As you know, not all the peoples of Russia were in its composition voluntarily. Chechens with Ingushs are among the few nationalities conquered by force.
Actually, Russia itself did not need Chechnya - its accession did not have a special economic or political meaning. However, after the borders of the Empire directly moved toward the North Caucasus, and especially after the annexation of Transcaucasia, the problem of curbing the predatory raids of the Highlanders rose to their full height.
After several decades of hard struggle in 1859, Chechnya was finally incorporated into the Russian Empire. Earlier, the Ingush nationality related to Chechens was joined. The conquest of Chechnya was inevitable: not a single capable state would tolerate the existence at its borders of a “small but proud nation” whose main industries are robbery and slave trade.
To the credit of the tsarist government, he didn’t even think to follow the example of “civilized nations” and exterminate Chechens all the time, as the British did with the indigenous people of Tasmania in the same years, or drive them to reservations, as the Americans did with the Indians. Contrary to the assurances of professional Russophobes, pre-revolutionary Russia cannot be regarded as a colonial power that oppressed non-Russian subjects. On the contrary, the newly annexed peoples often found themselves in a privileged position compared to the Russians. On this occasion, Nicholas I once rightly remarked that "all new privileges were granted to my younger sons to the detriment of their older sons."
There is no doubt that the Chechens would eventually find a worthy place in the family of Russian peoples. However, for this, they, of course, should have abandoned the former robber lifestyle. The then Russian authorities were striving for such a “re-education”. And since the Chechens, whose social system by the middle of the XIX century was still at the stage of tribal relations, as it should be "savages", understood only the language of brute force, the Terek Cossack army was located nearby to instruct them.
Appointed at the end of the Caucasian War, Colonel Bellik, head of the Chechen District, knowing perfectly the local realities, made extensive use of the principle of collective responsibility. For example, his order No. 19 from 17 June 1858 of the year:
“Starosunzhentsy! I used the place of housing for you and indicated the boundary of your land so that you would live peacefully, quietly and would not harm us; I have already told you and now I will say that all your actions harmful to us do not so much harm us as for you, in the following: the other day, twice, near your village, the predators crossed through Sunzha, beat the soldiers and took the Cossack off a horse to the mountains; the Cossack of this, the horse and everything the predators took advantage of, you must help out and present to me, and then, if such antics continue to continue, then I will ask my superiors to settle you in other auls; Believe this to my prediction, I never deceived you and now I will not deceive ".
And this is how he responded to the murder of a Russian in the spring of 1860,
“April 9. No. 13. Order in the Shali aul.
On your land in the gorge Hulhulau killed Russian people. According to the rules already announced to you about the responsibility for the land, you are obliged to pay a fine 1 t. Rub. silver or catch and present to me the guilty of murder. Money fines start now to seek from the village.
April 9. No. 14. In Avturinsky aul.
Abrek of your village Gapi killed a Russian man in the Hulhulau gorge in the land of Shalintsy. According to the rules, you are already declared liability for abreks, you must pay a fine 500 rub. silver or catch Abreka Gapi and present to me. Fines start collecting money from the village now.
April 9. No. 15. In Novo Aldinsky village.
Abrek of your village, Adu, killed a Russian in the Hulhulaus Gorge in the land of Shalintsev. According to the rules, you are already declared liability for abreks, you must pay a fine 500 rub. sir or catch Abrek Adu and present to me; fines to start collecting money from the village now ”(ibid. C.58 59).
No less stringent measures were taken in order to wean the freedom-loving mountain dwellers from traditional theft. Here is Colonel Bellic's order No. 25 from November 21 1859 of the year:
“The theft between the Chechens has intensified to such an extent that it becomes difficult for the people, for the termination of which (theft) I am issuing the following rules:
1 e. None of the Chechens should be absent from the village to another village, village or fortress without the request of a sergeant.
2 e. Thurgaks should know about all people who have left the village, and if they find themselves without senior officers, then returning home to 5 days in a hole and collect 5 fine. silver. Absent from the village without the knowledge of the foreman, I only allow honorable old men and honorary persons.
