Of stories political investigation
It is obvious that even the most democratic state cannot do without special bodies, a kind of political police. There will always be a certain number of people who will encroach on the state system, often at the request of external forces (the so-called “fifth column”).
1555 lip reform has transferred the “robbery” to the regional elders. The “search” was then considered the main one in the legal proceedings, with great attention being paid to the search. In the 1555 year, instead of the temporary Boyar hut, which was investigating the robbery, a permanent institution was established - Robbery hut (order). It was headed by the boyars D. Kurlyatev and I. Vorontsov, and then I. Bulgakov.
In the 17 legislation of the century political crimes are already known, which are expressed in insulting the royal power and striving to diminish it. Crimes against the church were close to this category. They reacted with no less rapid and cruelty. At the same time there were indications that things were being conducted covertly, the interrogation was going “eyes on eyes”, or “on one”. Affairs were secret, they did not betray wide publicity. Often things started with denunciations that were mandatory. Denunciations (izveta) bore a special name "izvetov on the sovereign case or the word." The investigation was usually conducted by the governors, who reported on the results to Moscow, where these affairs were conducted in the discharge and other orders, there were no special bodies.
The first "special service" was the Order of secret affairs under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, he was engaged in the search for "dashing people." In the Code of Aleksey Mikhailovich there is a section dedicated to the crimes of "word and deed". The second chapter of the Code is devoted to these cases: "On the sovereign's honor, and how to protect its state health." The 1 article of this chapter talks about the intent to "state health" of the "evil deed", that is, it is about an attempt on the life and health of the sovereign. In the 2 th article we are talking about the intent to "take over the state and be the sovereign." The following articles are about treason. In the second chapter of the Code, the duty of everyone to “notify” the authorities about any evil intent, conspiracy was established, for non-fulfillment of this demand, the death penalty "without mercy" threatened.
Prior to the reign of Peter Alekseevich, there were no special police bodies in Russia; their work was carried out by military, financial and judicial institutions. Their activity was regulated by the Council Code, the Penalty Books of the Rogue, Zemsky, Kholopiy orders, as well as individual decrees of the king and the Boyar Duma.
In 1686, the Preobrazhensky order was established (in the suburban village of Preobrazhensky). He was a kind of office of Peter Alekseevich, created to manage the Preobrazhensky and Semenov regiments. But at the same time he began to play the role of an institution to fight political opponents. As a result, it became his main function. This institution became known as the Preobrazhensky order from the 1695 of the year, since that time it received the function of protecting public order in Moscow and was responsible for the most significant court cases. From 1702, he received the name of the collections of the hut in the Transfiguration and the general court in the Transfiguration. The Preobrazhensky order was under the direct control of the tsar and was controlled by his confidant Prince F. Y. Romodanovsky (and after F. Y. Romodanovsky's death - by his son I. F. Romodanovsky).
Peter established the Secret Chancellery in 1718 year, it existed until 1726 year. The secret office was established in Petersburg to investigate the case of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich and performed the same functions as the Preobrazhensky order. The immediate chiefs of the Secret Chancellery were Peter Tolstoy and Andrei Ushakov. Subsequently, both institutions merged into one. The Secret Office was located in the Peter and Paul Fortress. The methods of these bodies were very cruel, people were tortured, kept for months in pads and iron. It was in the era of Peter the words - "Word and deed", forced to tremble any person, be it a vagabond, or a royal court. No one was immune from these words. Anyone, the latest criminal, shout out these words and arrest an innocent, often high-ranking and respected person. Neither a rank, nor age, nor gender - nothing could save a person from torture, for which it was said “state word and deed”.
Under Peter, the police appeared in the Russian state. The beginning of the creation of the Russian police can be considered the year 1718, when a decree was issued on the establishment in the capital of a post of general-police chief. It must be said that, unlike in Europe, division arises in Russia - the bodies of the general police and the political were created. The police under Peter I received very broad powers: right up to the appearance of people, their clothes, and interventions in the upbringing of children. Interestingly, if before Peter Alekseevich in Russia it was forbidden to wear foreign clothes, to cut his head in a foreign way, then with him the situation changed in the opposite direction. All classes, except for the clergy and the peasantry, were required to wear foreign clothing, shave beards and mustaches.
