Military Review

Conqueror of the Transcaucasus - Prince Pavel Dmitrievich Tsitsianov

22
And I will sing that glorious hour,
When, feeling the battle bloody,

On the indignant Caucasus
Our double-headed eagle,
When the Terek gray-haired
For the first time the battle of thunder struck
And the rumble of Russian drums,
And in the pit, with a bold village
The fiery Tsitsianov appeared ...

A. S. Pushkin. "Prisoner of the Caucasus".


One of the most interesting and controversial figures in the Caucasian policy of the Russian Empire at the turn of two centuries - XVIII - XIX - was Prince Pavel Dmitrievich Tsitsianov (1754 - 1806). It was Tsitsianov, the representative of the kind of Georgian princes Tsitsishvili, that Russia is largely obliged to join a large part of modern Georgia and subordinate the ryadiya of the Muslim khanates of Northern Azerbaijan. And very often Tsitsianov took the initiative, acted at his own peril and risk, without having the appropriate authority. He acted with a striking scale, realizing the strategic importance of the mission he is carrying out in the South Caucasus. It was one of the prominent Russian statesmen to be remembered by descendants.

The Tsitsianov family, like many other Georgian families, moved to the Russian empire after the 1725 year, fleeing from their native land, where Ottomans and Turks raged. From that moment on, Russia became their homeland. The Tsitsianov clan was very ancient, descended from the Kartlin and Kakhetian princes, being along the female line in relation to the Georgian kings. The first princely title was received by Queen Tamara the Great (rules in 1184 - 1209 / 1213) Zacharias Panastekeli. His descendants occupied important government posts in Georgia and differed in the wars with the Turks, Persians, mountain tribes and in internal strife. His ancestors bore the last name of Panasketheli, then Tsitsishvili, already in Russian citizenship - Tsitsianovs.

Pavel Tsitsianov was born 8 (19) September 1754 in Moscow. His great-grandfather Paata Tsitsishvili (Pavel Zakharievich Tsitsianov) came to Russia with Tsar Vakhtang VI, who left for Russia because of the large-scale Turkish offensive. The prince received the estate and served Russia as a captain in the Georgian Hussars. Father, Dmitry Pavlovich, was a courtier and served in the civil field. Mother was born Princess Elizabeth Mikhailovna Davidovna. The cousin of the future Caucasian governor - Mariam (Maria) Georgievna Tsitsishvili, became the last Georgian tsarina, being the wife of Tsar George XII.

Conqueror of the Transcaucasus - Prince Pavel Dmitrievich Tsitsianov To the Caucasus

Brought up in a rather poor family, the prince, according to the clan tradition, was preparing for military service. Therefore, he knew the military history, the family pedigree of the family, the benefit to be proud of was what. In life I had to rely only on myself, among the wealthy and famous, the Tsitsianov family in Russia did not belong. He began his service in the Life Guards Preobrazhensky Regiment in 1772, starting with ensign. Pavel Tsitsianov tried, did not spare himself. Notable for assertiveness, perseverance, diligence and demanding. Demanding it will further develop to cruelty, often necessary, given the real situation in the Caucasus.

In 1786, Tsitsianov was appointed commander of the St. Petersburg Grenadier Regiment. The fact that he became a commander of a regiment at the age of thirty, says a lot about his personality. First of all, that served Tsitsianov roughly, being a model for other commanders. In the Russian-Turkish war 1787-1791. Tsitsianov can say lucky, he served under the rising star of the Russian army - Alexander Suvorov. He began his combat career with distinction, knowing the victories at Focsani, Rymnik and Ishmael. In addition, he distinguished himself at Khotyn, reflecting the enemy sortie. In Suvorov correspondence, Tsitsianov’s surname is found more than once. And always Suvorov celebrated him as a commander of the energetic, skillful. True, I must say that in the "golden age" of Russian victories weapons there were plenty of such commanders in the Russian army.

One more time under the leadership of Suvorov, Major General Tsitsianov was able to serve in Poland in 1794, during the suppression of the uprising of Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Tsitsianov's detachment covered Belarus from the rebels. At the very beginning of the campaign, he skillfully defended Grodno, an important strategically military city. The Polish rebels, with the support of the local gentry, at that time tried to expand the uprising, to kindle its centers in Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine. To this end, numerous detachments were sent to the east. 24 August 1794, the Tsitsianov took the first independent battle: under Lyuban he, having much smaller forces, completely crushed 5-thousand. detachment of the Warsaw General Stefan Grabowski, who crossed the Western Bug and tried to break through to Minsk. Tsitsianov decisively forced the enemy to fight, not allowing him to retreat. The Polish squad suffered heavy losses and was scattered, leaving the Russian soldiers with all the wagon train and artillery. This victory showed the leadership talent Tsitsianova. It is not by chance that Suvorov, in one of the orders for the army, wrote: “... To fight decisively, like Tsitsianov.