3 e. If a Chechen, where either outside his village acquires a horse or cattle, he must, upon arrival at his village, bring them to a foreman, show him and announce to him from whom such has been acquired. Whoever fails to do this is liable to a fine of 5 rubles. silver.
4 e. If a Chechen has a need to sell or exchange his horse or cattle, he must tell his foreman about this and announce to him whom he sells or trades.
5 e. If a Chechen needs to sell or exchange a horse or cattle in his Naiba, he must have a certificate from his foreman; if he wants to sell a horse or cattle in another Naibst, he must have a certificate from Naib. If he has a need to sell a horse or cattle in Kabarda, on the Kumyk plane, beyond the Terek and in the possessions of Shamkhal Tarkovsky, in Ichkeria, Shatoi, Nazran and other places, then he must receive a certificate of belonging to that horse or cattle from his elder and appear to me for getting me a ticket to leave those places.
6 e. A new foreman and a cattle appeared in a Chechen or a cattle and a sergeant should make an inquiry, and if that was not announced to the foreman for 24 hours, the horse or cattle should be taken away and stored from the foreman, and I should be informed about the same Chechen; if a Chechen acquires a horse or cattle and, before declaring them to a foreman, sells them somewhere, then consider such a Chechen a thief, arrest him and send to me.
7 e. If a Chechen, Karabulak, Kumyk, or whoever brings a horse or cattle to the village for sale and does not have paper from the authorities, then such officers should be arrested and sent to me, and the cattle and horses brought by them to sales, keep and hold up to my special orders.
8 e. Tavlintsy are allowed to walk freely in all Chechen auls, buy bread and have an overnight stay in auls. If in the aul the horses of the Tavlynians disappear, then the auls must be responsible for the missing horses at the cost of such, or extradite to the thieves.
9 e. I declare to the Chechens that papers have been sent from me: to Kabarda, Nazran, to the Kumyk plane, to Shatoi, Ichkheria and Shamkhal Tarkovsky that if Chechens appear there without tickets, then they should be registered and sent to me in bands for guard. People caught in those places without tickets will be referred to Siberia. ”
At a later time, the so-called “Dondukov-Korsakov rules” were held, named after the adjutant general Prince Alexander Mikhailovich Dondukov-Korsakov, who occupied the position of chief commander in the Caucasus and commander of the Caucasian military district from 1882. Their essence was that the mountain community, on whose lands theft, robbery or some other similar act was committed, was obliged either to extradite the criminal, or to fully compensate for the damage. In practice, criminals were not usually turned out, but the stolen cattle almost always returned.
In 1894, these rules were confirmed by the adjutant-general, General Sergei Alexandrovich Sheremetyev, who replaced Dondukov-Korsakov. However, in 1905, the cavalry general appointed by the governor of the Caucasus, Count Illarion Ivanovich Vorontsov Dashkov, abandoned these principles. The results of such a humanism were not slow to appear. As Eduard Vladimirovich Brimmer, a general from artillery who served in the Caucasus for a long time, correctly noted: “Highlanders, these children of nature, like all stupid and unthinking people, always take kindness for weakness; one must be fair with them and hold fast to one's word — then they will respect and fear you. ”
Here is a chronicle of the crimes committed by Chechens only against the residents of the village of Kakhanovskaya, set out in a note to the deputy of the State Duma from the Terek region N. V. Lisichkin:
“1) On the night under 1 in April 1905, Cossack Ivan Maximov was killed in field work, the traces of the intruders were not brought to Gudermesovsky land plot on 40 sazhen. (For the death of Maximov, orphans are not satisfied. The protocol is submitted by jurisdiction, a copy of Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 4 on April April No. 517).
2) In the afternoon of 10 on August 1905, in the fieldwork of the widow of the Cossack girl Praskovya Goryunova, three Chechens looted one pair of bulls, worth 135 rubles, traces of the bulls and intruders were handed over to the village of Tsatsan-Yurt. (The protocol is submitted for jurisdiction, a copy of Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 17 on August 10, No. 1311. The victim is satisfied with 135 with rubles in August of 1907 of the year).
