Military Review

“It's time, brothers! Who remained alive - remember my business! ”


April 3 marks the 173th anniversary of the feat accomplished by the rank and file of the Tenginsky regiment Arkhip Osipov. Unfortunately, this, like many others, the heroic deed of the conquerors of the Caucasus is known today mainly to historians. Meanwhile, knowledge of these events that have occurred, by historical by standards, not so long ago, perhaps it would have forced Russian society and politicians to look a little differently at what is happening in the Caucasus today.

Arkhip Osipov accomplished the feat of 22 in March (old style) 1840 of the year while defending the Mikhailovsky fortification of the Black Sea coastline during the attack of the Circassians on it.

It is appropriate to make a retreat. The resistance of the Caucasian rebels in the nineteenth century was largely fueled from the outside. Turkey, Britain, France financed, armed and instigated the Highlanders hostile to Russia. Turkish ships delivered to the harbor of the Black Sea coast weapon, ammunition and money. Circassian and not only young men and women sold by their fellow tribesmen for the harems of Asia Minor and the Middle East were brought back. This “business” was so widespread and so popular among the highlanders that, according to historians, only the number of Circassian slaves and slaves sold to the Turks exceeded one million! So the Russian authorities in the Caucasus were faced with the task of not only stopping outside assistance to the rebels, but also putting an end to such a disgusting phenomenon as the slave trade. In order to stop relations between the Circassians and the Turks, coastal waters patrolled the vessels of the Black Sea squadron and Cossack rowing flotilla, and in a number of bays where Turkish-Circassian trade was previously carried out, fortifications were built and army garrisons were deployed. One of such forts of the Black Sea coastline was the Mikhailovsky fortification, built at the mouth of the Vulan River in 1837.

We note that the Black Sea coast in those days was not much like today. Service in the coastal fortresses was very harsh. The highlanders actually kept the garrisons of the fortifications in continuous siege. The logging of firewood and hay more resembled combat special operations. There were no roads, and the entire connection with the "big land" was carried out only by sea. During periods of autumn storms, it completely stopped. But the most terrible for the inhabitants of the forts were malaria, scurvy and epidemics of infectious diseases that mowed the garrisons. The autumn-winter period of 1839-40 was especially difficult in this sense. By the spring of 1840, the coastline situation was threatening. In Fort Lazarev, the number of patients was 2000 people, in Navaginsky fortification of 230 people 110 turned out to be sick people, out of two mouths of the Mikhailovsky fortification, only 50 military personnel were healthy. The commander of the coastline, Lieutenant-General Nikolai Rajewski, son of the celebrated hero of World War 1812, literally bombarded the commander of the Black Sea and Caucasian Grabbe lines with reports about the plight of coastal forts and the need for immediate assistance. But in vain.

In February and in March, huge hordes of Circassians attacked the depopulated fortresses, and 4 of them fell: February 7 - Lazarev fort, 27 - Golovinsky fort, February February 29 - strengthening Veliyaminovsky and Tuapse.
On March 22, the fortifications of Mikhailovskoye were attacked by gangs of the Highlanders, who in 20 (!) Were once more outnumbered by the thinning Russian garrison. During these fierce battles, the Russian soldier accomplished his feat. When the enemy broke into the fort, there was an explosion of the powder magazine, set on fire by the rank and file of the Tenginsky regiment Arkip Osipov. The explosion killed three thousand bandits and almost the entire garrison of the fortress. The remains of the garrison (about 80 people) were captured by the highlanders. The order to blow up the fortress together with the enemy was given by the headquarters of the defense headquarters Nikolai Konstantinovich Liko, who was wounded by two bullets during a raid, and then chopped up by a sword. According to some reports, he fell in a fortress, according to others - he was captured in serious condition in captivity, where he died.

On all the bastions of the fortress, the badges of the Circassian knights were already fluttering, the fortification was ablaze - more than a hundred seriously ill soldiers died in the burning hospital. The last fight was at the entrance to the powder cellar. Arkhip Osipov grabbed a flaming smut and with the words: “It's time, brothers! Who will live - remember my business! "- rushed into the cellar. About the feat of Arkhip Osipov learned a few months after almost fifty defenders of the fortress, returning from captivity, under oath, they all confirmed.