Tsitsianov in the Polish campaign was able to distinguish himself in battle one more time. Russian troops waged a mobile war in pursuit of Polish gangs. Polish troops could not resist the Russian troops in open battle, even having a numerical advantage, were defeated. But defeated and dispersed, they again united, creating a danger to the rear units, the Russian administration. A detachment of Tsitsianov overtook the connection of "Major General of Lithuanian Forces" Pavel Grabovsky in the border area of ​​the Kingdom of Poland. In the fleeting battle the Poles were defeated. Tsitsianov pursued the enemy, to its complete dispersion.

The successful command of Tsitsianov troops during the Polish campaign was noticed in the Russian capital. Empress Catherine II awarded him the Order of St. George, III degree. In addition, he received a large estate in the Minsk province with 1500 serfs, which made him a major landowner. Polish victories predetermined Tsitsianov's further career. Soon he will be assigned to the Caucasus, where he has long sought.

General situation in the Caucasus

For a long time, the Christian peoples of Georgia and Armenia piled on Russia and Russia. The South Caucasian states, historically fragmented into small kingdoms, khanates and princedoms, which were constantly at odds with each other, simply could not resist such great Muslim powers as Persia and the Ottoman Empire. There was a question about the very existence of Christian peoples in the Caucasus.

Georgia had a choice: to be completely enslaved by the empires of the East, having lost a significant part of its national identity, or to go under the authority of a single-faith and benevolent Russia. Many peoples of the Caucasus saw rescuers and defenders against the Persian and Turkish invaders in the Russians. In Russia, many statesmen realized the need to join the Caucasian lands to Russia. The Caucasus Mountains were a kind of natural border of Russia in this strategic direction. In addition, the Caucasus was an excellent foothold for expanding influence in the East. Russia received significant pieces of the coast of two seas at once - the Black and the Caspian. Moreover, Turkey was a long-standing historical enemy of Russia, with whom fierce wars were fought one after another. Simultaneously with the ousting of the Ottomans from the Black Sea region, Russia was also entering the Caucasus.

All this led to the fact that 1783 was concluded the St. George Treaty between Russia and Eastern Georgia. Kartli-Kakheti passed under the protectorate of Russia. However, two heavy wars at once - the Russian-Turkish 1787 — 1791. and the Russian-Swedish 1788 — 1790, diverted Petersburg’s attention from the Caucasus. The last decade of the 18 century was very bloody, even for the Caucasus, where wars, various internecine conflicts were commonplace. Georgia was threatened with invasion by Persia and Turkey. Devastating raids were often committed from Dagestan and the khanates of Northern Azerbaijan. Thousands of people died, others were enslaved.

In Iran, during the bloody internecine war, Aga Mohammed Shah (1741 — 1797), nicknamed “Akhta Khan”, that is, Skopets Khan, seized power. He was deflated at a young age, becoming a eunuch. This physical injury led to the deformation of the psyche, made him a man vicious and ruthless. But he was also a talented commander. After the death of Karim Khan in 1779, the city of Aga-Muhammad headed the Turkic tribe of Qadjars, took control of Mazandaran and Gilan and opposed the Zenda dynasty. In 1785, he captured the then capital, Isfahan. The city was subjected to such a terrible defeat that contemporaries noted, although it was difficult to surprise people with cruelties then. Aga Mohammed captured several more important cities and made Tehran the capital some time later. In 1794, after a five-month siege, the last Zend stronghold, Kerman, was taken by assault. By order of the Shah, most of its inhabitants were killed, 20 thousand men were blinded, thousands of women were given to the soldiers for fun.

In 1795, the Aga-Mohammed with the 60-thousand army crossed the Araks and invaded the South Caucasus. The Karabakh, Sheki and other khanates were subjected to terrible defeat. Aga-Mohammed demanded from the lord of the Kartli-Kakhetian kingdom of Erekle II to abandon the alliance with Russia and submit to Persia. In case of refusal, he threatened to make “... the river flowing from the blood of the Russian and Georgian peoples”. Irakli II, hoping for help from Russia, courageously refused to fulfill this requirement.

However, the help could come in time only in November. Yes, and the Georgians were able to assemble only 5-7 thousand detachment, including the troops of Imerethin, led by King Solomon II, and the king hoped to assemble 40-thousand. the militia. Most of the Georgian princes chose to sit in their inheritances, others sent only a part of their squads. Many Georgian princes (tavad) betrayed their king, did not bring warriors.