3) morning 19 October 1905 years retired 85 old Cossack Ion Streltsov and his grandson his, 14 year-old boy Zahar Rudnev, on a wagon with two pairs of oxen and harness riding on the land, on the road they were met by the Chechens, took the bulls and carts in captured, beat both of them on Tsatsan-Yurt land and burned some parts of the body on fire; The corpses were flooded in the Black River and 10 was found on November 10 of that year. Traces of the crime were left behind the village of Tsatsan-Yurt. (The protocol is submitted for jurisdiction, copies: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 23 in October of that year for number 1688 and Head of the Vedeno district No. 1689. For the death of Streltsov and Rudnev and for the stolen 376 from the 50 cop. Of the family are not satisfied, although they filed complaints to the Generals: Svetlov, Mikhailov and Kolyubakin, from whom up to now there has been no response).
4) On the night under 31 on December 1905 of the year, a gang of horse Chechens before 10 ti attacked the shepherds who were shepherding with sheep belonging to Ivan Saenko, fired several shots at them and then disappeared, then on the night of 1 in November of that year Chechens also attacked the shepherds a second time, who scattered them with gunshots, killed one dog and robbed 300 sheep in the amount of 2462 rubles. Traces of sheep and intruders were left behind the village of Amir-Adzhi-Yurt, but some of these sheep were detained by the Chief of the execution squad in the village of Tsatsan-Yurt. (The protocol is submitted for jurisdiction, a copy of Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 4 on November 10, No. 1743, and to the Head of Vedensky district No. 1744. The victim in 1908 was satisfied with 1220 in rubles).
5) 18 December December 1905 from the city of Grozny on 18 and carts went to their village 10 people Cossacks, they were attacked by a gang of Chechens who killed three people: Cossacks - Yegor Propotsky and Frol Demchenko and Jewish I. Dubiller, robbed things from first on 48 rubles. Traces of wounded intruders are given in the village Tsatsan-Yurt. (The protocol is submitted by jurisdiction, copies of the Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 18 on December 10, No. 1226, and the Head of the Vedeno district, No. 1227. For the death of Demchenko and Vyprytsky, as well as the property of the family of the deceased, they were not satisfied with the threefold petition from the former Acting General-Governor General Kolyubakin There was no response).
6) In the evening of December 18, while returning from the village of Shchedrinskaya through the settlement of Bragunovskoye, Grozny district, Cossack Mikhail Streltsov was killed. Traces of blood where the crime was committed were left behind the village of Braguny, Grozny district. (The protocol is submitted by jurisdiction, copies of the Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 29 on December 10 of No. 1958 and 1959 and to the Head of the Grozny district No. 1960. The family of the deceased did not receive the death of Streltsov, although it had applied to General Kolyubakin).
7) On the night under 28 on February 1906, Cossack Ivan Bondarev, through the breach of an old residential hut, stole one pair of bulls from the yard, traces of which are brought to Miskyr-Yurt and the bulls are found in a living sakle near Dachshund Khamutaev. (The protocol is submitted on jurisdiction, copies: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 28 on February 1906 of the year No. 263 and Head of Vedensky district No. 264. The thief was acquitted by the court, the bulls were returned to Bondarev).
8) In the evening of 17 on April 1906, while returning from the Shelkovskaya village to Kakhanovskaya on the road on a phaeton, a cab driver, a nobleman Ignatius Guminsky, was killed on the road by four Chechens and two horses with a harness were robbed. (The protocol is submitted on jurisdiction, copies of Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 20 on April for No. 452 and 453 and to the Head of Vedeno district No. 454. Reward received 500 rubles.)
9) 12 September 1906 of the year on the adjacent Amir-Adzhi-Yurtovsky land plot, at a distance from this village 1 1 / 4 versts, three women and their coachmen were robbed by Chechens. (The protocol is submitted on jurisdiction, copy: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 20 on September 9, No. 1149 and Head of the Vedeno district, No. 1150).
10) On the ground of the same village of 6 on October 1906, a Chechen Cossack Trofim Negodnov was injured by one Chechen in his left hand. (The protocol is submitted on jurisdiction, a copy of the Ataman of the Kizlyar department of September, No. 1112).
11) October 15 1906 was wounded by a Chechen Cossack Samuil Maksimov in a birch of his right foot, the tracks were not discovered, but they were sent to the village of Tsatsan-Yurt and Miskir-Yurt. (The protocol is submitted by jurisdiction, a copy of Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 16 on October 12, No. 1651).
