Military Review

8 April 1783, the Crimea became Russian

58
230 years ago, a manifesto of Empress Catherine II on the annexation of Crimea to Russia was published. This event was the logical outcome of the long struggle of Russia against the Crimean Khanate and Turkey, which kept the Crimea in vassal dependence.


The fate of the Crimea was decided during the Russian-Turkish war of 1768 — 1774. Under the command of Vasily Dolgorukov, the Russian army invaded the peninsula. The troops of Khan Selim III were defeated, Bakhchisarai destroyed, the peninsula devastated. Khan Selim III fled to Istanbul. Crimean know folded weapon and agreed with the accession of Sahib II Giray. Crimea was declared independent of the Ottoman Empire. In 1772, an alliance agreement was signed with the Russian Empire, Bakhchisarai received the promise of Russian military and financial assistance. On the Russian-Turkish Kuchuk-Kaynardzhsky world 1774, the Crimean Khanate and the Kuban Tatars gained independence from Turkey, retaining contacts only on religious matters.

However, the Kuchuk-Kaynardzhi world could not be eternal. Russia was only entrenched by the Black Sea, but the Crimean peninsula - this pearl of the Black Sea region, remained as if nobody else. The power of the Ottomans over him was almost eliminated, and the influence of St. Petersburg was not yet established. This unstable situation caused conflict situations. The Russian troops, for the most part, were withdrawn, the Crimean nobility was inclined to return the former status of the Crimea to the union with the Ottoman Empire.

Sultan still during the peace negotiations, sent to the Crimea Devlet-Girey with a landing force. The uprising began, there were attacks on Russian troops in Alushta, Yalta and other places. Sahib Girey overthrown. Khan elected Devlet Giray. He asked Istanbul to terminate the agreement on independence of the Crimean Khanate concluded with Russia, return the peninsula to its sovereignty and take the Crimea under its protection. However, Istanbul was not ready for a new war, and did not dare to take such a radical step.

Naturally, Petersburg did not like it. In the autumn of 1776, the Russian troops, with the support of the Nogais, overcoming Perekop, broke into the Crimea. They were also supported by the Crimean Beys, whom Devlet IV Giray wanted to punish for supporting Sahib II Giray. With the help of Russian bayonets, Shahin Girey was imprisoned on the Crimean throne. Devlet Girey with the Turks departed for Istanbul.

At the request of Shagin-Girey, Russian troops remained on the peninsula, stationed at Ak-Mosque. Shagin (Shahin) Giray was a talented and gifted person, he studied in Thessaloniki and Venice, he knew Turkish, Italian and Greek. He tried to carry out reforms in the state and reorganize the management in the Crimea on the European model. He did not reckon with national traditions, which caused irritation of the local nobility and Muslim clergy. He became known as a traitor and apostate. The nobility was dissatisfied with the fact that they began to remove her from government. The Tatar nobility of Shigin-Girey, which was almost independent of Khan, transformed the Bakhchsarai, Ak-Mechetskoye, Karasubazar, Gezlevskoye (Evpatoria), Kafinskoe (Feodosia) and Perekopskoe provinces into 6 (Kaimakams). Priesthood were divided into districts. Khan confiscated vakufs - the land of the Crimean clergy. It is clear that the clergy and the nobility did not forgive the khan of the assassination attempt on the basis of their well-being. Even his brothers Bahadir Giray and Arslan Girey spoke out against the policy of Shahin Gerai.

The reason for the uprising was the attempt of Khan to create a European-style armed forces. In the fall of 1777, a riot began. In December, a Turkish landing force headed by the Khan Selim Giray III appointed in Istanbul landed on the peninsula 1777. A rebellion swept the whole peninsula. The civil war began. With the support of Russian troops, the uprising was crushed.