“Dooming himself to such a glorious death,” read the order of the Minister of War from 8 November 1840 of the year, “he asked only comrades to remember his case if any of them survived.” This desire Osipova fulfilled. Several brave his comrades who survived among the general destruction and destruction, kept his covenant and faithfully handed him over.
... Arkhip Osipov came from a family of serfs in the village of Kamenka, Lipetsk district, Kiev province. There is no exact data about the time of his birth. According to some sources at the time of the heroic act he was 38 years old, according to others - 40.
Osipov participated in the wars with Persia and Turkey for his long service, for which he was awarded silver medals in 1829. In May 1834, two battalions of the Crimean regiment, including the 5-I musketry company, where Osip served, joined the Tengin regiment.
The sovereign Emperor honored the merits of the valiant defenders of the Mikhailovsky fortifications in their families. To perpetuate the memory of the exploit of ordinary Arkhip Osipov, who did not have a family, His Imperial Majesty commanded the highest to deign to preserve his name forever on the list of 1 grenadier company of the Tenginsky regiment, considering it to be the first private soldier, and in all the rolls, with the demand of that name behind him to the ordinary answer: "He died to the glory of the Russian arms in the Mikhailovsky fortification." He was honored to be the first of the Russian soldiers, whose name was forever credited to the lists of the military unit.

The feat of Arkhip Osipov was devoted to poems and songs. In October, a monument was erected to the hero in Vladikavkaz, later destroyed. But the six-meter cast-iron openwork cross, built on public money in the 1881 year, stands on the site of the blown up fortifications. And in 1876, at the request of residents, the village of Vulanskaya was renamed Arkhipo-Osipovskaya, and to this day, already as an urban-type settlement, bearing the name of a Russian hero.

As a result of Osipov’s heroic deed, the enemy’s losses were so great that Mikhailovskoye was the last fortification captured by him. For the assault of other forts, he no longer had the strength; the morale of the highlanders was greatly undermined by such grandiose losses.

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  1. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets April 12 2013 08: 46
    When I read such articles, all the time I ask myself the question: could I do the same? And every time I can’t find the answer. Although, probably, no one is preparing for this in advance. Eternal memory to the sons of Russia.
    1. Rambiaka
      Rambiaka April 12 2013 09: 22
      Exactly, this cannot be predicted, but every Russian soldier can do it. Arkhip Osipov was "first" in the list of his unit, and how many are now. It is not worth talking about what will be said ... BUT FORGETTING IT IS NOT ALLOWED !!!
    2. cerko
      cerko April 12 2013 09: 25
      you can’t find the answer because you are trying to comprehend and find motivation for such an act and don’t find it, but in battle everything is much easier if you need to do it, there is no doubt in the hot fight of cowardice, so I think that you could yes and I probably could too
      1. xan
        xan April 12 2013 10: 10
        when they cut your friends, when anger and rage overwhelm the soul, then you yourself don’t know what you can decide
    3. Rusich
      Rusich April 12 2013 11: 52
      To your Listening Brothers I want to share a film D / F About General YERMOLOV HOW THE NATIVES WERE AFRAID OF US AT THE END OF THE ENDS, the limitless life of the Highlanders in the Mountains became happy with the arrival of RUSSIAN POLITICS AND RUSSIAN VALOR! ETERNAL MEMORY TO ALL THOSE KILLED in the Caucasian War ............
    4. Xay
      Xay April 12 2013 14: 16
      Eternal Memory ..... To Heroes.
  2. omsbon
    omsbon April 12 2013 09: 29
    Here is a ready-made plot for a good film, so that the younger generation would learn not only from the examples of "house-2".
    1. Skarte
      Skarte April 12 2013 09: 58
      Vovovo, such films must be removed and shown, and not the one how the Americans kill our soldiers ((
  3. svp67
    svp67 April 12 2013 09: 40
    Right now, Preobrazhentsev and Semenovtsev have been revived, or maybe it's worth thinking about the revival of the Tenginsky regiment, so that every evening in the 1st company, at the mention of "Private Arkhip Osipov," the right-flank replied "Private Arkhip Osipov. Killed to the glory of Russian weapons in Mikhailovsky strengthening "
    1. xan
      xan April 12 2013 10: 24
      One Pole said that if the Russians celebrate their victories, they will not work a single day in a year.
      You won’t remember all the heroes, you won’t revive all the regiments. The glorious history of Russia is a monument. History needs to be known, and then at a difficult moment of choice, as the classic said, the valor of the ancestors will not let you be petty. And in our recent history there are examples when soldiers died, but did not give up. And this is not just that. The Georgians were draping up to Tbilisi, and the Dutch peacekeepers let the bandits in Sarajevo. Yes, the landing would have died of shame, but they didn’t.
    2. bunta
      bunta April 12 2013 12: 10
      Let them return the military honor !!!
    3. Butchcassidy
      Butchcassidy April 12 2013 14: 26
      Great idea. In the end, we must revive patriotism, especially since we have something to be proud of. In the United States everyone knows the anthem and flags at every turn, I'm not talking about the Turks, who have been taught since school that there is no greater joy than being a Turk.