12) At three o'clock in the morning of 22 on September 1906 of the year, it was coming from the Kakhanovsky post office to the station Gudermes Vlad. wish dear The state post, an attack was made by the Chechens, and in a shootout a Cossack was killed, who accompanied this mail, Kozma Negodnov and Tikhon Petrusenko were wounded. Traces of intruders surrendered to the village of Gudermes. (The protocol was submitted in due time according to jurisdiction, copies of the Ataman of the Kizlyar department No. 1153 and the Head of Vedensky district No. 1154, and, as it turned out, the administration of this district in this case after the four-month time was made a protocol and in what position the matter is unknown. For the death of the deceased orphan satisfied, although the request was extended three times, and no response was received from the Provisional Governor-General of the Terek Region).
13) On the night under 1 e June 1906, five armed Chechens from a peasant Ivan Kishch were robbed by a sled horse, worth 60 rubles. No crime was discovered. (The protocol is submitted by jurisdiction, a copy of Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 10, June No. 769. The victim is not satisfied).
14) Ataman of the village of Kakhanovskaya, Peter Kozlov, secretly revealed that a gang of Chechens before 15 or a man, on the night of 8, in October intends to launch an attack on the Jalka junction, Vlad. wish Dor., with the aim of robbing the servants of guns and revolvers, and then wreck the postal train and robbery mails. When measures were taken in time to repel the gang, the Chechens unscrewed the rails elsewhere, waiting for the mail train to crash, after which a freight train was released from the station, which crashed and Chechens killed one conductor, the other conductor was dead with legs cut off at a fork; traces of intruders brought to the ground villages. Gudermes. (The protocol is submitted for jurisdiction, copies: Ataman of the Kizlyar Department 13 on October 10, 1258 and District Heads: Grozny No. 1259 and Vedensky No. 1260. The attackers are not open to the authorities).
15) On the night of 18 on September 1906 of the year, shepherds grazed sheep belonging to sheep farmer Ivan Saenko, they were attacked by a gang of horse Chechens, fired gunshots at the shepherds to 50, but without causing harm, they disappeared without a trace. (The protocol on jurisdiction and administration did not appear).
16) 8 of May 1907 of the year, the consignor Kirill Bychkov who sells in the village of Kakhanovskaya, while following him from the city of Grozny, was killed on the road and robbed of his goods and belongings for 229 rubles. Traces of intruders are brought to the land of the village of Myskir-Yurt. (The protocol is submitted for jurisdiction, copies: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 14, May 663 No. and Head of Vedensky district No. 664, and the orphans of the deceased received insufficient remuneration - 300 rubles).
17) On the day of April 10, a clerk of the Amir-Adzhi-Yurtovskaya postal station, who was traveling from that station to the Kakhanovsky post office with easy mail, Ivan Javakhov, was attacked by three armed horse Chechens, robbed his last money 1 ruble 20 kop. who followed him from the mountains. Kizlyar phaetonist, robbed by his passenger, a tradesman of the city of Vinnitsa Govshi Braishteyn, in cash 30 rubles. and documents - promissory notes for six thousand rubles. The Cossacks, seeing the robbery, opened fire on the robbers, a Cossack Kharlampiy Bugayev was wounded in a shootout in his left hand. (The protocol is submitted for jurisdiction, a copy of Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 13 on April No. 489. The attackers went to the village of Istisu of the Vedeno district, but their traces were not withdrawn on the occasion of the drought. The victim for the mutilation did not receive any remuneration).
18) During the day of 17 on June 1907 of the year, a peasant Stepan Lysenko was killed by Chechens, traces of the murderers were brought to the land of the village Miskir-Yurt. (The protocol is submitted on jurisdiction, copies: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 25, June No. 840 and Head of the Vedeno district No. 841. Orphans are not satisfied for the death of Lysenko).
19) In the evening of 15 on July 1907 of the year, near the village, in the gardens, while picking up tomatoes, a peasant Nikolai Koval was injured by three Chechens, traces of intruders are brought to the village of Gudermes. (The report is submitted on jurisdiction, copy: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 19 on July 13, No. 963 and Head of the Vedeno district No. 964).