At the same time, the Russian command strengthened its position in the south. At the end of November 1777, Field Marshal Peter Rumyantsev appointed Alexander Suvorov to command the Kuban Corps. In early January, 1778, he took the Kuban Corps and in a short time made a complete topographical description of the Kuban Territory and seriously strengthened the Kuban cordon line, which in fact was the border of Russia and the Ottoman Empire. In March, Suvorov was appointed instead of Alexander Prozorovsky commander of the troops of the Crimea and Kuban. In April, he arrived in Bakhchisarai. The commander divided the peninsula into four territorial districts, along the coast created a chain of posts at a distance of 3-4 km from each other. Russian garrisons were located in the fortresses and several dozen fortifications, reinforced with guns. The first territorial district had a center in Gezlev, the second - in the southwestern part of the peninsula, in Bakhchisarai, the third in the eastern part of Crimea - in the Salgir fortification-transrant, the fourth - occupied the Kerch Peninsula with the center in Yenikale. Behind Perekop, the brigade of Major General Ivan Bagration was located.

Alexander Suvorov issued a special order in which he called "to observe full friendship and to assert mutual agreement between the Russians and various ranks of ordinary people." The commander began to erect fortifications at the exit from Akhtiar bay, forcing the Turkish warships that remained there to leave. Turkish ships went to Sinop. To weaken the Crimean Khanate and save the Christians, who were the first victims during riots and the landing of Turkish troops, Suvorov, on the advice of Potemkin, began to promote the resettlement of the Christian population from the Crimea. They were resettled on the coast of the Azov Sea and the mouth of the Don. From spring to early autumn 1778, more than 30 thousand people were resettled from the Crimea to the Azov Sea region and Novorossia. This caused irritation of the Crimean nobility.

In July 1778, a Turkish fleet of 170 pennants appeared under the command of Gassan-Gaza-Pasha off the Crimean coast in the Feodosiya Bay. The Turks were thinking about landing. The Turkish command handed over a letter demanding a ban on sailing Russian vessels along the coast of the Crimean peninsula. In case of failure to comply with this requirement, Russian ships threatened to sink. Suvorov was firm and said that he would ensure the safety of the peninsula by all means available to him. The Turks did not dare to land troops. The Ottoman fleet ingloriously returned home. The Turkish fleet held another demonstration in September. But Suvorov’s measures, which strengthened the coast and ordered the Bagration brigade to enter the Crimea, were maneuvered by troops in view of the enemy’s fleet, corresponding to his movement, again forced the Ottomans to retreat.

10 March The Anayly-Kavak Convention was signed between Russia and the Ottoman Empire in March. She affirmed the Kuchuk-Kaynardzhi Treaty. Istanbul recognized Shagin Girey as a Crimean Khan, reaffirming the independence of the Crimean Khanate and the right of free passage through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles for Russian merchant ships. Russian troops, leaving 1779-thousand. the garrison in Kerch and Enikale, in the middle of June 6, left the Crimean Peninsula and the Kuban. Suvorov received an appointment in Astrakhan.

The Ottomans, not reconciled with the loss of the Crimea and the territories of the Northern Black Sea region, they in the autumn of 1781, the next uprising was provoked. At the head of the uprising were the brothers Shagin-Giray Bahadir-Giray and Arslan-Girey. The uprising began in the Kuban and quickly spread to the peninsula. By July, 1782, the uprising completely engulfed the entire Crimea, the khan was forced to flee, and the officials of his administration who had not managed to escape had been killed. Bahadir II Giray was elected a new khan. He appealed to Petersburg and Istanbul with a request for recognition.

However, the Russian Empire refused to recognize the new khan and sent troops to suppress the uprising. The Russian Empress Catherine the Great appointed Grigory Potemkin Commander-in-Chief. He was supposed to suppress the uprising and achieve the annexation of the Crimean peninsula to Russia. Troops in the Crimea were appointed to lead Anton Balmen, and on the Kuban - Alexander Suvorov. Balmen's corps, which was formed in Nikopol, occupied Karasubazar, defeating the army of the new Khan under the command of Prince Halim Giray. Bahadir was captured. His brother Arslan Girey was also arrested. Most of the Khan's supporters fled across the North Caucasus to Turkey. Potemkin again appointed Alexander Suvorov commander of the troops in the Crimea and the Kuban. Shagin Giray returned to Bakhchisarai and was restored to the throne.