      Learn, Russian, and remember what is rightfully yours.
  4. wulf66
    wulf66 April 12 2013 09: 56
    I will repeat myself, but it is too urgent. SHAME OUR CULTURE LACKERS !!! I feel sick from masterpieces like "4 days in May", after watching the show, there was a desire to go to the shower, like a bucket of slop was thrown over me ... And what about Shakhnazarov's "masterpiece" about a white tiger? Sometimes I am glad that my grandfather, who went through the whole war, did not live to see all this SHAME. Article +++++++ than not a ready-made plot for a movie? It's certainly not as sweet as a holywood hap end ...
    1. builder74
      builder74 April 12 2013 21: 54

      often think about the same thing.
  5. redwar6
    redwar6 April 12 2013 10: 12
    Quote: Vladimirets
    When I read such articles, all the time I ask myself the question: could I do the same? And every time I can’t find the answer. Although, probably, no one is preparing for this in advance. Eternal memory to the sons of Russia.

    In such situations, the glorious trait of the Russian people is expressed, in the face of death, a Russian person does not panic, but meets death proudly, with arms in his hands. I think we could.
    Eternal memory to all the soldiers of Russia ..
  6. zarin302
    zarin302 April 12 2013 10: 12
    3000 people at a time? What did they keep in the powder warehouse? Tactical nuclear charge?
    1. xan
      xan April 12 2013 10: 54
      of course everything is debatable and suspicious
      but the fact that the losses were large, there is no doubt, then the crowds fought. Well, it is indisputable that after the capture of Mikhailovsky the Circassians ceased active hostilities.
      1. Lakkuchu
        Lakkuchu April 12 2013 16: 55
        Quote: xan
        Well, it is indisputable that after the capture of Mikhailovsky the Circassians ceased active hostilities.

        The resistance of the Circassians continued until 1864.
    2. Andy
      Andy April 12 2013 11: 21
      even though the cellar was built, there will be little to get a brick from the back of the head in the explosion. I suppose the crowd was crowded in a small area, that’s the result. Yes, and the calculation is approximate. But the feat of the soldiers will always be a feat.
    3. Prometey
      Prometey April 12 2013 11: 22
      Quote: zarin302
      3000 people at a time? What did they keep in the powder warehouse? Tactical nuclear charge?

      Of course, embellished. In the reports it was written that a detachment of 1500-2000 people participated in the attack. And by and large, the stocks of gunpowder were insignificant.
    4. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn April 12 2013 14: 50
      Quote: zarin302
      3000 people at a time? What did they keep in the powder warehouse? Tactical nuclear charge?

      the figure is undoubtedly exaggerated, but this does not detract from the hero's feat, that regarding what was kept in the powder magazine I can give an example of the use of "stone bombs" by the Russian army:
      ... At first, minefields were used exclusively to strengthen the fortresses, for example, the total mining of approaches to the Port Arthur Fortress, both from land and from the sea, did not allow the Japanese to take it by force. Moreover, these were both guided landmines and push mines. The so-called "stone landmines" - the progenitor of future mines of the Claymore type, with a directed shrapnel explosion, were very widely used. And for the first time in operations of this magnitude, remote control of mines using electric wires was used ...

