Military Review

German fortifications of the Great Patriotic War

German fortifications of the Great Patriotic War

Having read the article "German mobile firing point",
I became interested in the types and designs of field fortifications (FS),
used by the Nazis to defend their borders from the Soviet troops in the days of the Great Patriotic War (WWII).

The article strongly provoked me, I began to look for additional information, found one, and, based on my modest possibilities, I tried to create a brief overview of the evolution of the forms of field fortification equipment (FO) of the German troops.
By and large, this is a republishment of a rare, in my opinion, material ... And my debut in the Military Review.

During the years of the Great Patriotic War, the methods of the FD of the area were modified by the Germans in accordance with the general course of military operations. There are four main periods:

The first period
It refers to the beginning of the war, when the Germans, inspired by the temporary success gained as a result of using the advantages of surprise attack, proceeding from their theory of the “Lightning War”, did not attach importance to the issues of strengthening the terrain.
Defensive measures were limited mainly to the creation of outposts around settlements, railway stations and communications nodes. Basically, these activities were designed to protect communications from possible attacks by our troops and to fight partisans.

Second period
The beginning of the second period, in the development of field fortifications of the Germans, can be considered the rout of their troops near Moscow (winter 1941-1942).
Having learned the powerful offensive strikes of the Soviet troops, the Germans began to pay more attention to strengthening the area.
From individual systems of post-outposts they moved to a developed system of strong points and defense units.
The defensive lines consisted of a chain of reinforced defense units and strongholds, saddling commanding heights, mostly grouped around settlements and located at a distance from 2 to 4 km from each other.
The gaps were filled with machine-gun and rifle trenches and separate fire installations.
The defense units and strongholds of the German defense consisted of 1-2 lines of trenches and lines of communication, with cells and platforms prepared in large numbers for all types of fire weapons, observation posts, as well as shelters, shelters and dugouts for soldiers and officers.
All the strongholds were connected with each other by a well-developed network of roads - radial and rokadnyh, providing the possibility of a wide maneuver and the transfer of reserves from the depth of defense.
Such a system of building defense, with clearly defined strong points and poorly protected intervals, could not withstand the powerful blows of the Soviet Army with its tactics of deep detours and scope.

The third period
Characterized by the widespread transition of the Germans to the defense (1943 g.).
The victory of the Soviet troops in the battle of Kursk knocked out their last bet on the success of offensive operations. The Germans built their defense on a well-designed, well-organized system of fire of all kinds. weapons, infantry combat formations, located with a concentration on tactically important commanders of areas of the terrain and on the active operations of reserves.

The engineering and fortification support of the defense mainly consisted of ensuring the tactical survivability of fire weapons, the reliability of the fire system, mainly in front of the front edge and on the flanks, shelters of manpower and materiel, speed of maneuver with reserves and armament.
The front edge of the line, as a rule, was provided by a continuous trench of the most richly equipped fire facilities, in the form of the simplest open fire sites.

Behind the first on the tactically more important areas were located the second, third, and sometimes even the fourth line of trenches.
The condensed system of trenches, with the equipment of their various kinds of fortifications, was mainly strongholds.
Unfortified gaps between the support points, as a rule, was not.

The concept of a stronghold, with the Germans strengthening the trench system, was to some extent conditional and not rigidly fixed on the ground, since the possibility of easy development of the trench system at any point of the line and its rapid occupation with one or another element of the battle formation led to changes in the shape of the reference point and even to the displacement of its front and depth.
A new stronghold for the trench system for strengthening the terrain could quickly be created where it is needed, due to changes in the combat situation.
Obstacles of various kinds were used by the Germans mainly in front of the front edge of the defense, that is, they were installed in front of the first trench.