20) 2 August August 1907 of the village of Istisu was killed by Chechens Stepan Nedoshevin living in the village of Kakhanovskaya, killed by property, money and documents worth 963 rubles. (The protocol was not submitted, the 4 Court Investigator 4 of the Grozny district 1045 of August No. XNUMX was reported. The killers are not open and the family of the deceased is not satisfied).
21) In the afternoon of 25 on August 1907, on the Kakhanovskaya ferry, the Novo Yurtovist Khamzat Dokaev wounded the front man Denis Bakulenko with a dagger in the forehead. (The protocol is submitted for jurisdiction, a copy of Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 27 of August No.№1122 and 1190).
22) In the morning of 3 on September 9, 1907, who was traveling on a cart from the village to the mountains. Grozny peasant Franz Mineykez attacked four Chechens near the brink of a land plot of the village of Miskir-Yurt, with a robbery, killed on the road, the traces of the murderers were brought to the ground of the said village. (The protocol is submitted according to jurisdiction, copies: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 4 on September 9, No. 1177, and to the Head of Vedensky district No. 1178. The family did not receive any compensation for the death of the deceased and the robbed property).
23) In the evening of 13 on October 10, 1907 of the year, which was traveling on a cart from Shelkovskaya stanitsa to Kakhanovskaya, on the lands of the same stanitsa, the peasant Ivan Parfomov made a few shots, robbed one horse, 100 rubles; traces of this horse are shown in the market square of the village of Gudermes. (The protocol is submitted according to jurisdiction, copy: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 14 on October 10, No. 1381 and Head of the Vedeno district No. 1382. The victim is not satisfied).
24) 19 On March 1908, a Cossack team was sent from the village to search for the number of that month Dmitry Ushurel missing on the 16 road of that month; searching for the latter, the Cossacks found the bones and some objects of the missing Silk Factory farmer Fedor Umrikhin, who bought 6 on August 10, 1907, in the mountains. Grozny, a new van, harnessed two of its horses to it, bought boards and slats and, not reaching this stanitsa village 12, on the ground of the village Miskyr-Yurt, the Chechens killed the named Umrikhin, taking his horses with the harness, van, boards, slats and other property in the amount of 500 rub., disappeared without a trace. Traces of the crime were left behind the village of Miskir-Yurt. (The protocol is submitted on jurisdiction, copies: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 20 of March No. 413 and the Head of the Vedeno district. The victims are not satisfied).
25) 10 March, March 1908, the peasant Dmitry Ushurelov, on a van drawn by three horses, set off from the village to the mountains. Grozny, in which, by the way, did not come and disappeared without a trace with the van and horses and other property. Judging by the signs, Usherelov was killed by Chechens in the place where the body of Fyodor Umrikhin lay, all of the above-listed items were collected in the amount of 295 rubles. (The protocol is submitted for jurisdiction, a copy of Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 22 on March 13, No. 417. The Ushurelov family was not satisfied).
26) On the day of May 5 of the year 1908, a consignor Amiley Bokulenko rode the Lysenko mill on a horse-drawn cart, on the road, before reaching the mill a mile and a half, he was attacked by three Chechens, with the aim of depriving them of life, fired three shots and disappeared in Bakulenko. The traces of the three intruders were left behind the village of Tsatsan-Yurt. (The attackers are not open. The protocol is submitted by jurisdiction, copy: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 8 on May 5, No. 686 and Head of the Vedeno district No. 687).
27) On the night of July 23, on July 1908, at the peasant Mikhail Shkolyar, a lock was cracked by a Chechen near a barn, they shot Shkolyar twice and stole one pair of bulls that cost 180 rubles. Traces of the attackers were left behind the village of Gudermes. (The protocol is submitted according to jurisdiction, copy: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 1 on August 13, No. 1157 and Head of the Vedeno district No. 1158. The victim is not satisfied).