      The author of this article is disingenuous, for the first time "stone landmines" began to undermine with the help of electric wires during the defense of Sevastopol:
      ... Russian sappers did not allow the enemy to the bastion underground. Moreover, at the time of the last assault on Sevastopol, 5 stone mines were blown up on Belkin’s adjacent to the 3th bastion. These charges of gunpowder and stones were laid at the surface of the earth in the spring. An electric wire connected mines with a lunette. Their explosive device was in good condition in the nearest dugout. The general on duty was ordered to make an explosion in the event of an assault, without waiting for a special order.
      On the day of the assault on August 27, about two thousand French, led by Colonel Trochu, gathered at the cliff in front of the lunette. Private Anikeev made an explosion. The column of attackers was almost completely destroyed by the explosion of these HE mines and the fire of guns. The survivors rushed back ...

      I actually want to say:
      - in the presence of: five to ten pounds of gunpowder lying in the cellar, on the roof of which a couple of hundreds of kilograms of gravel were poured or put in baskets (bags) to send to Allah for a thousand or two brave Circassians quite real and a thermonuclear loaf is not needed. hi
    5. skeptic
      skeptic April 14 2013 19: 17
      Quote: zarin302
      3000 people at a time? What did they keep in the powder warehouse? Tactical nuclear charge?

      The main cause of congestion at one point is the thirst for life. Everyone rushed in the hope of grabbing more good. Greed fraers and ruined. After the destruction and death of a significant number of abreks, attacks on military fortresses ceased.
  7. Prometey
    Prometey April 12 2013 10: 22
    And what, really no one really read about this case? I read about him in the magazine "Caucasian Collection" from the 19th century. As for Arkhip Osipov, at that time the Caucasus needed its own heroes. And the chance itself contributed to this.
  8. asadov
    asadov April 12 2013 12: 39
    Who cares how much gunpowder was there or how many Circassians attacked? Eternal memory to the Hero who honestly fulfilled a duty.
  9. krez-74
    krez-74 April 12 2013 12: 41
    Honor and glory to the soldiers of Russia, faithfully serving bravely folded their heads in glory to her! But it’s a shame to those who too easily drove them to certain death, playing often at hand for those puppeteers who often wanted to get Russia involved in another adventure!
    And now on the topic: a people protecting their land cannot be considered a rebel; the people protecting their land cannot be an aggressor.
    The "business" mentioned in the article was not a monopoly of the Circassians alone; some of the officers of the Russian army, along with others involved in the conflict, were also involved in this.
    As for financing and supplying weapons from France, Turkey, England, it should be borne in mind that this is a war, and in a war, as a rule, there are many "interested" parties. By the way, by the will, and thanks to the competent policy of these listed countries, Russia laid the heads of hundreds of thousands of its soldiers, and most of these soldiers did not join the army of their own free will.
    There are archival documents that indicate the funds allocated for the eviction and removal of Circassians from their lands. So, most of these funds were deposited in the pockets of those who were involved in this, was it a cut?
    In general, it is strange, those who lived in serfdom call someone slave traders)))
    1. Rider
      Rider April 12 2013 14: 30
      alas, much has not changed
      1st company - the apotheosis of betrayal and money-grubbing.

      and here some say that every Russian is capable of a feat.
      Alas, not everyone.
      look at the chronicle of the capture of the formidable in the part where our prisoners are shown - a bitter sight.
      certainly, if they knew what awaits them further, many would prefer death to dishonor.

      and yet, and yet ...
    2. super-vitek
      super-vitek April 13 2013 21: 45
      In this article, the essence is not about who sold whom, who sold what! The feat is the main thing in this article !!! And they are beyond the political subtleties! And due to the fact that the Circassians defended their land, I don’t remember such a state, khanates, principalities. According to your terrorists in Chechnya, too, they defended their land !?
  10. Humpty
    Humpty April 12 2013 13: 12
    Eternal memory to the heroes. When in childhood he was on an excursion to Arkhipo-Osipovka, the guide said that he blew up the powder cellar when he remained the only survivor, having killed about forty mountaineers.
    1. nickname 1 and 2
      nickname 1 and 2 April 12 2013 14: 25
      Quote: Humpty
      Eternal memory to the heroes. When in childhood he was on an excursion to Arkhipo-Osipovka, the guide said that he blew up the powder cellar when he remained the only survivor, having killed about forty mountaineers.