35-thousand in early September, the Persian army led by the Shah was on the outskirts of Tbilisi. Heraclius, and then he was 75 years old, still decided, despite the small number of his troops, to take the fight. 10 (23) September in the battle of Soganlug Georgians defeated the advanced units of the Persian army. Encountering such fierce resistance, the enemy hesitated. Fearing to meet a strong Georgian army, the Persians had already begun to think about retreat. But the traitors of the Georgian people reported the small number of defenders of Tbilisi. 11 (24) September on Krtsanisi field took one of the most tragic battles in the history of Georgia. The Georgian squad met numerous hordes of the enemy with their breasts and fought to the last, almost all the defenders of the capital fell in this battle. Heraclius II himself was surrounded at the height of the battle and was already preparing to accept death, but his grandson, Prince John, who with his soldiers fought his grandfather and brought him out of battle saved him.

The Persians broke into Tbilisi, and the city was subjected to a terrible defeat. During the nine days of their stay in the city, the Persian soldiers almost completely plundered and destroyed the Georgian capital. Temples and palaces were desecrated and destroyed, a cannon factory, an arsenal, a mint, and all significant buildings were subjected to pogrom. Those residents who were not killed were taken into slavery (mainly women and children). Many parts of the country were also devastated. The pogrom committed in Georgia pleased not only the Persians and the neighboring Khanate with Kartli-Kakheti, but also Turkey and France. In Istanbul and Paris, they considered the defeat of Tbilisi as the defeat of their rival - the Russian Empire.

Russian-Persian War of the Year 1796

Empress Catherine II, as soon as she received the news of the tragedy in Tiflis (Tbilisi), gave the order to help Heraclius, as a vassal of the Russian throne. Russia declared war on Persia. At the behest of the Russian government, Eastern Daghestan and Dagestan (the Dagestan rulers, fearing the invasion of the Persians, also asked for help) sent the first formations: the infantry battalion 3 - about 3 thousand bayonets at 6 guns, and about 1 thousand cavalry (mostly there were Cossacks and Kalmyks).

In 1796, the Caucasian Army was formed as part of three corps: the Main, the Caucasus and the corps of Lieutenant General Bulkakov. There were 21 thousand people in the army. including 9 thousand cavalry. A separate Caspian expeditionary force (about 13 thousand people) was sent under the command of Valerian Zubov to fight against Persia. It included the Caspian flotilla, Dagestan detachment of General Savelyev and Russian troops in Georgia. The closest assistant to Zubov was Prince Pavel Tsitsianov.

The second Persian campaign, like the First, which Emperor Peter undertook in 1722-1723, was successful. Russian troops 10 in May 1796 of the year stormed Derbent, in June they occupied Cuba and Baku without a fight. In mid-November, the 35-thousandth Russian corps reached the confluence of the Kura and Araks rivers, and was ready to continue the offensive into Persia. However, the death of Catherine II crossed all the brilliant prospects of the Second Persian campaign. In this regard, this campaign divided the fate of the Persian campaign 1722-1733, when the death of Peter Alekseevich did not allow Russia to take over the vast territories of the Caspian coast and gain a foothold in Persia.

Pavel Tsitsianov in a campaign was responsible for "expeditionary policy". It was he who convinced the Baku Hussein-Kuli Khan to swear allegiance to the Russian Empress. In 1796, the beginning of 1797, Tsitsianov served as commandant of the Baku fortress. When Emperor Paul recalled troops from the Transcaucasus, Tsitsianov temporarily remained out of work and retired.

Georgia's accession to Russia

With the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Transcaucasus, a critical situation began to emerge there again. Aga-Mohammed collected 60-thousand. army and getting ready to defeat Georgia again. The Persians invaded Karabakh, took the fortress of Shusha. The area has undergone bloody devastation. However, the Shah was killed by his own commanders, whom he had ordered to execute shortly before. This saved Georgia, the Persians went home. But such an outcome could only be a temporary respite before the new rout of Transcaucasia.

In January, 1798, died in the 78 year of life, king Heraclius II. After the death of Heraclius, the throne went to his son, George XII, who continued his father's policy of rapprochement with Russia. Not having the strength to fight Iran and internal strife, George XII asked Emperor Paul I to admit Georgia to the Russian Empire. 22 December 1800 of the year Pavel Petrovich signed a manifesto on the annexation of the Kartli-Kakheti kingdom to Russia. On the eve of this event, Russian troops arrived in Georgia under the command of General Lazarev. Together with them, the Russian plenipotentiary minister arrived in Georgia under the Georgian king, Kovalensky. Lazarev and Kovalensky concentrated in their hands the management of Eastern Georgia.

Emperor Alexander Pavlovich 12 September 1801 of the year confirmed the decision of the father, issuing a corresponding manifesto. Eastern Georgia became part of the Russian Empire. In his second manifesto regarding Georgia, Alexander announced the deprivation of the rights of all previously reigning dynasties of the Georgian throne.

