Military Review

GAZ-67 - little army laborer

18
GAZ-67 and GAZ-67B are famous Soviet all-wheel-drive cars having a simplified open body in which cutouts were used instead of doors. The car was a further modernization of the GAZ-64, as well as the first model it was developed by the designer V. A. Grachev based on the GAZ-M1 units. This off-road car took an active part in the final stage of the Great Patriotic War, as well as in the Korean War. It was widely used in the army as a reconnaissance and staff vehicle, carrier of infantrymen and wounded, and was also widely used as an artillery tractor for transporting anti-tank artillery guns.


In the army, this car has received a very large number of nicknames, among which may be noted: “goat”, “goat”, “flea warrior”, “pygmy”, HBV (I want to be “Willis”), “Ivan-Willis”. In Poland, this car was called "Chapaev" or "jeep." The production volumes of GAZ-67 and GAZ-67B off-road vehicles during the war years were very small - only 4851 units, which accounted for only 10% of the deliveries to the USSR on the lend-lease of Ford GPW and Willys MB cars, since the main attention in the country was paid to production armored car BA-64B, with which Soviet jeeps had a unification of the chassis. Until the end of the war 3137 cars GAZ-67 and 1714 GAZ-67B were produced. In total, until the end of 1953, the Soviet industry launched the 92 843 vehicle of this type.

After the end of the war, GAZ-67B was very actively used not only in the army, but also in the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of State Security, forestry and agriculture, and geological exploration. It even produced a drilling and crane hydraulic machine BKGM-AN, as well as cars-snowplows. The GAZ-67 has become nicer and more reliable than its predecessor, it could work steadily on low-quality fuel, honorably withstand significant overloads and fully work out the specified service life. It was a real car-worker, who gained fame as a durable, traction, cross-country and unpretentious car.
GAZ-67 - little army laborer

History create GAZ-67

In the fall of 1940, the first information about the US Army multipurpose all-terrain vehicle, the Bantes, appeared in the Soviet press. They became interested in this machine in the USSR, all the more so since a year ago, in Gorky, the first Soviet passive automobile, GAZ-61-40, was successfully tested. The urgency of work on the new machine was determined by a rather complicated international situation, and the events at Khalkhin-Gol showed the need for a more modernized Red Army.

In this case, the Soviet designers had on hand only magazine pictures of Bantam, and therefore they had to invent and invent many things themselves. The basis of the future SUV were taken fairly reliable units and nodes GAZ-61: transfer case, front and rear axle, brakes, steering, drive shafts, wheels. The clutch, engine and four-stage cargo gearbox, well mastered by the Soviet industry, were taken from the “lorry”, installing an improved carburetor and strengthening the cooling system. At the same time, it was necessary to re-create the frame, body, front suspension, radiator and its lining, seats, additional gas tank, steering rods. At the same time, in accordance with the technical assignment issued, the car track had to be significantly reduced. The whole thing was that the car was supposed to be used in the role of an airborne, which means it had to enter the cargo compartment of the PS-84 transport aircraft, which is more commonly known as Lee-2.

The design of the new car, designated GAZ-64-416, was launched on February 3 1941. February 12 the first drawings of the future car were handed over to the workshops of the plant, 4 March started to assemble the first car. 17 March in Gorky finished body work and already on March 25, the finished all-terrain vehicle left the assembly shops under its own power. In April, the car passed troop tests, and already on August 17, the first GAZ-64-416 were handed over to the front. In total, until the end of 1941, the GNKY managed to assemble an 601 machine, however, then they were produced using a temporary technology. So tin car body at the factory bent by hand. All devices and electrical equipment were borrowed from GAZ-MM and GAZ-М1. At the same time their number was reduced to the limit. In particular, on the off-road vehicle there was no coolant temperature gauge, an oil pressure gauge.

With a length of 3360 mm, the car had an 2100-mm wheelbase and 1530-mm width. The engine from the GAZ-M64 was installed on GAZ-1, which, with a working volume of 3,286 l. at 2800 rpm gave out 50 hp This was enough to machine weight in 1200 kg. Accelerated on the highway to speed in 100 km / h.

