What then to offer? The development of the practice of visa-free visits with the introduction of a deportation deposit for high-risk categories of countries, primarily for the CIS countries and third world countries. A deportation deposit is cash reserved on a special account by a migrant during a visit to the Russian Federation. Upon arrival, the amount (differentiated depending on the risk group) is paid or reserved / authorized using payment systems (Visa, MasterCard, AmEx), and when leaving it is unblocked or, if there were cash, it is returned to the migrant. What does this give? In addition to the fact that it reduces the level of formalities and the corruption component for bona fide migrants, and for the FMS finances the activity of catching and deportation of workers, this allows us to do one more interesting thing. The amount of the deportation deposit should contain a significant premium for FMS employees.
A simple example. A certain Dzhamshut from sunny Turkestan forgot to return home, blocked on a card or a cash “deposit” was written off to the income of the Russian Federation, and the FSB ACS marked Dzhamshut as a violator of migration legislation subject to deportation. Relatively speaking, to process Jamshut in the filtration center and plant a plane in sunny Turkestan costs 250 euros. A deportation deposit is 1500 euros, while 1250 euros fall into the FMS bonus fund after the expensive Dzhamshut left the territory of the Russian Federation - this is the incentive for the entire rotten and corrupt FMS vertical to distribute the planned targets for the places to expel violators of the migration regime. Systems with a “deportation deposit” actually work in many countries of the world; they do not infringe upon the rights of bona fide travelers or migrants, but do not contain a corruption component, value judgments and personal motives, as in the visa system. Moreover, this system pays for itself, easily integrates into the existing system of registration of persons crossing the border. The additional load in terms of mass equipping of border guards with mobile POS-terminals or the opening of operating cash desks of commercial banks in transition zones are only solid revenues and tenders for services.
Any talk about migrant workers is usually in the sense that qualified and useful specialists who will help nanotechnologies, Skolkovo and other modernization must go. Thus, the system should cut off low-paid workers and at the same time be minimally corrupt. Even random checks on the qualifications of migrants in St. Petersburg showed that in fact they have no qualifications, all Tajik diplomas are lime. To entrust the officers of the FMS to check diplomas; knowledge of the language is simply to create the next feeder. Let's look at things realistically, given that we live in Russia, not in Sweden.
Two questions arise here: long-term / short-term work permits with the mechanism for maximum streamlining of documents and a notification (rather than permissive) procedure for all actions.
A short-term work permit is a permit for up to 30 days. A foreign citizen arrived under a visa-free scheme with a “deportation deposit” or received a visa, he decided to make money suddenly - give a concert / repair the reactor / plaster the Mausoleum. What should he do? The foreigner submits a notice to the FMS that will work during the stay. The notification is valid only if there is a payment on, say, 100 000 rubles. A work permit is issued remotely, it’s just a number that can be received via SMS, by phone, through a self-service terminal. When submitting a notification, the migrant indicates whether he has an employer or he pays a tax on the income of individuals. Actually, everything. On departure, it is checked whether there is a payment from the employer / employee for income tax in the database, which indicates his temporary permit number. If not, the amount is deducted from the blocked deposit for deportation. The question is closed. The system is simple, transparent, convenient for consultants, professionals, athletes, representatives of show business and other skilled workers who need to do one-time work. Technically, this can be organized without problems: a separate account in the treasury and a script that makes the analysis of payments and correlates them with the number of the passport presented at the border.
Longer term work permits are a bit more complicated. There is a question of a work permit for the employee himself and his family members (the task is to make migrants relocated with families unprofitable), and the issue of paying taxes and social insurance contributions (the system should be convenient and visual for the employer), and most importantly, the filter that hires unskilled labor.
Why do we need foreign workers? In civilized countries, they are needed in two cases:
- when the employer basically needs his expats;
- when there are no workers with the necessary qualifications.
With the first case, nothing can be done (except how to take the maximum tariff from such an employer while minimizing formalities for it, since the presence of excessive formalities and complex procedures only stimulates bribe-carrying capacity. Transnational corporations in any case rotate staff around the world and convince them local useless). In the case when it is needed specialists, regardless of nationality, the rules for their involvement should solve two problems. The first and simplest is the cutting off of unqualified personnel - "Jamshut is not needed." The second is to stimulate the training of our own national personnel; threshold restrictions should push employers to think that it is cheaper to invest in training and fellowship abroad for their compatriot than to keep a foreigner for years.