Peter, in 1715, opened the doors wide for political denunciation and voluntary investigation. He declared that he who is a true Christian and faithful servant to the sovereign and fatherland, without a doubt, can convey in writing or orally about important matters to the sovereign or the guard in his palace. It was reported what denunciations would be taken: 1) about malicious intent against the sovereign or treason; 2) plunder of the treasury; 3) about the revolt of the riot, etc.
It was quite easy to get into the dungeons of the secret office. For example, one Little Russian, while passing through the city of Konotop, drank with a soldier in a tavern. The soldier offered to drink for the health of the emperor. However, many ordinary people knew kings, boyars, heard about overseas kings, but the concept of "emperor" was new and alien to them. Little Russia snapped: "Why the hell do I need your emperor ?! There are many of you there! Damn you who he is, your emperor! And I know my righteous sovereign and I don’t want to know anyone else! ”The soldier rushed to inform the authorities. Kabak cordoned off, all those who were arrested in it. At first they were sent to Kiev to the Little Russian Collegium, and then to St. Petersburg, to the Secret Chancellery. So a loud case was opened about the "vilification of the emperor." The accused, Daniel Belokonnik, was questioned three times on the rack, and three times he gave the same testimony. He did not know that he insulted the sovereign. I thought that a soldier was drinking for some kind of boyar who was called "emperor". But the witnesses were confused in the testimony. At the time of the incident, they were drunk, no one really remembered anything, they were confused in their testimony. On the rack, they shouted whatever they wanted. Five died from “immoderate torture”, others were sent to hard labor, and only two were released after the torture torture chamber. The “criminal” himself was released, but before that they were beaten with batogs, “so that no person should be scolded with such obscene words”.
Many fell into the dungeons of a drunken case, saying all sorts of nonsense, characteristic of a drunk person. Voronezh clerk Ivan Zavezin liked to drink, was noted in the petty scam. Once a clerk was imprisoned for service offense in the Voronezh provincial office. He asked to see a relative, but did not find him, and with the escort went to the tavern. Well received, entered the court court. There Zawesin asked the official: "Who is your sovereign?" in chains. He was taken to Moscow, to the Secret Chancellery. During the interrogation, he said that a drunken person becomes insane. Inquired, his words were confirmed. However, he was still tried for order, and then sentenced to 25 whip blows.
At the beginning of the reign of Catherine I, the Preobrazhensky order received the name of the Preobrazhensky office, while maintaining the same range of tasks. So he existed until 1729 year. He was overseen by the Supreme Privy Council. The Preobrazhensky Chancellery was liquidated, after the resignation of Prince Romodanovsky. The most important affairs were transferred to the Supreme Privy Council, less important - to the Senate.
It should be noted that since the reign of Peter II, the social composition of the "political" has seriously changed. Under Peter Alekseevich, these were mostly people from lower classes and social groups: archers, Old Believers, peasant rebels, Cossacks, just random people. Like women, who are now called “possessed” (clickers, holy fools) - in a fit they shouted all sorts of nonsense, which they used to start “political” affairs. After Peter I, a significant number of the military, people more or less close to the “elite”, got into the dungeons. This is explained by the fact that there was a tough struggle between various court groups.
They kept people in dungeons in very harsh conditions. According to some reports, mortality reached 80%. Link to distant Siberia was considered a "happy event." According to contemporaries, the place of "preliminary detention" was a pit (dungeon), practically without access to daylight. The walk to the convicts did not rely, they defecated directly on the earthen floor, which they cleaned once a year, before Easter. They were fed once a day, throwing bread in the morning (no more than 2 pounds per prisoner). In the big holidays they gave meat waste. Sometimes they gave food from alms. The stronger and healthier took food from the weak, exhausted, tortured by torture, bringing them closer to the grave. We slept on straw, which hardly differed from other dirt, since it was changed every few months. About official clothes, washing and bathing and there was no talk. This was accompanied by regular torture.