The fourth period
Characterized by the retreat of the German troops on all fronts, passing under the increasing strikes of the Soviet Army in flight.
In relation to the fortification equipment of the area, this period is characterized by the fact that the Germans tried to hide behind large natural barriers, behind well-prepared ramparts and to delay the offensive; they quickly strengthened the high banks of large rivers, strengthened the existing long-term boundaries.
The Germans for the most part did not have time to create new frontiers.

Fortification equipment of the area is manifested in all its diversity during the 3 period.
It was then (in 1943) that the Germans most widely used armored machine-gun caps: “Crabs”.
And they were used not only on the Eastern Front.
At least one Crab was captured by the Allied forces during the liberation of Mount Lungo, Italy, on 1944.

Machine gun armor cap "MG - Panzernest" (Crab).
By definition, the Allies - "Mobile Metal Dot."
Weight and size characteristics of MG - Panzernest:

Overall height: 182 cm
Max. Width: 152
Weight: 3 tons

German fortifications of the Great Patriotic War

MG shipping - Panzernest to the forefront

A small excerpt describing Raisin-Barvenkovskuyu offensive operation:
“In July, the 1943 of the year, our regiment supported the 8 th Guards Army when crossing the Seversky Donets River in the area of ​​Izium. I, as the regimental intelligence chief, followed in the first echelon of the attacking rifle subunits, under enemy fire, I ran across the assault bridge to the river.
But the enemy opened strong fire from machine guns, sheltered on the high right bank of the river, our infantry lay down. In addition, the first position of the enemy’s defense was tightly mined, and his aviation continuously bombed our battle formations.
Our artillery fired at machine gun points, but they continued to fire. I noticed one well hidden machine gun.
Caused the fire of one of its batteries. The gaps lay down exactly, the machine gun was silent, but soon again opened a mad fire.
I repeated the fire again. Together with the infantry, I rushed forward. We went to these machine-gun points. It turned out to be an armored cap buried in the ground. Actually, the armored cap rose above the ground on the 40-50 cm, it was a small embrasure, closed armored damper. In the cap was installed large-caliber machine gun and was a machine gunner. Such armored caps were called 'crabs' - that was a new weapon.
The machine gun I fired at was bombarded with earth, so he stopped the fire.
Unfortunately, there was no direct hit on the armored cap.
There were many such machine gun points in this direction, some even lay on the ground - the enemy did not have time to bury them. Therefore, our infantry with great difficulty seized a bridgehead on the right high bank of the Seversky Donets River ”

(Chernyshev E.V.)

"Crab", captured under the Eagle, front view
Photo by A.P. Troshkina, 03.07.1943

"Crab", captured by the Eagle, rear view
Photo by A.P. Troshkina, 03.07.1943

The photo shows that they did not have time to bury him, but simply put him in a funnel dug for him.

MG - Panzernest. Inside view.

MG - Panzernest 3D scheme and installation steps

3 September 1943 was published in the Krasnaya Zvezda newspaper and in the Military Engineering Magazine No. 10 for 1943 a description of the German armor cap (crab) was given.
The tests of the original fan and the furnace installed in the armored cap gave a number of interesting data with which it is useful to acquaint the officers of the engineering troops, since the enemy is installing armored caps on all fronts and captured by our troops, they can be successfully used.
The armored machine-gun hood is equipped with exhaust ventilation with mechanical impulses.

Scheme of heating and ventilation equipment MG - Panzernest

Air intake
carried out over the head of the second number through the hole (1), covered with a metal grid (see. Fig.).
Air flows through the duct (2) to the fan and through the duct (3) is discharged through the exhaust port (4) to the outside.
Possible partial discharge of air through the heating chimney.
For this purpose, there is a nozzle (5) connecting the air duct (3) with the blower of the furnace. The nozzle has a valve (6), which regulates the amount of air flowing through the oven, and turns off the oven from the ventilation duct.
In addition to extracting air through the hole (1), air is sucked out of the box with the spent sleeves through a flexible metal hose (7) connecting the box to the ventilation duct (2). The amount of air sucked through the sleeve is approximately 25% of the total amount of air supplied.