Tsitsianov return to service

Emperor Alexander Pavlovich was concerned about the situation in the South Caucasus. Georgia was threatened by Persia. Knorring, appointed by the ruler of Georgia, aroused discontent of the local population, could not solve the problem of lezghin raids. Therefore, Knorring and Kovalensky were recalled, and Lieutenant-General Prince Tsitsianov was appointed commander-in-chief to Eastern Georgia.

In the Caucasus, a decisive man was needed at the same time knowing the local situation, able to subjugate the feudal lords, speak their language. The position of Tsitsianov himself affected the choice of emperor. He repeatedly expressed it at court: “In Asia, all beliefs and negotiations are nothing, and power is everything. Only Russia should become such a force in the Caucasus ... ” Tsitsianov had his own attitude to the eastern rulers, no matter how, whether it was the ruler of the Persian state, or the feudal lord who had a dozen auls under his rule. Tsitsianov, who received European education, saw in them people who exercise their power in accordance with barbaric traditions. Therefore, it is necessary to fight and conduct business with them, not according to European rules, but in accordance with their traditions. For example, as did Genghis Khan or “iron lamer” Timur. Civilization in the East, according to Tsitsianov, had to be carried on bayonets.

It should be noted that Emperor Alexander Pavlovich hesitated for a long time in the Georgian issue. He entrusted the decision on it to the State Council and the so-called. "Young friends" (private committee). These were Stroganov, Kochubey, Novosiltsev and Chartoryi. We can say that they represented the “liberal” wing of the time in Russia. "Liberals" were against the accession of Georgia to Russia. They insisted that the main task of Alexander should not be the expansion of the empire, but the internal accomplishment of Russia.

But the "Imperial Eagles" of Catherine II, led by Platon Zubov, prevailed in the State Council. In their opinion, Georgia had to be held due to several reasons. First, in the name of the dignity of the empire. In the world, East Georgia was already considered Russian, and it was impossible to retreat from joining, it was a loss to the dignity of the Russian Empire. Secondly, it was noted that internal conflicts lead this weakened Orthodox kingdom, which is also in a hostile environment, to strife, chaos and death. Georgia could not resist without external assistance. Thirdly, Georgia needed to be annexed to Russia in order to ensure the tranquility of the southern borders of the empire. The presence of rich mines in Georgia was also noted.

The Imperials emerged victorious in a battle with the liberals. The will of Russia in the Caucasus was to be realized by Prince Tsitsianov. 11 September 1802, he was appointed commander-in-chief of Russian troops in the Caucasus, both in the North and in the South. In addition, he received the post of inspector in the Caucasian fortified border line, the military governor of Astrakhan and commander in chief in Georgia.

Many researchers note that at that time, Alexander Pavlovich made the best choice, appointing Tsitsianov to the post of commander in chief in the Caucasus. He was a brave commander and at the same time a skilled administrator who combined European education and knowledge of local conditions. To these qualities was added boiling energy, political will, a sharp mind, decisiveness and firmness.

To be continued ...
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Conqueror of the Transcaucasus - Prince Pavel Dmitrievich Tsitsianov
Conqueror of Transcaucasia - Prince Pavel Dmitrievich Tsitsianov. Assault ganja
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  1. 416sd
    416sd April 10 2013 09: 33 New
    +3
    In the official Russian historiography it is written approximately like this: "Intending to establish control over Baku, Tsitsianov besieged it and got a promise from the local khan to transfer the fortress to the Russians. In February 1806, a ceremony of the peaceful surrender of Baku was to take place. Accompanied by Lieutenant Colonel Prince Elizbar Eristov and one Cossack Tsitsianov drove up to the walls of the fortress. When the Baku khan Huseyn-Kuli handed him the keys to the city, Ibrahim khan (one of the khan's close associates) killed Tsitsianov with a sudden shot from a pistol. Prince Eristov was also killed. "

    Actually, during the ceremony of Tsitsianov, he let out his tongue, calling the nephew of the Baku khan a puppy. It was he who killed Tsitsianov. And there was not a shot from a pistol, but a dagger that was thrown. At least this is the version of the Azerbaijani writer and poet of the 19th century, part-time Russian general and historian Abbaskuli Aga Bakikhanov.

    But this, of course, was an occasion, the real reason was that Tsitsianov’s troops completely assassinated the Javad Khan family, including women and children, during the assault on Ganja, which resonated even among the pro-Russian-minded khans of Azerbaijan (they are between assimilation among the Ottomans or assimilation among the Persians decided to choose Russia, because among the Russians there are more chances for uniqueness and independence).

    Ours recently made a very good film on the subject of "The Fate of the Emperor", there are battle scenes, but this is garbage, the main thing in the dialogues, unfortunately, although the film is translated into Russian and there are Russian actors there too, it is not on the network in Russian.

