goes without saying that all machine guns, both manual and mounted, must fire at suitable enemy tanks.
Anti-tank rifles, which are in service with our infantry, are the most formidable infantry weapons for the destruction of German tanks. By device and handling, they are unusually simple, they are transferred and change their positions easily, and their penetrating strength in the armor of enemy tanks is so great that any German tank from a distance from 600 meters and closer penetrates.
It is more expedient for the anti-tank rifles to be located by the main mass closer to the front edge in order to stop the enemy’s tanks, preventing them from breaking into our battle formations. Some of these guns must be positioned in depth in order to destroy the enemy tanks that have broken through. Experience has shown that two thirds of anti-tank guns should be positioned at the front edge and one third in depth. This is the most correct distribution of these weapons.
Every fighter of the Red Army should know that enemy tanks, especially with their large numbers, can break through to the rear. In this case, not a single fighter should move back, but let these tanks pass by him, because they will be destroyed in depth by all types of artillery and fighters of the second echelons of battle formations. Here, as nowhere else, the proverb applies: "A coward runs to death." Why? Because when a fighter lies in a trench or even just on the ground, a tank passing by him cannot shoot him; he cannot heal and shoot at the ground in front of him.
Another thing, if the men jumped out of the trenches and ran in front of the tanks. There is no need for German tankmen to target. The shooter will press the trigger of the machine gun, and streams of bullets will fly along the treadmill. A full-length person is a good target.
7. Fighting our tanks with enemy tanks
In the struggle of our tanks with enemy tanks, the following features of the actions of German tanks must be considered:
2) actions from ambushes;
3) workarounds and sweeps.
The most favorite method of action of enemy tanks is a way of luring into artillery ambushes.
The Germans act like this: in certain areas or areas of the terrain they concentrate a large number of artillery and, above all, anti-tank artillery.
We know that lately the Germans have been using automatic 85-mm cannons, anti-aircraft, ie, anti-tank artillery, as anti-tank artillery. such guns that can be used to fight both against aviation and against tanks, and the transition from one combat position to another (from firing at aviation to firing at tanks) takes place within 2-3 minutes.
"Flak-canon", as the Germans call these guns, they appeared only a few months ago. These guns have a very large initial speed (up to 1 300 meters per second), a large penetrating power of the projectile, and the most projectile for this gun is an armor-piercing incendiary.
Light types of tanks (T-26, BT) and even medium types of tanks (T-34, English "Vikkersy") make their way through these shells easily. And not only make their way, but also set on fire. The only tank that can withstand these shells is the pride of our tank army, land battleship KV.
Taking advantage of the presence of such anti-tank guns, the Germans strive to take our tanks out of action, failing them under the blows of a covered battery of these guns.
Actions from ambushes in recent times more and more practiced by German tank crews. The essence of these actions is that the Germans do not show our tank crews of their main grouping, but send separate small tank groups against them. These tank groups for a long time patiently loom before the eyes of our tankers, without getting involved with them in a decisive battle.
Sometimes it lasts for several days. Meanwhile, the main enemy tank groups lurked behind the nearest shelters (on the forest edges, in the bushes, behind the houses of the villages) and wait patiently when they succeed in provoking our tankers to take part in a premature action.
Inexperienced tankers sometimes succumb to this provocation, and, watching for some time the same small number of German tanks, decide to destroy them with active actions. But as soon as they organize the pursuit of individual groups of enemy tanks and get carried away by this pursuit, they stumble upon enemy tanks in ambush and suffer great losses from them.
To prevent such a trick of the Germans from succeeding, tankers must carefully scout the real state of the enemy and the grouping of enemy tanks, using all means for this: tank reconnaissance and infantry, aircraft and agents, and check these data by sending special intelligence agents from you.
Circumventing and covering attacks of German tanks against our tanks are used by the Germans whenever they have quantitative superiority, i.e. when their tanks are bigger than ours. In this case, the Germans are holding down our tanks with a small number of tanks (attracting attention), and sending the bulk of their tanks to bypass or reach from the flanks and the rear, in order to unexpectedly attack our tanks.