      These are machinations. And who then spoke about its existence? Him in the dust! Someone saw the same.
      This is not propaganda tricks for you. The tsar - the father did not know about such tricks. And he paid a chistogan for exploits.
      And here they debased debased.
    2. Lakkuchu
      Lakkuchu April 12 2013 17: 03
      Quote: Humpty
      Eternal memory to the heroes. When in childhood he was on an excursion to Arkhipo-Osipovka, the guide said that he blew up the powder cellar when he remained the only survivor, having killed about forty mountaineers.

      If such an act were committed by the Circassian, then he would be called a fanatic, but not a hero.
  11. Xay
    Xay April 12 2013 14: 16
    Everlasting memory
  12. INC_1254
    INC_1254 April 12 2013 14: 38
    I was also in Arkhipo-Osipovka, I remember that there was a fortress, the guns were facing the sea, well, the Cross rises above the fortress, in my opinion an excellent storyline for the film, and somehow there was an article about the Hundred Ural Cossacks, also a great storyline. And the vast majority of modern youth do not know Russian history at all. EVERY RESPECTING CITIZEN OF RUSSIA SHOULD KNOW ITS HISTORY !!! It's my opinion.
  13. George
    George April 12 2013 17: 06
    The monument to Arkhip Osipov was the first monument to a simple Russian soldier, installed at the expense of funds collected by subscription. And in 1889, at the request of the villagers, Alexander 3 allowed to rename Vulanskaya to Arkhipo-Osipovka.
    P / S: I was looking for a photo of the monument and climbed onto one tourist site. There were these lines:
    In those years, the Russian Empire brutally exterminated the local Adyghe peoples. They resisted, but the Imperial forces suppressed them with their numbers. This monument is dedicated to one of the invaders of the Black Sea lands.
    I left a very "affectionate" review there, but I'm afraid the moderator will delete it. There are now such.
    1. Lakkuchu
      Lakkuchu April 12 2013 17: 17
      Quote: GEORGE
      In those years, the Russian Empire brutally exterminated the local Adyghe peoples. They resisted, but the Imperial forces suppressed them with their numbers. This monument is dedicated to one of the invaders of the Black Sea lands.

      For the Circassians, the tsarist troops were precisely the aggressors and invaders. Circassians fought on their land and defended their homes. Not the Circassians came to Ryazan or Smolensk region to build their fortresses and capture fertile lands, taking them from local residents and distributing them to Cossacks.
      1. George
        George April 12 2013 18: 11
        Are you seriously? Russian empire exterminated Circassians? Trying to eliminate the slave trade? Or do you say that this is a lie?
      2. George
        George April 12 2013 18: 16
        Do you seriously believe that the royal troops exterminated Circassians?
        Or do you think the liquidation of the Russian slave trade by Russian troops is a fairy tale?
        Perhaps then the Circassians thought so, but I doubt that all.
        1. krez-74
          krez-74 April 12 2013 22: 32
          As I understand it, you are most aware of the rehearsals of those times? Or is your pampered ear cut by the phrase "The Russian Empire brutally exterminated the local Adyghe peoples"? I understand you, but I must say, with all due respect, and despite the fact that in most cases, the Russian soldier was a liberator, THERE ARE also unpleasant moments in which he was not an invited guest, and often brought, not only light and prosperity.
          Serfdom, in which there was then a "developed and civilized" society, was a form of the slave trade and slavery.
          Confidence that everyone around is bad, dirty, and dark? Glad for you sincerely .;)
          1. George
            George April 12 2013 22: 53
            You, as I understand it, are most aware of the intertwining of those times?

            Although I live close by, I understand that I don’t know much. Therefore, I am deliberately developing.
            As for the rest, I am waiting for your examples (unpleasant). Without antics and trolling, just for knowledge.
            Confidence that everyone around is bad, dirty, and dark? Glad for you sincerely .;)

            What’s this all about?
        2. Lakkuchu
          Lakkuchu April 13 2013 18: 52
          Quote: GEORGE
          Do you seriously believe that the royal troops exterminated the Circassians?