At the same time, in the course of troop operation, it was found that the car had poor lateral stability, which was a consequence of the narrowed track of the car. This made the designers bring the gauge from 1278 to 1446 mm. But this decision entailed a radical reconstruction of the all-terrain vehicle. By car, we had to change the mount of the muffler, modify the frame, after which the modifications began to crumble one after another - each of them entailed a new one. For example, at the suggestion of the designer B. T. Komarovsky, who was responsible for the creation of the body, special exhaust slots (“airs”) were made at the back of the bonnet.

The shortened base of the car compared to the GAZ-61 allowed to abandon the rear intermediate propeller shaft. Front open cardan was equipped with needle bearing hinges. In order to facilitate overcoming the vertical walls and increase the front entry angle to 75 degrees, the front axle of the vehicle was suspended on 4's quarter-elliptical springs. In order to achieve a more stable straight motion in the hinges of all the springs of the car, durable and well-protected threaded bushings and pins from GAZ-11-73 were used. The rear springs of the all-terrain vehicle were located above the shell of the bridge. All this significantly increased the ground clearance of the car. Due to chronic shortages and low efficiency, a second pair of shock absorbers was removed from the rear suspension from the car. Due to the increase in the spring track, the need for a rear stabilizer bar is no longer necessary. The production of rear axles from chromedian almost completely eliminated their damage, although it did not prevent it at all.

By installing the Stromberg carburetor on the captured carburetor, which was installed on German Mercedes, it was possible to bring the engine's power up to the 54 hp. In the future, the Soviet industry has mastered the production of an analogue of this carburetor, which was called K-23. The air filter was installed from the engine on the left and connected to the carburetor using a pipe. As a result of all these numerous alterations that continued on 2 of the year and were interrupted for the time of the bombing of the Gorky Automobile Plant, a new cross-country vehicle, GAZ-67, was born.

Compared to the GAZ-64, the length of the GAZ-67 has grown insignificantly - to 3345 mm, while the width has increased to 1720 mm, which significantly increased the lateral stability of the machine. In the process of mastering the production of the mass of the machine in curb reached 1342 kg. In addition, because of the increase in width, 29% increased body drag. For these 2 reasons, the maximum speed, despite some increase in power, has dropped to 88 km / h. But then the designers managed to further increase the tractive effort of the wheels, which ultimately amounted to 1050 kg.

The 4-spoke steering wheel with a curved wooden rim with a diameter of 385 mm, which was forced to be mastered in production just 1 day due to the failure of the supplier of carbolite parts - the factory producing them, was destroyed during the air raid. Despite the archaic and unsightly steering wheel, he even managed to get accustomed, and the drivers fell in love with him for the convenience of working without gloves, especially when it was freezing, and were in no hurry to change it to plastic for the occasion.

With its appearance, the GAZ-67 resembled a stubborn, well-knit, though unsightly, hard worker who could move along any roads equally confidently, thanks to unusually wide wheels. The car could be used in any weather and on any terrain, which earned it the respect of all the front-line soldiers who came across it. Even after long enough hours of traveling along the broken front-line roads, drivers and passengers of the car did not experience increased physical and nervous fatigue. For the creation of GAZ-67 in January 1944, designer V. A. Grachev was presented for the Stalin Prize.

After the war, the release of this machine was not only preserved, but also significantly expanded. The car was actively used by civilian services, the representatives of the national economy liked it very much, for many chairmen of collective farms, agronomists and mechanics of the MTS the “gas” was the most desirable machine. Before the war, such machines in the country's agriculture simply did not exist. The car was sold throughout the country and sold well abroad, even to Australia, not to mention the countries of Eastern Europe, North Korea and China. The production of cars grew from year to year until the end of production, and the last car left the production departments at the end of August 1953. In total, almost 93 thousands of cars were collected.

This all-terrain vehicle also belonged to a number of civic achievements. So, for example, a light version of the GAZ-67B was able in the spring of 1950 to successfully climb Elbrus to the Shelter of Eleven. In the summer of the same year, the GAZ-67B car was delivered to the SP-2 drifting polar station by plane. On the ice, this car was used for a long time and effectively as a tractor and transport vehicle. The first parachute landing in the history of Russian aviation it was also necessary for the GAZ-67B car, in 1949 the car was landed in this way from a Tu-2 aircraft. In anticipation of its transportation, the Mi-4 helicopter was also developed at one time.