28) In the evening of 27 on September 1908, a peasant Ivan Saenko from a stanitsa on two horses was driving to his farm, on the road he was met by 6 horse Chechens who robbed Saenko of designated horses costing 300 rubles. On the farm named Saenko the same evening an attack was made by the Chechens, and the attackers made shepherds, herding sheep, before 50 and those shots that killed the dogs for 200 rubles. The traces of the first incident were handed over to the village of Gudermes. (The protocol is submitted on jurisdiction, copy: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 28 on September 9, No. 1581 and Head of the Vedeno district No. 1578. The victim did not receive satisfaction).
29) In the evening of 28 on September 1908 of the year, five Chechen armed men attacked a Cossack serving as a sheep farmer Saenko, Arefiya Nebericutian, and fired into the forest in the direction of Gudermes village in Unpericate until 10. (The protocol is submitted for jurisdiction, copies: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 28 on September 9, No. 1487 and Head of Vedensky district No. 1488) ”(Tkachev G.A. Ingushi and Chechens in the family of the Terek region. Issue 2. Vladikavkaz, 1911. S.108 116).
10 January 1910, in addition to this list, the Cossacks of the village of Kakhanovskaya sent their deputy another note in which they reported on new Chechen crimes:
“1) At night, under 12 and in January 1909, Chechens attacked the sheep farmer’s farm, Sila Saenko, with attackers killing a sheep, breaking a barn, shingles on it, and piercing the shed of a peasant Fyodor Rodinchenko, and producing a pattern before the 60. (Traces of the intruders went to the village of Gudermes. - The protocol was sent according to jurisdiction, a copy of the Ataman of the Kizlyar department from 14 on January 1909 of the year, No. 30).
2) At 3 in the morning hours of 20, January 1909, among the peasants living in the village of Kakhanovskaya, Philip of Marofovsky and Naum Ivanenko, who were riding the plot of Eldzhurkaev, miles away in 8 from the village, two horses, 195 rubles, were robbed from Ivanenko. and Marofovsky one horse, standing 100 rub., three armed Chechens, under threat of life. (The protocol is submitted according to jurisdiction, a copy of Ataman of the Kizlyar department).
3) 21 June June 1909 of the morning Cossack of the village of Kakhanovskaya Andrei Rebrov, returning from the Slob. Vedeno, near the villages. Arsena was robbed by five Chechens armed with rifles; robbed: overcoat, bread and 5 rub. of money. (The protocol is submitted on jurisdiction. Copies: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 24 June 1909 of the year, No. 1150, Head of the Vedeno district of 24, June No. 1158).
4) At 12 on July 12, 15 was sent to the shepherds from Andrei Saenko’s farm, pasturing a herd of sheep, Magomad Asadov and Kasyan Andriyts, at 1909, three Chechens were attacked, and about those shots were fired around 20. There was no robbery due to the fact that the herd scattered through the forest in small parts.
5) 12 September 1909, at 3 one o'clock in the morning, at a peasant living in the village of Kakhanovskaya, Ivan Chebanenko, during his return from the Eljurkaev district with firewood, two horses were robbed by an unknown two Chechens, having one of the Chechens having mounted a rifle in his chest, he ordered, in broken language, to indicate where his rifle was, but Chebanenko did not have one. The measures taken by horses were found in the mountains, on the land of the village of Eliskhan-Yurt, 4 of the site of the Vedeno district. (The protocol is submitted on jurisdiction).
6) 30 September 1909, about 7 o'clock in the evening the Cossacks village Kahanovskoy Yevstropov Bakulenko Joseph Tsybin, while returning to his village, between the villages of Istisu and Gudermes, 4 area Vedeno district, have seen their overtook four Chechens, who were traveling in the two-horse van; hours on 7 the evening on Tsybin in Bakulenko was fired from an 4 ambush shot, with which Tsybin was mortally wounded, but Bakulenko, shooting back, managed to escape and drove with the wounded Tsybin to the village where the latter died. (The protocol is submitted by jurisdiction, copies: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 1 on October 10, No. 1839, Head of the Vedeno district of 1 on October 12, No. 1840, and Head of the 4 section of the Vedensky district of October 1, No. 1841).