    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak April 10 2013 09: 56 New
      +4
      416sd "But this of course was the reason, the real reason was that Tsitsianov's troops during the assault on Ganja completely massacred the Khan's family of Javad Khan, including women and children, which caused a resonance even among the pro-Russian khans of Azerbaijan (they are between assimilation among the Ottomans or assimilation among the Persians, they decided to choose Russia, because among the Russians there are more chances for uniqueness and independence). "
      And where can I read about this moment. I mean the moment of the killing of children, the khan's family. Just a lot of information recently flies out from under the feathers of writers not backed up by anything in general then. So someone told someone. You start digging, you don’t find anything. Somehow these moments are depressing. Here in Wiki there are some numbers about the assault and it is not visible from them that the Russians would kill everyone.
      "After that, the khan's soldiers, who also learned about the death of Javad Khan, began to surrender. By noon the Ganja fortress was completely taken. In total, the khan's troops lost about 1750 people killed. 17 people were taken prisoner. The losses of the Russian troops amounted to 224. officers and 17 lower ranks killed and wounded. During the assault, Javad Khan's middle son Huseyngulu aga was killed. The stubborn resistance and heroic death of Javad Khan made a great impression on the storming people. He was buried with honors in the courtyard of the Ganja Juma Mosque. "
      I know the descendants of this khan are preserved. For example, Irada Bagirova writes about surviving descendants.
      "More than two centuries have passed since those events, but the feat of Javad Khan has not faded in the memory of the people, for even now it gives us lessons on a worthy life and death. This is not a beautiful phrase. The descendants of Javad Khan Ismail and Adil Khan Ziyadkhanov made a huge contribution to the creation the first Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the Muslim world. "
      Therefore, someone survived from a large killed khan's family. And you write completely cut out. So I would like to know in more detail ...
    2. xan
      xan April 10 2013 15: 13 New
      0
      Quote: 416sd
      In February 1806, the ceremony of the peaceful surrender of Baku was to take place. Accompanied by Lieutenant Colonel Prince. Elizbar Eristov and one Cossack Tsitsianov drove up to the walls of the fortress. When the Baku khan Huseyn-Kuli handed him the keys to the city, Ibrahim khan (one of the khan's close associates) with a sudden shot from a pistol killed Tsitsianov. Prince Eristov was also killed. "

      Well, I knew the east and the three of us went to take the keys. For such a murder, a true eastern ruler, Nadir Shah, would kill all of Baku.
  2. 416sd
    416sd April 10 2013 09: 41 New
    -1
    The capture of Ganja:

    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak April 10 2013 10: 05 New
      +3
      The cartoon is so-so. Amused the battle scenes. Russian troops fought in open combat formations? As I understand it, they are beginning to create "legends" about the valiant defenders of independence in Azerbaijan. Although to tell the truth, the Azerbaijanis did not have much resistance and rejection of the Russian government. It would be better to shoot a film about the participation of the Azerbaijani cavalry in the Russian-Turkish war of 1828-29. How they fought against the Ottoman Turks as part of the Russian troops. And against the Persians too.
  3. knn54
    knn54 April 10 2013 11: 51 New
    +1
    A representative of the ancient Georgian princely family, he, like Bagration, was an ardent patriot of Russia. He is one of the BUILDERS of the Russian Empire.
    1. xan
      xan April 10 2013 15: 07 New
      0
      far from Russia, you acutely feel its necessity and irreplaceability.
  4. pinecone
    pinecone April 10 2013 13: 17 New
    0
    They insisted that the main task of Alexander should not be the expansion of the empire, but the internal improvement of Russia.

    Sober-minded people. Seers.
    1. xan
      xan April 10 2013 15: 05 New
      0
      what prevented you from doing both things at once?
  5. xan
    xan April 10 2013 15: 16 New
    +1
    [quote = xan] [quote = 416sd] In February 1806, a ceremony of the peaceful surrender of Baku was to take place. Accompanied by Lieutenant Colonel Prince. Elizbar Eristov and one Cossack Tsitsianov drove up to the walls of the fortress. When the Baku khan Huseyn-Kuli handed him the keys to the city, Ibrahim khan (one of the khan's close associates) with a sudden shot from a pistol killed Tsitsianov. Prince Eristov was also killed. "
    [/ Quote]
    Well, I knew the east and the three of us went to take the keys. For such a murder, a true eastern ruler, Nadir Shah, would kill all of Baku. Is this killer killer considered a hero? Did it help Azerbaijan?
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak April 10 2013 16: 44 New
      +1
      xan "Lieutenant Colonel Prince Elizbar Eristov and one Cossack Tsitsianov drove up to the walls of the fortress"
      The Russian colonialists of Georgians Tsitsian and Ossetians Eristov went to get the keys to Baku. Hehe ... These are they ... Russian invaders.
      1. xan
        xan April 10 2013 20: 28 New
        +1
        Quote: Nagaibak
        xan "Lieutenant Colonel Prince Elizbar Eristov and one Cossack Tsitsianov drove up to the walls of the fortress"
        The Russian colonialists of Georgians Tsitsian and Ossetians Eristov went to get the keys to Baku. Hehe ... These are they ... Russian invaders.