Information sources:
-http: //www.opoccuu.com/gaz-64.htm
-http: //easyget.narod.ru/tech/gaz_67.html
-http: //www.retro-car.ru/index.php? option = com_content & task = view & id = 12 & Itemid = 35
-http: //ru.wikipedia.org/wiki
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18 comments
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  1. Denis
    Denis April 9 2013 08: 50 New
    +6
    The tradition of our military equipment is pleasing, everything is simple and reliable as AK
    I heard his foolish Russian jeeps calling him names. It’s easier to talk than talking, even before the war Grachev successfully engaged in four-wheel drive cars
    1. Samuray
      Samuray April 9 2013 10: 46 New
      -3
      During the development of Gaz-67, Bantam "Willie" was taken as a basis And Grachev was successfully engaged in all-wheel drive Gas 61
      1. Old_kapitan
        Old_kapitan April 9 2013 23: 15 New
        0
        During the development of Gaz-67, Bantam "Willie" was taken as a basis And Grachev was successfully engaged in all-wheel drive Gas 61

        A similar car "Bantam" has already appeared in the United States, and photographs of the moments of its testing have been published. Therefore, on the initiative of Major General I.P. Tyagunov, the head of the GBTU of the Red Army, energetically supported by the People's Commissar of Medium Machine Building V.A. Malyshev, in January 1941 an urgent task was given on a competitive basis to both GAZ (leading designer V.A. Grachev) and NATI (leading designer A.F. Andronov) on a simplified "soldier" short-wheel-drive four-wheel drive tractor of a small class with a carrying capacity of 400 kg with an open four-seater body. The service life was determined at 5000 km, a narrow gauge and a limited length were prescribed by directive - as in the "Ban-tam".
        It became obvious that the use for these purposes of the first domestic all-wheel drive passenger car GAZ-61-40, created on the basis of a 6-cylinder open "emka", was unrealistic.
        Therefore, at the Gorky Automobile Plant, as a basis for the new car, which received the index "64-41 b", they decided to take only the units of the chassis "61 -i", which are quite strong and well-developed: front drive axle, transfer case, rear axle, cardan shafts, front suspension, steering, brakes, wheels. A four-cylinder engine with a capacity of 50-52 hp, a clutch, a 4-speed "cargo" gearbox with a range of 6,4 - were used from the GAZ-MM lorry. The expected more intense work required the installation of a pressure water pump from a GAZ-11, a 6-blade fan, a modern falling-flow carburetor ML-1 (from a KIM-10 subcompact car). A deliberately oversized 6-row radiator (the core is from a three-axle GAZ-AAA) was redesigned, capable of providing normal cooling in the most difficult conditions. For the first time it was made closed (under pressure), with a sealed stopper, later a thermostat was installed on parts of the machines. The shortened base of the car made it possible to abandon the rear intermediate propeller shaft of the GAZ-61, a closed shaft with one spicer-type hinge was retained. The front open propeller shaft has received hinges on needle bearings of the GAZ-51 type, just mastered by the plant. The rear and front driving axles, based on the GAZ-11 and GAZ-61, had an artificially narrowed track, respectively, up to 1245 and 1278 mm, which violated the well-established technology for manufacturing semi-axles and their casings and, as it turned out later, was erroneous. In order to maximally increase the front entry angle to 75 ° (they wanted to generally orientate themselves at 90 °, abandoning the bumper) and thereby facilitate overcoming the vertical walls (up to 0,5 m), at the suggestion of V.A. Grachev, the front axle was suspended on four - aperture-elliptic springs with four hydraulic shock absorbers of the GAZ-M-1 type, and a lateral stability stabilizer is introduced into the rear suspension. We redesigned a very strong frame with closed spars, with a rigid front bumper and a rear towing device from GAZ-MM.
        1. Old_kapitan
          Old_kapitan April 9 2013 23: 16 New
          +1
          Having got to the front, GAZ-64 soon met "competition" from American light all-terrain vehicles Bantam BRC-40, Willys-MV, Ford GPW, similar in purpose (but not at all in design, as is sometimes believed) supplied from the spring of 1942 ("bantam" from the end of 1941) under Lend-Lease. And it should be noted that the "gazik" quite withstood the "competition" with them. This was clearly confirmed by comparative tests carried out on May 20 - July 10, 1 at the NIBT Polygon in conditions close to combat. Due to its excellent traction properties, the modified GAZ-943 (it was already called GAZ-64) "... in all cases of movement on difficult roads with or without a trailer ..." could overcome short climbs up to 67 °, long - up to 42 ° ("Willis" and "Ford" - up to 38 °), and with a 37-mm cannon on the hook - up to 45 °, ("they" - up to 31 °). In terms of maximum tractive effort, the GAZ-26 also significantly surpassed the Willis and Ford (64 kgf versus 1195 kgf), and off-road - by an average of 890-12%. He also had a slightly better cross-country ability, which was explained by the better grip of the tires with a better tread, lower specific pressure on the ground, as well as more stable engine operation at low revs with the implementation of significant torque. It was possible to move for a long time off-road at "creeping" speeds in III and even IV gears almost without switching them, because most often at this moment there is a break in the power flow and mobility is lost. In top gear, the car could accelerate from a speed of only 25 km / h. Being noticeably heavier than American "jeeps" and having a lower power density, the GAZ-9 was practically not inferior to them in mobility (average speeds on the highway - 64 and 42,8 km / h, respectively, on a country road - 44 and 34,8, on off-road - 36,2 and 25,1 km / h), and moved even better with a trailer. This was facilitated by the suspension with well-matched characteristics, unusually soft for a car of this purpose.
          1. Old_kapitan
            Old_kapitan April 9 2013 23: 17 New
            +3
            Well, Samuray, and what is there from Bantam?
  2. avt
    avt April 9 2013 09: 06 New
    +7
    A great army car, undeservedly pushed into the shadow of Willis!
    1. Chicot 1
      Chicot 1 April 9 2013 11: 05 New
      +8
      I agree with you. But, as a rule, precisely those which are the first... well, or those that are considered them ...
      GAZ-67. Kilometers of military roads ...
      1. AlNikolaich
        AlNikolaich April 9 2013 18: 44 New
        +1
        Quote: Chicot 1
        GAZ-67. Kilometers of military roads ..