Air exhaust
It is carried out by a centrifugal fan (diameter of the suction inlet - 70 mm) with a foot pedal drive.
To ensure shift work of the first and second numbers of machine-gun calculation on the fan there are two pedals.
All ventilation ducts are made of black iron with welding seams; their connection is made on rubber couplings with metal flat clamps and on the flanges.

The tests carried out at the Scientific Testing Engineering Institute showed that the performance of the ventilation system ranges from 200 to 280 m3 / hour with 40 - 70 pedals per minute.
The average nominal number of swings of the fan pedal should be 50 - 60 per minute. The number of swings 80 - 90 per minute should be considered the maximum; at this intensity, continuous operation of no more than 5 minutes is possible.
During continuous operation of the ventilation system, intensive firing from the MG-34 machine gun brings the concentration of carbon monoxide in the casemate to a maximum of 1 mg / l (with the hatch closed and the periscope holes open).

When idle ventilation any intensive shooting from a machine gun is impossible.
Powder gases and gases from burning lubricating shafts that are released during firing quickly fill a small volume of the structure and make the air completely unsuitable for breathing.

This circumstance, by the way, is possible along with the main anti-armor equipment in case of near blocking, it is recommended to close the exhaust vent and furnace (if there is one) of the opening with turf, clay, earth or snow, which is not difficult.
Such an event will not be able to disable the cap, but the intensity of the fire will be reduced to a minimum.
The individual means of chemical protection available in the calculation, with no ventilation, will not be of any great help, since they do not trap carbon monoxide.

Отопление The armored machine-gun hood is carried out by a welded iron furnace, which consists of a firebox, a convection part and a blower.

The furnace is made of sheet iron with a thickness of 1,2 mm with double walls at the firebox; chimney is made of black roofing iron.
The furnace is installed on the legs on special wooden pads and bolted to the bottom of the structure.

Gases from the firebox come into the convection part, there they pass through three shaped tubes and go to the chimney.
Outside, shaped convection tubes are freely washed by air passing through the holes and the grill.
The chimney is discharged through the hole for the axle inserted into the armored cap during transport.
The pipe consists of two elements: the 5 section inside the structure and the 6 section outside.

The furnace furnace is divided with a blower grate made of sheet metal 2 - 3 mm thick with holes 8 - 10 mm; the grate is welded to the walls of the furnace. An asbestos cord is built into the doors of the blower and the firebox along the perimeter of contact with the hole, which ensures the density of the furnace closing.

When ventilation is inactive, the furnace can operate without blowing with an open blowing door, but in this case, due to the small diameter and height of the chimney, the possibility of smoke is not excluded.

When working with blast, with the valve open (6), both oven doors must be carefully closed.
In this case, the relative tightness of the furnace and chimney makes it impossible to smoke the structure.
The presence of the blast under the grate, the design of the grate itself and the height of the bottom of the feed opening above it (17 cm) make it possible to burn a wide variety of fuels (wood, coal, peat) in the furnace.

However, in the instruction manual in order to avoid unmaskingit is recommended to heat the stove with charcoal only.
For the same reasons, it is recommended that the instruction be turned off when firing from a machine gun under the grate.

If there is no need, the stove may not be installed at all; in this case, the hole in the air duct (3) for the nozzle (5) is closed with a screw cap, and the hole in the bell cap, through which the chimney is brought out, is closed with a massive metal plug.

Not only the Germans built and used both portable and capital fortifications.
Here are a few examples:

Anti-tank firing point on the base of the tower T-26

The armor post of Professor Golenkin.
It was originally installed in the fortress Osovets.

Brinekolpak Lines Maginot, after shelling by German artillery

Bronekolpak Maginot Line, inside view

Remember the French fighter "The Crimson Rivers - 2" with Jean Renault in the lead role.
Some scenes were shot there.