        I’m surprised myself. Apparently there was something in the Russian Empire that made complete Russian imperials from foreigners.
        And for the Caucasians, it seems that the Russian colonizers of the Georgian Tsitsians with the Ossetian Eristov are better than the Persian or Turkish flayers
    2. Yarbay
      Yarbay April 10 2013 16: 58 New
      0
      Quote: xan
      Well, I knew the east and the three of us went to take the keys. For such a murder, a true eastern ruler, Nadir Shah, would kill all of Baku. Is this killer killer considered a hero? Did it help Azerbaijan?

      Read less Wikipedia)))
      Tsitsianova was killed by Abbas Kuli Khan himself!
      And for what Ibrahim khan-Karabakh khan was killed with his family with his family, including young children, May oror Lisanovich ??
      http://www.1news.az/analytics/history/20110419040303734.html#page3
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak April 10 2013 18: 10 New
        +3
        Yarbay "And why was Ibrahim Khan-Karabakh Khan and his family killed with his family, including the young children Mayor Lisanovich ??"
        Dear Yarbay! In that article, there is the point of view of Mr. E. Amirov and nothing more. The article is not backed up by sources. Through an evaluative character. Wikipedia is also certainly not a great proof. But the numbers are correct. Massacre does not smell. The conversation about the murdered babies in my opinion has not yet been supported by evidence. And the son of the khan really died. Maybe they mean it when they talk about the whole family?
        "Another, no less convincing evidence of this is the fact of significant
        armed assistance of Azerbaijanis of Kazakh, Shamshadil, Grunt and Demirchilchra
        a small Russian detachment to eliminate the stubborn resistance of Javat Khan
        Ganja. This is a speech against the latter Azerbaijanis themselves and their help to the Russians
        even the West European bourgeois historiography of the XNUMXth century is recognized by the troops. O. Sh. Vserd
        the reason for the defeat of Javat Khan Gyandzhinsky believed it was the Russian armed assistance
        troops of Azerbaijanis from Shamshadil under the command of Nasib-bek Shamshadil.
        Armed assistance to the Shamshadil Azerbaijanis of the Russian army during the study period
        confirmed by Abbas-Kuli-Aga Bakikhanov. "
        Author: Hadji Murat Ibrahimbeili. Russia and Azerbaijan in the first third of the 19th century. Publishing house "Science" Moscow 1969 p. 41.
        1. Yarbay
          Yarbay April 10 2013 21: 09 New
          0
          Quote: Nagaibak
          Dear Yarbay! In that article, there is the point of view of Mr. E. Amirov and nothing more. The article is not backed up by sources. Through an evaluative character. Wikipedia is also certainly not a great proof. But the numbers are correct. Massacre does not smell. The conversation about the murdered babies in my opinion has not yet been supported by evidence. And the son of the khan really died. Maybe they mean it when they talk about the whole family

          Dear and dear Nagaybak!
          You confuse Ibrahim Khan with Javad Khan !!
          I wrote about the first and his family!
          And in my link there is a source of A. Etkin
          Moreover I want to show you and other sources!
          This question cannot be disputed by any of the historians!
          The words of even the king about it are preserved in history !!
          1. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak April 11 2013 06: 05 New
            +1
            Yarbay "You are confusing Ibrahim Khan with Javad Khan !!
            I wrote about the first and his family!
            I agree that I was mistaken. So I answered the post.
            416sd "But this of course was the reason, the real reason was that Tsitsianov's troops during the assault on Ganja completely massacred the Khan's family of Javad Khan, including women and children, which caused a resonance even among the pro-Russian khans of Azerbaijan (they are between assimilation among the Ottomans or assimilation among the Persians, they decided to choose Russia, because among the Russians there are more chances for uniqueness and independence). "
            I have no complaints. I would be grateful if you specify where to look. Regarding the murder of Ibrahim Khan and his family. One thing I can say if this was attended by a nobleman and officer Lisanovich. It was unlikely that he had an order to kill. Second, such people in that Russian society despised such things. An example of this is the hero of World War II Figner. They treated him not well in society. For the fact that the prisoners shot. Cruelty was not welcome. Therefore, no one clapped his hands. And for what? That's a good question.
            1. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak April 11 2013 06: 51 New
              +1
              The more I read the more questions. It’s clear that the matter is dark. Given that Ibrahim Khan himself asked for Russian citizenship and was assigned the rank of lieutenant general, what happened to him was more than strange.
              “In the summer of 1806, Lisanevich became involved in a dark story with the death of the Karabakh khan Ibrahim. the garrison, stationed in the fortress, under the command of Major Lisanevich. The treason of the khan was discovered in time, and Lisanevich ordered to arrest him in order to rob him of his means of escape. But in the clash that occurred, both the khan and his beloved daughter were, unfortunately, killed The murder of the Khan by the Russians, which excited the minds of the whole country, was very unpleasant for Gudovich, and Major General Nebolsin was appointed to the post of Lisanevich. "[2] However, the Acts of the Caucasian Archaeographic Commission report this event differently:" From the attitude of the count IV Gudovich to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Baron A. Ya. Budberg: “The Khan of Karabagh, as can be seen from the report of General-M. Nebolsin, who secretly reconnoitred all the circumstances of this important incident, was killed in vain by the regiment. Lisanevich, about giving him under investigation, I am reporting to EI V. With the relay race ”[3].
              2. A. V. Potto, “The Caucasian War”, vol. 1
              3. [Acts of the Caucasian Archaeographic Commission. t. III, doc. 605]
              However, he was not long under trial, he continued to fight further.
              In a report addressed to Major General Nesvetayev on September 4, 1806, he described the events of that bloody May night:

              "And so, having no longer any hope of bringing the khan to repentance, [I] decided to attack him at night and, if possible, to capture him alive and, appointing 100 rangers for this with a decent number of officers, went with them to work in action; in the fortress, however, he ordered to multiply the guard at the gates and breaks, and the rest of the people to gather to the artillery; to the officers and people who were going to attack, he ordered not to shoot before the enemy and at the approach of those who knew the language would shout that they would surrender without shooting I went to attack a completely different road and not the one that goes directly from the fortress to them and where they had guards, and not before they opened us, as having approached less than a rifle shot, and then, making a shout, they let no matter how hard I shouted at them, as did others, trying to persuade them not to shoot and surrender, they all stubbornly continued to shoot and wounded the huntsman, who died in a few days. For this insolence, I ordered the huntsmen to shoot and rush at them; ege But they did this with courage, and in a moment the traitors were knocked down from their strong place, and the khan with several people remained killed by a bullet on the spot, others were chased by the huntsmen through the bushes and ravines; his son, daughter and wife, who died of a wound, could not have been wounded otherwise than by mingling with others in the crowd, in the bushes, from the darkness of the night they were not recognized; the things of the traitors that remained in their tents, as if the booty was taken through weapons and of which there was not much, I gave in favor of the soldiers, but their best things were taken away at the beginning of the case by their servants, of which Mekhti-aga found a lot afterwards "[Lieutenant Colonel D. T. Lisanevich - to Major General PD Nesvetaev. Report. September 4, 1806 // AKAK. T. 3. No. 610].
              Details: http://www.regnum.ru/news/fd-abroad/armenia/
              That is, as I understand it, the khan was killed on suspicion of treason, as a result of a military clash. Having looked at Lisanevich’s track record, I don’t think that he would give the order to specifically shoot at the khan’s family. Most likely they died in a landfill from random bullets.
              Although, somewhere I met the mention that as a result of these events they appropriated the property of the khan. In any case, I made a bogeyman from this event, saying that she, what Russian cruelty I think, is not worth it. The case is not unique. Yes, and such cases were few.
              1. Yarbay
                Yarbay April 11 2013 07: 26 New
                0
                Quote: Nagaibak
                The more I read the more questions.

                Dear Nagaybak!
                Lisanevich, in his defense, could write anything!
                and Potto is a little disingenuous when he writes about random bullets !!
                I will present you part of the official documents!



                The report of the commander-in-chief of the Russian troops, General Gudovich, addressed to the commander of the ground forces, general S.K.Vyazmitinov, dated August 21, 1806:

                “According to the reports I received from the commander of the troops in Georgia, Gen. M. Nesvetaeva opens that the 17th Jaegers regiment is a regiment. Lisanevich and Major Joraev, who was with him, for no good reason, with a detachment of rangers launched an attack on Ibrahim Khan Shushinsky, who, without having troops, except for the minions of 35 people. male and female and 1 wife with 3 young children, was on this side cr. Shushi near the gardens, on the mountain without any fortification, and he himself went out of the tent to meet the detachment, without firing a single shot; but the jaegers started firing, and stabbing with bayonets, where Ibrahim Khan was killed and all the estate that was with him went to the prey of the perpetrators of the attack ”[Acts of the Caucasian Archaeographic Commission. T. III, Art. 605].