        In your illustration GAZ-64 with a narrow gauge!
  3. Ilyukha
    Ilyukha April 9 2013 11: 13 New
    +2
    I looked at such a device. I was especially impressed by the thickness of the body iron (And next to the "Willis" was, for comparison)
  4. Stas57
    Stas57 April 9 2013 12: 40 New
    +5
    Quote: avt
    A great army car, undeservedly pushed into the shadow of Willis!

    here mass works for popularity, no matter how good it is, but only Willis In total, about 52 thousand vehicles were delivered to the USSR until the end of the war. in it, how The production volumes of GAZ-67 and GAZ-67Б during the war were relatively small - 4851 units, which amounted to less than 1 / 10 from the supply of Lend-Lease Willys MB and Ford GPW to the USSR
    that’s all the reasons.
  5. ICT
    ICT April 9 2013 17: 08 New
    +5
    everyone likes a good car
  6. ICT
    ICT April 9 2013 17: 09 New
    +4
    and even these did not disdain
    1. Ilyukha
      Ilyukha April 9 2013 20: 03 New
      +2
      It seems to me that the Yankees are on it either in Korea or in Vietnam
      1. ICT
        ICT April 9 2013 20: 27 New
        +3
        TYPE of that, knowledgeable people are inclined to Vietnam
  7. Argon
    Argon April 10 2013 03: 40 New
    +2
    Guys, why are we arguing about traction characteristics and cross-country ability? The problem of our equipment is quality and resources. Ameres of 100 thousand were run on average, God forbid 20 this summer on dry roads. A long climb of about 800 meters could become the last; the oil pump was missing this character. Grandfather when he crossed over crossed the ford. By the way, they began to carry guns after the war, there the new states approved the company for the delivery of shells, and the rule was that the tractor should carry a gun at least 3 boxes of shells.
  8. Alf
    Alf April 17 2013 01: 08 New
    +3
    Willis and Bantam cars, of course, are magnificent. No wonder the German command for the capture of the jeep gave leave as a tank, but these jeeps needed high-octane gasoline and clean oil. Our hard worker 67th worked on any gasoline.
  9. smershspy
    smershspy 16 May 2013 16: 59 New
    +2
    Quote: avt
    A great army car, undeservedly pushed into the shadow of Willis!


    I agree!
  10. smershspy
    smershspy 16 May 2013 17: 01 New
    +5
    Lord! I think everyone dreamed of a ride on such a car, and to have it in your garage ..! Super car! Car legend!
  11. mithridate
    mithridate 16 June 2013 14: 20 New
    +2
    great army hard worker