Bunker on the Mannerheim Line

Another firing point of the Mannerheim Line

Shuman's armored cage from the time of the First World War on the march.

Found practical application in the German fortresses of Thorn, Metz and others.

Installation of Schumann’s armored carts on the position.

Sound familiar?
Perhaps this is the progenitor of the "Crab" - MG Panzernest.

Portable rifle armor of the First World War 1914-1918.

At that time there were a great many of them: rifle wearable, sapper, rolling, reinforced with armor visors.
They were created in France in 1916 and were widely used in the destruction of wire fences and. t. n.

When creating a review, materials from reports were used.
- Defensive Construction Offices;
- commissions established by order of the Chief of Engineers.
Photos used:,,,
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  1. Kars
    Kars April 13 2013 10: 28 New
    A couple of photos of tanks in the form of a Dot
    1. Kars
      Kars April 13 2013 10: 29 New
      1. Kars
        Kars April 13 2013 10: 30 New
        1. poligraf
          poligraf April 13 2013 21: 32 New

          In our city, right in the center, a German pillbox has been preserved.
          1. igordok
            igordok April 14 2013 07: 55 New
            Do not tell me what kind of city?
            If the trees do not hide embrasures, then what we see is not a bunker, but KNP (command and observation post).
            1. your1970
              your1970 30 November 2017 08: 59 New
              good article, one minus: the photo of the Mannerheim line is not NDT(wood-earthen firing point) - and the gun bunker
              1. WEL7958
                WEL7958 27 November 2018 11: 43 New
                Long-term disguised firing point
                1. your1970
                  your1970 28 November 2018 09: 37 New
                  Quote: WEL7958
                  Long term disguised firing point
                  bunkers in your opinion were not masked belay ?
                  and at the same time
                  NDT-according to instructions - "wood-earthen firing point" .. and only that way, and no "long-term disguised"
                  1. WEL7958
                    WEL7958 2 December 2018 01: 33 New
                    Is a checkpoint or gearbox? Study the history of the issue there, both transcripts are also true.
                    1. your1970
                      your1970 2 December 2018 11: 48 New
                      Quote: WEL7958
                      Is a checkpoint or gearbox? Study the history of the issue there, both transcripts are also true.
                      -there is only a nuance - the CPR reduction refers to completely different things ...
                      I want you to be "disguised" - but as much as you like, at least "smoked" or "slaughtered" ...

                      Z.Y. it’s enough for me - what I was taught in the army according to the relevant instructions
  2. Russian
    Russian April 13 2013 10: 35 New
    And all this power, our fighters often took without proper support from artillery and armored units. I recall the phrase from the poem "Borodino":
    “Yes, there were people in ours, heroes, not you, they got a bad share, not many returned from the field.”
    One can only admire the courage of our soldiers, and keep the eternal memory of this terrible war.
  3. Ilyukha
    Ilyukha April 13 2013 11: 01 New
    A good, suitable article, the author, with an initiative!
    The thoughtfulness of heating and ventilation in the product is especially impressive.
    It should be added that the Germans put such points in places inaccessible to technology — the river bank, behind swamps, etc.
    They did not receive much distribution in the Second World War, since the bunker / bunker lived only until ours drove the tank)
    With rotating towers (tank, mostly), pillboxes lived longer because they could effectively destroy tanks, including.
    1. igordok
      igordok April 13 2013 12: 57 New
      The article is mediocre. The name alone is worth what. The word fortification is not plural. Correct on "German Fortification of the Great Patriotic War."
      No specifics.
      Strange system by dates.
      Long-term and field fortifications were erected locally and according to circumstances.
      If we are talking about the Second World War, why should the Monerheim line be illustrated.
      Illustration of the bunker to call "Bunker on the Mannerheim Line" - it is necessary to try.
  4. svp67
    svp67 April 13 2013 12: 20 New
    Quote: Ilyukha
    It should be added that the Germans put such points in places inaccessible to technology — the river bank, behind swamps, etc.