Seasoned tankers know this reception of the Germans; they do not rush headlong after the enemy’s first tanks, but, on the contrary, force the German tanks to attack them, waiting for the Germans themselves, hiding behind the shelter. As soon as the German tanks approach our tanks on the right shots, our tankers with all the power of their artillery fire fall on the enemy tanks, and then one of our tanks destroys several enemy tanks.
So our tankers acted near Leningrad, so did the tankers of our First Guards Tank Brigade. The Germans failed to lure them into an artillery ambush! No matter how hard they tried to cheat, they did not outwit our tankers.
Several times they repeated their technique - to lure our tanks into an ambush under artillery fire - and they did not succumb to this trick. On the contrary, they hid in the woods behind the houses and waited patiently for the German tanks to come close to them. Finally, the patience of the Germans broke, and they attacked our tanks with bitterness. Our tankers, using German ambush against the Germans, shot the Germans from behind shelters with part of the tanks, and then, when the Germans began to run in panic, the other part of the tanks suddenly fell in pursuit of the Germans and across the flanks. The losses of the Germans in these battles were enormous.
With well-established intelligence our tankers will always be a success. It is advisable that the tanks of the chilling group were buried in the ground, which significantly reduces their losses from enemy fire.
Tanks should be built for their tanks so that the entrance and exit are free and do not overstretch the engine and the load on the transmission system.
German aircraft are the main weapons they use to support their combat missions. Using their aircraft against our troops, the Germans first of all seek from it, as well as from other types of weapons, moral influence on the unstripped troops with the intention of making a panic, make them flinch.
Almost all types of German aircraft, and especially fighter and assault aircraft, are designed to give our fighters their appearance, not only by their actions, but also by the impact on the morale of the unstripped fighter.
Old soldiers of our army, hardened in battles, say about German aircraft: “They howl with wolves, scare the lambs”. Indeed, they can be identified from afar by a characteristic squeal and howl.
In the combat work of their aircraft, the Germans use techniques designed primarily to intimidate fighters.
These techniques include diving from low altitudes. The plane flies down at the fighters, and it seems that bombs or machine-gun fire are about to fall on the battle formations. German assault planes go at very low altitudes ("scratching" over their heads), firing without any system and aiming with tracer and explosive bullets to intimidate more.
The old, experienced fighters have studied well all the methods of combat work of the German aircraft and every flight of German aircraft is met with a proper rebuff.
What to do when a German air raid?
1. Do not leave their places (in the trenches or shelters): any attempt to run across the field during a raid of enemy aircraft is death. Fragments of bombs have a large scatter, if you run - you will fall under a fragment.
If shelling machine guns from German aircraft almost never hit lying fighters, then among running cowards there will always be a lot of casualties.
2. With the height of the flight of enemy aircraft to 500 meters, conduct organized fire from rifles and machine guns, and on low-flying aircraft - from automatic weapons. Firing your weapon on the plane, you need to remember that the plane is going to
high speed, and therefore when firing it is necessary to take preemption in the direction of the flight of the enemy aircraft.
If the plane goes sideways, to the right or left of the shooters, the aiming point must be carried out in the direction of its movement, so that the released bullets cross the plane's path at the moment when it passes this point.
Need to shoot with a leash. Hunters know what it means to shoot with a leash: first aim at the head of the flying game, and then lead the barrel in the direction of its flight, ahead of the flying game, and then make a shot in such a way that until the bullet reaches the bird that is being shot, the bird is like once ran into this bullet.
The magnitude of such a lead depends on the distance to the aircraft and on the speed of its movement. It is determined and deposited on the eye in visible dimensions of the target itself along the fuselage length - in the aircraft hulls.
The magnitude of the pre-emptions is
Distance to target in meters
What anticipation (in the aircraft hulls) must be taken
This kind of shooting with a leash should be used when shooting at enemy planes flying to the side - right or left. First aim at the head of the aircraft, then lead the sighting line in the direction of flight, the plane, ahead on as many aircraft hulls as necessary for this type of aircraft. Making a lead, make a shot.