                Major General Mehtigulu Khan (son of the late Khan) and Colonel Jafarkuli Agha, who were then in the fortress, did not take any action contrary to the rules of devotion to a high state. Not only did they not contradict the major, but on the contrary, they even tried to prepare food for the Russian troops, which then felt a great shortage ”[Mirza Jamal Javanshir. “History of Karabakh”, Baku, 1959, pp. 96-97]. Foreign researchers on this issue even cite the names of those schemers with whom Lisanevich acted hand in hand. In his article “The Strange Death of the Karabakh Khan Ibrahim Khalil” (Atkin M. “The strange death of Ibrahim Khalil Khan of Qarabagh”, “Iranian studies”, New-York, 1979, vol. XII, p. 39-107) American researcher M. Etkin mentions the name of a certain Armenian melik Jamshid, a longtime enemy of the khan, who as a result turned out to be one of the accomplices of this crime:
                “The decision to attack the camp belonged to D. Lisanevich, but the people who delivered him the information that led him to such a decision were personally interested in the overthrow of the khan. Among those accusing Ibrahim Khalil of treason was the Armenian malik Jamshid, a longtime enemy of the khan. For many years he had the idea that the Russians would overthrow the khan and make Karabakh a protectorate led by the Armenian governor. Perhaps Melik also hoped to take this post. In 1797, he emigrated to Georgia, where he received a pension of 1400 rubles a year appointed by Tsar Paul, later returned to Karabakh ”[“ Azerbaijan Abroad, ”Abstract Digest, Issue 12, Baku, 1986, pp. 19-20].According to M. Etkin, according to eyewitnesses, Lisanevich did not feel much regret after this massacre and behaved rather brazenly: “It is clear that he was only concerned about the issue of the destruction of unarmed women and children, because they turned out to be famous people, because of whom a noise was made, he did not object to shooting at people, not attacking, but fleeing ”[ibid; p. 21].
                http://1news.az/analytics/20110803100354294.html#page3
                1. Nagaibak
                  Nagaibak April 11 2013 08: 59 New
                  0
                  Thanks for the detailed answer! As I understand it, is there an Armenian trace? Intrigue? Everything is possible.
                  I think so here is a whole chain of events, random and not random, which led to a similar tragedy.
                  "Among the intriguers, M. Etkin also mentions the names of Mekhti-Kuli and Jafar-Kuli, respectively, the son and grandson of Ibrahim, who tried to seize power, taking advantage of the current situation. It is possible that Lisanevich himself was also not averse to becoming the sole ruler of rich Karabakh, so he at the first attempt, with such cruelty he got rid of the authoritative khan. "
                  Details: http://1news.az/analytics/20110803100354294.html#page3
                  This atkin is also a shot. Could Lisanevich become the sole ruler of Karabakh? Was he preparing a throne for himself? Is that how he imagines it? Apparently this author is poorly aware of the mentality of the people about whom he writes. Whatever Lisanevich was, he was an officer sworn allegiance to the tsars. And who would he rely on there? For Azerbaijanis? On the Armenians? To Molokan? Or to your small unit? It seems that the officers themselves would have tied him up, escorted him where he should.
                  In general, I agree with you. Everything was far from simple.
              2. Yarbay
                Yarbay April 11 2013 07: 36 New
                +1
                Quote: Nagaibak
                In any case, I made a bogeyman from this event, saying that she, what Russian cruelty I think, is not worth it. The case is not unique. Yes, and such cases were few.


                And so you’re right, you shouldn’t make a bogeyman out of this case, but it wasn’t all that simple.
                In my opinion, idealizing Russia's colonial policy is also not worth it!
                1. Nagaibak
                  Nagaibak April 11 2013 08: 52 New
                  0
                  Yarbay "In my opinion, it's not worth idealizing Russia's colonial policy either!"
                  I agree! Empires are not created by angels. But, thank God our ancestors, when conquering other nations, it did not occur to them to lay out pyramids.
            2. xan
              xan April 11 2013 13: 23 New
              0
              Quote: Nagaibak
              Second, such people in that Russian society despised such things. An example of this is the hero of World War II Figner.

              I want to add that the last Russian-Swedish war before the Patriotic War of 1812 was not popular in Russian society. It was believed that the weak beat not Christian. I read about it with Davydov.
  6. Master
    Master April 10 2013 16: 02 New
    -1
    Tell me why Persia and Osmans. '/ invader' 'and, but Russia is not ?! Although the largest territories were `` captured '' by Russia
    1. Marat
      Marat April 10 2013 20: 46 New
      +2
      Because Russia took under its wing, protecting you from the aggression of the Persians and Turks, by the way, you lived very well as part of the mighty Russian Empire, and what you could do without blood, there are practically no examples of bloodless annexation of territories in history.
      1. Master
        Master April 11 2013 18: 58 New
        0
        How nice it sounds to take `` under the wing. '' Well, okay, they understood the Georgians as Christians (although history shows that religion in politics does not solve anything), but why take us (Muslims) under the wing?
  7. kNow
    kNow April 10 2013 21: 48 New
    +3
    Turks and Persians also say the same :)
  8. combatpilot
    combatpilot April 10 2013 21: 52 New
    +2
    where the Ottomans and the Turks raged

    Correct the author. The Ottomans are the Turks. And vice versa.