7) 20 October 1909 year, hours of 7 NIL evening, on the road from the village of Amir Aji-Yurt village Kahanovskuyu, before reaching the final of miles 8 m, robbed three Chechens an employee residing in the village merchant Vasily Luzhnova - Kasyan Andriytsa three horses worth 380 rub. and things on 41 rub. 50 cop., Owned by Luznov, Andriytsya has things and money for 21 rubles. 28 cop., A passenger Kalina Alekseenko money and things on 12 rub. 50 cop - And Andriytsa stripped and robbed naked. - Half an hour earlier of this robbery, 6 armed Chechens were robbed by a constable of the Borozdinskaya bed, a nobleman Vladimir Batyryov, who was driving a van drawn by 2 by horses to the mountains. Terrible passengers: Cossacks of their stanitsa, Semyon Yakushko, for putting on service in 1 Yu Terek Cossack battery, Cossack Art. The approximate, Mozdok department of Nikita Tikhonenko and the Cossack of the village of Alexandronevskaya, Fyodor Babilurov; Batyryov robbed: mare, standing 100 rubles, 22 money rubles. and items on 68 rub .; Semyon Yakushkov has all uniforms and equipment worth 112 rubles; Nikita Tikhonenko money 10 rubles. and Fyodor Babilurov stallion, worth 120 rubles., And things on 114 rubles .; In total, 9 was robbed of Chevs by names of people named above with 1002 rubles. 58 cop
Traces went to the village of Gudermes. (The protocol is submitted by jurisdiction, copies: Ataman of the Kizlyar department of 22 in October 1906 for number 2027, Head of the Vedeno district 22 of October for number 2028 and Head of 4 of the Vedeno district at the report 22 of October 1909 in October for number 2029) (ibid. .C.118 120).
They did not lag behind the Chechens and their Ingush relatives:
“While the Ingush are robbing and attacking across the Upper Terek and Sunzha, Kabardians, Ossetians and Upper Sunzhen villages, the Chechens serve the rest of the region along the Terek and Sunzha, the lower-ranking Cossacks, as well as the Kumyk and Karanogai tribes” (Ibid. C .7).
The crimes committed by Chechens and Ingush against the Russian population were often accompanied by special atrocities:
“Near the village of Vasiliev, on the land of the village of Shama-Yurt, two Cossacks (stanitsa Kalinovskaya and Savelyevskaya), 16 summer maiden and 10 year old boy, all of whom were thrown into a lit stack and burned, were killed. The boy was apparently burning even alive; and maybe the rest. Because in a few fathoms from the stack, on the ground were found the hooks that had fallen from the burning beshmet and a small group of burnt, stuck together in one, sunflower seeds, which were in the boy's pocket. Apparently, the burning man jumped out of the fire, but, running away, fell, continuing to burn, and was again thrown into the fire by the villains. His corpse was found in a stack along with the rest of the corpses.
Kazak Art. Tarskoy Yegor Gusakov was Ingushes crucified in the forest and executed.
The same Cossack village, Dimitrii Mikhailov, was wounded with daggers and set on fire. ”
However, one should not think that only Russians suffered from the Chechen-Ingush robberies. Here is the testimony of a Kabardian, expressed in one of the then newspapers:
“The flowering horse breeding in Malaya Kabarda, which had national significance, ceased to exist due to thefts and robberies committed by Ingush neighbors. There were quite a few cases of hijacking by horses by the Ingush from Great Kabarda. Dozens of people in the Little Kabarda were killed and crippled by the Ingush when they robbed them of their own good. The systematic thefts and robberies committed by the Ingush in Malaya Kabarda have fundamentally undermined its economic well-being and brought it to poverty, about which few Kabardians have repeatedly complained to local authorities.
At this time, no one can vouch for their safety and that he will not be robbed or killed by the Ingush today or tomorrow; in this situation there is no opportunity to engage in farming. I do not list in detail all the thefts, robberies, murders and other violence committed by the Ingush in the neighboring few Kabardian villages, as this would take too much space. Saying that Ingush people are criminal, I’m far from thinking that there are no criminal people among Kabardians, but I can safely say that if not all Ingushs commit thefts, robberies, robberies, murders and other violence, then all of them are all harbingers of their criminal element and the property obtained by this element through the crime, as there was no case that they betrayed the criminal or the stolen property, even in cases when the criminal was hiding in their village or the trail of a herd of horses was driven into the village. Moreover, the Ingush hold all the peasant farmers in Malaya Kabarda in terror, forcing them to keep the Ingush guard as a guard. ”
But what happened at that time in Dagestan:
“Back in the era of the last war, raids into the Karanogai steppe constituted a favorite occupation of the Chechen gangs. The people are unarmed, peaceful - they are not like Cossacks, who are always ready to surrender. Like timid sheep, they only huddle at the appearance of a formidable guest and give everything without complaint.