If the plane flies on the shooter, you must aim straight at the propeller so that the bullet hits the engine or the propeller. If the plane flies from the shooter, you must aim at the tail. When flying an aircraft at an altitude of up to 500 meters, shooting is carried out with a sight.
3. The sight must be mounted on the weapon in advance.
The greatest success in the shooting of infantry at an enemy aircraft will be where this shooting is conducted in an organized manner - in salvoes.
In general, one must directly say that knocking down an enemy plane with rifle fire is difficult, but not impossible. From the experience of the current war, many examples can be cited when German planes were shot down by rifles and machine guns. If you shoot tracer bullets on a German plane, this will give even greater results, because the flight of tracer bullets (trajectory) is German.
The cue pilot observes, and seeing around a sheaf of lightning flying bullets, he naturally begins to climb and rises higher and higher.
It is clear that the higher the German plane will fly, the less likely it is to have bombs hit the target. Most often he will, throw them with a lot of dispersion, over a large area and in vain.
From my practice I can give you an example. In the battles for Shtepovka and Apollo-Novka in September 1941, at first we were very often bombed and fired upon German aircraft, and at first the fighters, not believing in the success of firing German aircraft with their weapons, greeted them silently.
The German pilots, not meeting any resistance from the ground, reached such impudence that they descended over our battle formations to 100-80 meters and fired at them with machine guns, causing a lot of casualties.
Having mastered the raids of the fascist aircraft, our troops first, one by one, and then with platoons and companies, began to meet the German vultures with their machine guns and rifles with volleys.
And what? German planes immediately began to climb, and after several shelling, not a single German plane descended below 2000 meters. And at such a height from a machine gun, he can not fire, and if he shoots, then to no avail, only for panic. Yes, and bombing from a height 2000 meters is not easy.
Below the Apollonovka village, German planes from the height of 2000-2500, in large batches, threw a lot of bombs according to our battle formations, and we thought we were lonely people who were incapacitated, while at the beginning, before shelling German planes with infantry weapons, we carried them big losses.
Now not a single German aircraft passes calmly over the location of our unit. As soon as it appears, the units open fire, and with tracer and incendiary bullets. And after several volleys, the German pilots start to be afraid and climb up.
As can be seen from this example, where calm and organized fire are opposed to enemy aviation, it does not have much success with its actions. She does not manage to create panic among the fighters, there is almost no defeat from aerial bombs, and therefore the battle formations of the experienced, fired fighters of our army are not violated by German air raids.
Organization, calmness and active fire on enemy aircraft weaken the actions of German aviation to such an extent that the success that the Germans expected to receive from it and which they initially had, while our troops were not fired, now they do not have. Today, German aviation is no longer scary to our army. German aviation is a game that every Red Army fighter should hunt with full confidence in its destruction.
In terms of their design and quality, German aircraft are significantly inferior to our aircraft. Our aircraft for the German aircraft - a terrible enemy. Now the whole world knows that the praised German Messerschmitts, Heinkels and Junkers are afraid to meet and fight with our planes, and our aircraft are the main and most reliable means for the destruction of German planes. Our anti-aircraft artillery plays no less a role in the fight against aviation. The whole world knows the high quality of our anti-aircraft guns and the exceptional skill of our gunners.
Our homeland has enough factories producing excellent aircraft and wonderful anti-aircraft guns. The enemy that broke through our territory did not capture or destroy our factories; all of them were evacuated to safe places in a timely manner, turned around and continued to continuously supply our army with more and more aircraft and anti-aircraft guns, like all other types of weapons.
Now our war of liberation against German fascism has entered a new phase. In fierce battles, breaking the resistance of the enemy, our troops are on the offensive in all directions. The blows of the powerful Red Army against the enemy are becoming more and more powerful and decisive. The enemy has received deep wounds, but he is not finished yet, he is trying to snap. We will not give him a break. Red fighters to the end will fulfill the order of Comrade Stalin and exterminate all the German invaders, encroaching on the freedom and happiness of our homeland.