For a system of long-term work permits are critical: a notification character, the fundamental absence of a so-called. subjective decisions on the part of state bodies, the inadmissibility of state intervention in the hiring process and the presentation of any requirements (if they want a previously convicted Russian-speaking expert for a salary of three hundred thousand rubles a month, this is the employer's job, and whom and for how much to hire him not an official checking the language, education, questionnaire, etc. You can remember that we have introduced mandatory testing of migrants in the Russian language - and certificates of testing have already been put on sale, even before their finals nogo approval. Again, make allowances for the fact that you live in Russia, but not in Sweden).
So, from the employer’s side: a notice of hiring, a mandatory payment (say, five hundred thousand rubles a year for a working migrant and three hundred thousand rubles for non-working family members + an increase in the rate of payment for a migrant by 10% annually, as if bringing to a thought "the further - the more expensive, is not it easier to grow domestic specialists? "). I sent a notification, paid the annual fee, received a permit number during the 1 worker for the moment of payment. Checking the validity of work permits can be made public service: scoring the number of the permit - gives the number of the passport, and vice versa. Then, during the month of 1, a notice is sent about the conditions of the employment contract, here we just lay down the minimum rate - for a working expat the minimum wage is, say, 300 000 rubles per month. Otherwise, for an employer, an expat is no different from a regular employee, the same tax rates (only payment orders for tax payments are slightly different from those for citizens), the same payments to funds. The only difference is the growing 10% fee for the extension of a work visa. According to the document flow of all 2 notifications, one is given a work permit, the second is confirmed by the size of the salary. There is nothing to refuse to officials here - if the payment reached the treasury, then the program will generate the permission number and make it into all databases, but not the official. There is also nothing special to check if taxes and contributions to the funds are paid by the employee.
What is beneficial for expats is that if there is an employer who is ready to hire him, then the formalities are minimal, nothing needs to be translated, legalized, proved. The tax regime is similar to other employees, all issues are decided by the employer as a tax agent. In the case of self-employment - all the same. I filed a notification on working status, within a month I registered for myself the status of an entrepreneur and submitted a notification that monthly income was no less than the same three hundred thousand rubles, and all taxes and fees would be paid from this amount.
How does the state control that the expat really receives a salary not lower than the minimum, while the control is automatic and does not require any personal checks by the officials?
It is enough to stipulate that income tax payments and contributions to the pension fund for expats go to separate accounts in the treasury. The cumulative part of the pension is not accounted for, all payments are fully made to cover the deficit of the Pension Fund. In the payment orders, instead of the CSC (the field reserved for specifying the type of tax), the number of the expat's permit is indicated - this is how we automate the analysis of payments and the maintenance of registers. Say, quarterly, the FMS / FTS checks the amount of taxes and payments to the funds and compares them with the stated salary, and we have it no less than 300 000 rubles per month. If the amount of payments turns out to be less, then a notification of a defaulter is automatically generated - no additional charges are received - the labor permit is canceled, the employee quietly leaves home within a month, if not - deportation is started (it has already been paid, so there are no problems).
What does society get from this change of rules? All of these issues do not even require changes to laws, these are only government decrees and orders of the relevant services. For society, this means that working foreigners are ONLY highly paid categories of workers whose involvement gives a real return to Russian companies. And they work in areas where dumping is possible just from the local staff. Corrupt and ineffective control systems are either completely excluded from this sphere, or focused on hunting for the heads of “illegal immigrants”, and the costs of catching and deportation are charged to the illegal immigrants themselves. Those who entered before the launch of the system can generally be closed in the filtration centers, until they have completed the cost of deportation.
What do you want? Capitalism!
What do conscientious migrants and qualified professionals who want to work legally receive? Simple and understandable notification system, enhanced visa-free entry and the legality of even one-time earnings when visiting Russia.
What do employers get when they hire qualified specialists? A simple and convenient system, the legality of the allocation of costs for attracting foreigners to cost, an incentive to training national personnel.
Illegal migrants receive the need to pay for their deportation on their own, and employers of the "Gaster" - draconian fines with a mandatory premium for reporting illegal immigrants at the facility. Moreover, fines can be taken out daily until the employer gets rid of illegal immigrants, i.e. it is impossible to agree personally with an official - he will come and penalize every day, officially replenishing the bonus fund for his department.
This is how it is possible to equip migration, without "skull-riders", visa regimes and changes in legislation, with the existing administrative apparatus. There are three main principles:
- All pleasures at the expense of migrants and their employers.
- The official should be personally profitable to look for migrants and expel them.
- Minimum state regulation and maximum automation to reduce corruption capacity.
Then it will work. The introduction of visas will only slightly reduce the migration flow, further enriching Russian officials. Let's look at things realistically.