    And what's the point of putting fortifications “in places inaccessible to technology”? On the principle of "Do you fight there, and we will sit out"? On the contrary, Fortresses and URs blocked "the most probable paths of advance and movement of the enemy troops," but the approaches to them really tried to make it difficult using both natural and artificial barriers. But WWII showed that the modern army is able to "pass" any defense system if the enemy relies only on its fortress ...
    1. Ilyukha
      Ilyukha April 13 2013 13: 13 New
      The point is to stop the infantry, advancing without equipment.
      Armored vehicles of the Second World War did not know how to swim, at first the infantry boosted on improvised craft.
      Through the swamps, they also only walked on foot.
      In such places, the pillboxes were set.
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn April 13 2013 14: 43 New
        Ilyukha hi
        the comrade seems to have forgotten the Belarusian offensive operation - Operation Bagration, where due to objective reasons (severe marshy Polesie) the mass use of armored vehicles by the Soviet side was impossible, which the Germans themselves took into account using a lot of bunkers, bunkers and other engineering facilities.

      2. svp67
        svp67 April 13 2013 15: 48 New
        Quote: Ilyukha
        Armored vehicles of the Second World War

        Yes, give up. And what about our T37A and T38 amphibious tanks, and the GPA Ford battalions?

        In preparation for the offensive in Karelia, the front command decided to use this regiment "to force the Svir River and capture the bridgehead to ensure the crossing of the remaining troops." This operation was the second (and most successful) episode in which amphibious tanks were used to cross a water barrier. Together with the 92 m tank regiment, which had the 18 T-1944A and T-40 by the 37 of July 38 of the year, the 275 separate motorized battalion of special purpose (OMBON), consisting of 100 Ford GPA amphibious vehicles from the USA, was to operate Lend-Lease program.
        1. Alexander
          Alexander April 13 2013 16: 58 New
          Not OMBON, but OMBON.
          1. omsbon
            omsbon April 14 2013 20: 09 New
            Alexander, you are wrong! svp67 gave the correct abbreviation OMBON, but OMSBON is a separate motorized rifle battalion for special purposes of military unit 3499 as part of the OMSDON them. F.E.Dzerzhinsky.
        2. Ilyukha
          Ilyukha April 13 2013 19: 28 New
          Ford GPA is just a floating jeep, not an armored car. It has no armor. Toward the end of the war, when we were advancing, there were not enough floating tanks, they were increased at the beginning of the war, and the number was scanty.
          So, all the same, the infantry on the shore was without armor.
        3. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn April 14 2013 00: 28 New
          svp67 soldier

          comrade Ilyukha probably still not in the know about the use of amphibious tanks T-40 bully True, in books this tank is most often found in the Battle of Moscow, where non-floating T-40C tanks were used, but nevertheless I met mention in the memoirs of “vrazhin” about these tanks in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and the Baltic States - “vrazhin” "they write about him more than respectfully.
          In Soviet tank literature, this is probably the only tank not criticized.
          By the way:
          - Trophy floating tanks T-40 were used in parts of the Wehrmacht, but in very small quantities. Mostly they carried out the security service in the rear, but sometimes were included as freelance vehicles in the reconnaissance battalions of infantry divisions.
          The data on the presence of the T-40 in enemy units is rather scanty, it is only known that by November 1, 1942, the Romanian army had one T-40.
          1. svp67
            svp67 April 14 2013 06: 57 New
            Genosse Kamrad still learn to accurately formulate his thoughts, on that and "burns"
  5. Karlsonn
    Karlsonn April 13 2013 12: 48 New
    Kars Welcome hi
    Well, I can’t resist laughing

    on the picture:

    Tower from the German tank PzKpfw V Ausf.D Panther, installed as a long-term firing point (DOT) in the middle of a German city street. It was not possible to hold such a bunker for a long time, since the position could be circumvented in other streets. The commander’s turret was removed from the tower.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn April 13 2013 12: 51 New
      on the picture:

      Soviet soldiers visiting the observation cap of the captured Finnish bunker.
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn April 13 2013 12: 52 New
        on the picture:

        The defeated positions and the German bunker, destroyed by the Allies during the landing in Normandy.
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn April 13 2013 12: 54 New
          on the picture:

          German pillbox and abandoned German anti-tank gun RaK-40 on the corner of the Government House of Yugoslavia after the end of the fighting for the city and the liberation of Belgrade from German troops. Street of Prince Milos, Government quarter.
          1. Karlsonn
            Karlsonn April 13 2013 12: 56 New
            on the picture:

            German soldiers with a MG-34 machine gun in a bunker shelter covering the beach near the village of Hemnes in Norway.
            1. Karlsonn
              Karlsonn April 13 2013 12: 57 New
              on the picture:

              Broken German 88-mm anti-aircraft gun 8,8 cm Flak 18 against a bunker in the area of ​​Hesso in Sicily.
              1. Karlsonn
                Karlsonn April 13 2013 13: 00 New
                on the picture:

                American soldiers are preparing dinner in a captured German bunker in France with a 12-pound 76-mm cannon mounted, presumably of 12 cwt or 20 cwt modifications.
                1. Karlsonn
                  Karlsonn April 13 2013 13: 01 New
                  on the picture:

                  Private US 3rd Panzer Division Robert Warner with a Thompson submachine gun at one of the Siegfried Line bunkers in the Retgen area, Germany. September 15, 1944.
                2. Kars
                  Kars April 13 2013 13: 04 New
                  Lindemann 40.6 cm
                  1. Cosmonaut
                    Cosmonaut April 13 2013 16: 48 New
                    I wonder what will happen to the soldier if a shot happens ...
                    1. svp67
                      svp67 April 13 2013 16: 52 New
                      Concussion ...
                      1. Karlsonn
                        Karlsonn April 13 2013 20: 01 New
                        Quote: svp67
                        Concussion ...

                        kill, there will remain pieces of meat lying in meters so dozens of guns.
                      2. BSrazvedka
                        BSrazvedka April 13 2013 21: 50 New
                        Well, it’s you too much. It can, of course, stun or even damage the eardrum, getting a concussion in this way is not realistic.
                      3. Karlsonn
                        Karlsonn April 13 2013 23: 38 New
                        Quote: BSrazvedka
                        Well, it’s you too much. It can, of course, stun or even damage the eardrum, getting a concussion in this way is not realistic.