          It is not a matter of faith or disbelief. I have been studying the history of the Caucasus for a long time. Russian troops did not just exterminate the highlanders, but cruelly exterminated precisely those who most stubbornly and courageously defended themselves, primarily the Dagestanis, Chechens and certain Adyghe peoples.
          1. George
            George April 14 2013 20: 43
            It’s hard for you to oppose because of my meager knowledge (but this is temporary, I downloaded a lot of literature about the Caucasus) on this issue. But I do not think that the indigenous peoples of the Caucasus exterminated .What destroyed the warring is done in all wars, and that’s the war. So apparently after the passage of our troops there were only scorched mountains? And for me, the liberators from slavery are higher and closer to me (not because my compatriots) than those who defend the right to it. By this I put an end. But not forever. I will be better prepared, I will easily discuss with you. Sincerely.
          2. воронов
            воронов April 16 2013 01: 28
            Quote: Lakkuchu
            The Russian troops not only exterminated the highlanders, but cruelly exterminated precisely those who defended themselves most stubbornly and courageously,

            If the enemy does not surrender, they will destroy him. am
    2. brelok
      brelok April 13 2013 06: 26
      “In those years, the Russian Empire brutally exterminated the local Adyghe peoples. They resisted, but the Imperial troops suppressed them with their numbers. This monument is dedicated to one of the invaders of the Black Sea lands."It's interesting that this company works in Russia! Drive with a filthy broom! Our guys in Chechnya are the same invaders? If now such facts are not eliminated about us in 100 years, they will also say. By the way, a similar feat was accomplished by the Smolensk church elder when the Poles took Smolensk."
      1. krez-74
        krez-74 April 13 2013 15: 03
        What do our guys mean in Chechnya? The Adygs who served in the army also fought in Chechnya. And in general, Chechnya was an act of distracting the people from sawing up and plundering the legacy of the USSR. Moreover, it was an act of playing off and instilling intolerance of the peoples of Russia, and the puppeteers succeeded in this! And "your guys" (as you put it) laid their heads for an incomprehensible reason ... Chechnya is a part of Russia, Russia is rebuilding Chechnya. Only here the oligarchs who appeared at that time are sitting on the sidelines and laughing at how they lit the suckers!
        1. воронов
          воронов April 16 2013 01: 33
          Quote: krez-74
          And "your guys" (as you put it), put their heads for some reason

          You are a "smart guy" dare to tell those who were not in the internet, but in person and after that put your photo on your avatar
          1. krez-74
            krez-74 April 17 2013 18: 55
            Dad taught you to poke, turnip? My picture is on the avatar, and you’ll recognize my name if you wish! People like you turn into cannon fodder in an instant, and having survived, they can’t even understand what they fought for and who needed it ... Damn the brave one)))
  14. galiullinrasim
    galiullinrasim April 12 2013 18: 37
    what's the difference 3000 or a hundred he killed with his death he is heroes and this is not disputed
  15. shpuntik
    shpuntik April 12 2013 21: 59
    A simple Russian man, picked up and blew up. At school, you need to learn this, and not Kadyrov twist on a zombie. TV star you see ...
    1. albatross
      albatross April 12 2013 23: 52
      Yes, really ... There were people in our time
      Not that the current tribe
      Heroes! Not you!
    2. воронов
      воронов April 16 2013 01: 39
      Quote: shpuntik
      and not Kadyrov twist on a zombie. TV star you see ...

      The President of Chechnya, Hero of Russia, Major General Ramzan Kadyrov needs to pay tribute, he has not only sent a bandyuk to visit Allah, and our boy soldiers from Chechnya have not returned two hundred years for several years, unlike today's Dagestan soldier
  16. Zomanus
    Zomanus April 13 2013 13: 18
    Yeah. A feat is almost always a consequence of someone’s negligence or deficiency. I would not be surprised if at that time the country's leadership was politically profitable to surrender these fortifications. Recall Chechnya with constant truces.
  17. ISO
    ISO April 14 2013 17: 33
    I had a chance to visit that place, the owners of the hotel, by the way, the Russians averted their eyes about this story so that in this story not everything is as popular as in the article. I do not want to voice anyone who wants to find it. "Children of the mountains" with daggers climbed to the fortifications of this village to capture a large warehouse of weapons, which was guarded by a small garrison. I don’t know what about supplies from the French with the British, but the abreks did not have enough firearms to conduct hostilities. If we discard the touch of yellowness and lubok gloss, then Osipov deprived the attackers of the main prize and, as far as I remember, the mountaineers no longer pulled large-scale operations.