Seduced and intimidated by Chechen predators who rent neighboring areas under the guise of peaceful fishing, they are not only afraid to complain, but with fear even pass one by one about their share.
- How can you - kill! They said, frightened, by the ataman of the department, who visited them last year and asked about the circumstances of the thefts and the perpetrators.
- You will leave, and he will kill! Comes and kills if he finds out.
To achieve who his robber was, he had to promise Karanogay that the Chechens would not be prosecuted.
Knowing our "laws", the Karanogays were sure that nothing would come out of the "persecution", but they would get revenge anyway, if not the thief himself, so his comrade. "
“In the village of Aksay, where we stayed in the house of the venerable Kumyk, there was grief: 8 buffaloes, which made up the main wealth of the owner, were stolen. The son of Kumyk was not at home: he went to look for them. Further, on the way to Khasav Yurt, we met him. He rode anxious home, accompanied by some kind of native. My friend talked. It turned out that his son had found buffaloes in Batash-Yurt and was now going to his father for ransom: the thieves demanded 70 rubles for 8 buffaloes, the price was low. I was very indignant at the shamelessness of thieves, and the relief that they had, and when, on the return trip, we again drove to the Kumyk, I began to speak to him. To my chagrin, instead of the venerable Kumyk, I had to blush myself - and very much - when, in response, he began to scatter the fair reproaches of my government (he said: to the authorities) for the very same thieves I accused him of, and talk about his miserable life under the yoke of thieves, as if by the government (“the authorities”) are protected.
- How not to buy? spoke kumyk. You will not give money, buffaloes will be driven in, that you will not find, or will be cut. Prove who took the money? He will say, I do not know you: there were no witnesses. You will tell the one who specified the buffaloes: you know thieves; he says: no, one friend told me ... You yourself will be guilty around.
From this Kumyk I learned a lot in one evening about our court and our power.
Suffice to say that the natives prefer to pay tribute to the robbers and finish the case with the world, rather than seek the help of Russian judicial institutions.
- The judge will call you, - says Kumyk; you come, there is no thief; go back, the case is postponed. Your name is another time - you are a working man; you have no time: you have to go to the fair (Kumyk was a cattle dealer), it’s in another village. You did not go, you think - will postpone again; the thief has arrived, your refusal: why did not come. And the thief threatens: I will kill, I will burn ... ".
Of course, liberal public opinion justified the actions of the Chechens and Ingushes by referring to their supposedly depressed situation: “the peaceful situation put the authorities to sleep to the point that in every native caught up in robbery, the poor man was offended by the fate, and in every Russian he was oppressed.” After the revolution, this version was happily picked up by Soviet propaganda.
However, these speculative theories are vividly refuted by the then practice:
“In the Shchedrin forest, the natives killed in the malicious act were twice detectable, but both times they were not poor. They were well armed, they had a silver watch and they had money in their wallets. Among those killed was even a mullah. It’s hard to think that they were driven by miseries. ”
Moreover, even well-off representatives of the “oppressed highlanders” were engaged in robberies and robberies:
“Even the owners of the manufactory shops, like a certain A. B., do not disdain to drive out the cattle from other courts with their own hands. Not so long ago, this businessman caught only because, apart from the traces of his new rubber galoshes, he left his wallet with a receipt for 700 rubles, where the bulls were driven out. in his name. "
Quite the contrary, it was the habit of getting robbery and plunder that caused the poverty of the local population:
“The mountaineer's economic weakness is the inevitable result of his penchant for daring and unaccustomed to work hard. While the wife’s most important work in the family is performed by the native, the native master finds too much idle leisure time, which is not always used with benefit. ”
That was the position of Chechnya and Ingushetia by 1917.