Anna Ioannovna in 1731 established the Office of secret and investigative affairs under the leadership of A. I. Ushakov. This institution was responsible for conducting investigations into the crime of the “first two paragraphs” of State crimes (which related to the “Word and the case of the sovereign”). 1-th paragraph reported, "if anyone invents what you learn to think evil business or person on imperial health, and to honor and wick evil words with evil and harmful words," and 2 spoke about "rebellion and treason."
In the era of palace coups and the fight against political opponents under Anna Ioannovna and Elizaveta Petrovna, the Office of secret and investigative affairs became a very influential institution. All government agencies had to immediately carry out its orders, in it all suspects and witnesses were sent.
From the beginning of 1741, the Courlanders of the Secret Chancellery passed through the Courlanders, the “Germans”, Biron's henchmen or just foreigners who were unlucky. They were accused of all sorts of crimes, from treason to simple thefts. For a crowd of foreigners even had to invite translators. The dungeons passed two waves of foreigners. First, Minikh overthrew Biron, his supporters and their circle fell into disgrace. Then Elizabeth Petrovna got power and dealt with Anna Ioannovna’s close associates, including Minikh.
Emperor Peter III abolished the Chancellery and at the same time banned the Word and the Matter of the Tsar. Political affairs should be dealt with only by the Senate. But under the Senate established the Secret Expedition, which was engaged in political search. Formally, the institution was headed by the Senate Prosecutor General, but the chief secretary S. I. Sheshkovsky was in charge of all matters. Catherine II decided to take care of such an important department herself and subordinated the Secret Expedition to the procurator-general, and her Moscow branch to the governor-general P. S. Saltykov.
Emperor Alexander I canceled a secret expedition, but in 1802, the Ministry of the Interior was created. In 1811, the Ministry of Police was separated from it. But it was not yet centralized, the police officers and district police officers were subordinate to the governor. And governors on one issues were controlled by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, on others - by the Ministry of Police. In 1819, the ministries united.
In addition, under Alexander Pavlovich in 1805, a Special Secret Committee was established for political investigation (the Committee of the High Police). In 1807, he was transformed into a committee to deal with crimes related to the violation of general peace. The committee only considered cases, the investigation was conducted by the general police.
The uprising of the "Decembrists" led to the fact that Nicholas I established 3 on July 1826 of the year III Branch of his Majesty's office. It was the political police, which directly obeyed the king. Division III was subordinated to a separate gendarme corps established in 1827 year. The empire was divided into 7 gendarme districts. The head of this structure was A.H. Benkendorf. Section III monitored sentiments in society, his boss gave reports to the king. Of about 300 thousand, those convicted of being exiled or imprisoned from 1823 to 1861 a year, only about 5% were “political”, most of them were Polish rebels.
In the 1880 year, having considered that Section III is not coping with the task entrusted to it (the terrorist threat has increased dramatically), it was abolished. The general leadership of the gendarme corps was entrusted to the Ministry of the Interior. The Police Department began to work in the system of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, when it established a Special Department to deal with political crimes. At the same time, law enforcement and public safety departments (security departments, the so-called “secret police”) began to work in Moscow and St. Petersburg. By the beginning of the 20 century, a network of security departments had been created throughout the empire. Security offices tried to identify revolutionary organizations, to stop the actions they were preparing: murders, robberies, anti-government propaganda, etc. Agents, fillers and secret officers were active in the security departments. The latter were introduced into revolutionary organizations, some were even in leadership. Security offices acted abroad, where there was a powerful strong revolutionary emigration. However, this did not save the Russian Empire. In December, the All-Russian Emergency Commission was established on 1917, the history of the Soviet special services began.