                        Excuse me. Do you know why Soviet tanks refused to install muzzle brakes for a long time?
                        Or why it is forbidden to go to the deck of a ship with barrel artillery after the announcement of a combat alert?
                      4. BSrazvedka
                        BSrazvedka April 11 2014 20: 21 New
                        On tanks, as a rule, low-powered guns were installed and there was no need for a muzzle brake. Only when there was a need for the installation of more powerful tools, then they appeared. The first tank with such a gun (Soviet) was the IS-2. True, an incident occurred on the tests. Due to a design error, the muzzle brake tore, then Marshal Voroshilov almost died. However, this has nothing to do with this case. The muzzle brake is designed to reduce recoil force and does not significantly affect other characteristics of the gun.
                        As for the prohibition of going on deck, it’s clear to the fool that after announcing a combat alert, all personnel should be in their places according to the staffing table. What walk on deck can we talk about?
                    2. IRKUT
                      IRKUT April 15 2013 16: 59 New
                      Try to stand about 10 meters near the shooting tank T80 understand)))
  • radar75
    radar75 April 13 2013 15: 46 New
    You may not like Germans and Finns, but you must admit that engineering was an idea when designing these structures at a height. CA defeated a worthy adversary.
  • Black
    Black April 13 2013 16: 57 New
    Thank you for the article. Consider your debut a success!
  • uladzimir.surko
    uladzimir.surko April 13 2013 18: 10 New
    Three pictures from the article are guaranteed from the Stalin line, which is next to Minsk! hi
  • svp67
    svp67 April 13 2013 18: 12 New
    but German soldiers visiting the bunker on the "Stalin line"
  • George
    George April 13 2013 19: 50 New
    Hello all.
    Here’s the video. I’m sorry that it’s not the topic, but I couldn’t not share it. [Media = http: /// V = o6dhuBrUaFk]
  • George
    George April 13 2013 19: 51 New
    Hello all.
    Here is a video, maybe a little off topic, but could not help but share.
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn April 14 2013 12: 48 New
      Norm! to this topic!
    2. mejik
      mejik April 14 2013 18: 20 New
      holds the rail incorrectly. The zero mark is for some reason at the top. Loshars. no
  • Klim
    Klim April 13 2013 19: 55 New
    With difficulty today it turned out to open the page, the game is constantly blocking the site.
    1. brelok
      brelok April 14 2013 07: 33 New
      I have the same. in a roundabout way
      1. se-ma
        se-ma April 14 2013 14: 24 New
        Clear the cache and everything will be fine!
        1. George
          George April 14 2013 20: 20 New
          Thank you, it helped. fellow
  • Vanek
    Vanek April 13 2013 20: 41 New
    Brinekolpak Lines Maginot, after shelling by German artillery

    Frankly, I don’t even want to imagine how he (Hans) was shaking there.

    Goodnight. hi
    1. BSrazvedka
      BSrazvedka April 13 2013 21: 59 New
      Yes, not Hans and not even Fritz, but most likely some Monsieur!
  • Pagan13
    Pagan13 April 13 2013 23: 04 New
    Quote: GEORGE
    Hello all.
    Here is a video, maybe a little off topic, but could not help but share.

    In general, it seemed to me that Hitler was sitting in the tractor and the whole video was funny laughing
  • pinecone
    pinecone April 14 2013 07: 10 New
    Quote: igordok
    The name alone is worth what. The word fortification is not plural. Correct on "German Fortification of the Great Patriotic War."

    And this is within the framework of the process of “transformations” that are already bored to the limit, which began to undermine the norms of the Russian language. There was, for example, "economy", and now there are also economies.
  • Bigriver
    Bigriver April 14 2013 11: 19 New
    The swing in the article is very large. The theme was declared: German fortification on the Eastern Front, and the theme was gone on some particulars. Why Maginot, Mannerheim and the Atlantic?
    Why is one type of armored cap so detailed? They were different: both two- and six-graded, etc.
    Already have to take and more thoroughly :))
    It was enough, for example, to dwell on the topic "Field Wehrmacht Fortification" or "East Wall" (Oder-Wart). Both that and another would pull on a series of 3-4 articles :))
    Or maybe you should stop at the Blue Line or Panther: //
    For history buffs I recommend :))
    There is also in this series "Fortification of the Second World War: 1939-1945. Europe" (J.E. Kaufman).
    Fluently and concisely across France, Belgium, Great Britain, Poland, Czechs, etc. Soviet fortifications also exist. So they hold us for Europe laughing
  • Val_y
    Val_y April 15 2013 15: 36 New
    Another of the most extensive and powerful defensive lines of the "Den of the Earthworm" (Regenwurmlager), but it was also gouged. There are a lot of stories and real secrets about him. My employee worked in Poland, just there he did a lot of things and showed pictures.
  • smershspy
    smershspy 2 May 2013 16: 56 New
    Interesting article! Nice photos! Thank!
  • Alex
    Alex 2 September 2013 11: 59 New
    The mountain gave birth to a mouse. But seriously, I congratulate the author on the initiative. If there is a desire, the result will come. Take into account mistakes, do not be offended by friendly criticism and go. The topic is interesting, there is something to tell, fortification has always had enough imagination.
    Good luck! good