Shagin Girey began to carry out reprisals against the rebels, which led to a new rebellion. So, was executed prince Mahmud Giray, who declared himself a khan in the Cafe. Shigin Giray wanted to execute both his brothers - Bahadir and Arslan. But the Russian government intervened and saved them, the execution was replaced by a conclusion in Kherson. The Russian empress “advised” Shagin Giray to voluntarily give up the throne and transfer her possessions to St. Petersburg. In February, 1783, Shagin Giray, abdicated the throne and moved to live in Russia. He lived in Taman, Voronezh, Kaluga. Then he made a mistake, went to the Ottoman Empire. Shagin was arrested, exiled to Rhodes and executed in 1787 year.

8 (19) April 1783, the empress Catherine II issued a manifesto on the inclusion of the Crimean Khanate, the Taman Peninsula and the Kuban into the Russian state. By order of G. Potemkin, the troops under the command of Suvorov and Mikhail Potemkin occupied the Taman peninsula and the Kuban, and the forces of Baliman entered the Crimean peninsula. From the sea, Russian troops supported the ships of the Azov flotilla under the command of Vice-Admiral Klokachev. Almost at the same time, the empress sent a frigate “Caution” to the peninsula under the command of Captain II rank Ivan Bersenev. He was given the task of choosing a harbor for the fleet off the southwestern coast of the Crimean peninsula. In April Bersenyev examined the bay near the village of Akhtiar, which was located near the ruins of Chersonese-Taurian. He proposed to turn it into the base of the future Black Sea Fleet. 2 May 1783, the bay included five frigates and eight small vessels of the Azov military flotilla under the command of Vice Admiral Klokachev. Already at the beginning of 1784, the port and fortress was laid. She was named Empress Catherine II of Sevastopol - "the majestic city."

In May, the Empress sent Mikhail Kutuzov, who had just returned from abroad after treatment, to the Crimea, who quickly settled issues of a politico-diplomatic nature with the remaining Crimean nobility. In June, 1783, in Karasubazar, on top of the Ak-Kaya (White Rock) cliff, Prince Potyomkin took the oath of allegiance to the Russian Empire from the Tatar nobility and representatives of all sections of the Crimean population. Crimean Khanate finally ceased to exist. It was established the Crimean territorial government. Russian troops located in the Crimea received the order of Potemkin to treat "residents friendly, not repairing any offense, which the leaders and regimental commanders have an example to."

In August, Balmen's 1783 was replaced by General Igelstrom. He proved to be a good organizer, established the "Tavrichesky regional government". Together with the Zemstvo government, almost all the local Tatar nobility entered it. 2 February 1784, by decree of the empress, established the Tauride region, headed by the president of the military college G. Potemkin. It includes the Crimea and Taman. In the same month, Empress Catherine II granted the highest Crimean class all the rights and privileges of the Russian nobility. Lists were made of 334 new Crimean nobles, who retained their old land ownership.

To attract the population, Sevastopol, Feodosiya and Kherson were declared open cities for all nationalities friendly to Russia. Foreigners were free to come to these settlements, live there and take Russian citizenship. In Crimea, serfdom was not introduced, the Tatars of not privileged classes were declared state-owned (state) peasants. Relations between the Crimean nobility and social groups dependent on them have not been changed. The lands and incomes that belonged to the Crimean “tsar” passed to the imperial treasury. All prisoners, subjects of Russia, received freedom. I must say that at the time of the annexation of the Crimea to Russia, on the peninsula there were about 60 thousand people, and 1474 villages. The main occupation of the villagers was the breeding of cows and sheep.

Changes for the better, after the annexation of the Crimea to Russia, appeared literally before our eyes. Domestic trade duties were eliminated, which immediately increased the trade turnover of the Crimea. The Crimean cities of Karasubazar, Bakhchisarai, Feodosiya, Gezlev (Evpatoria), Ak-Mosque (Simferopol - it became the administrative center of the region) began to grow. The Tauride region was divided into 7 counties: Simferopol, Levkopolsky (Feodosia), Perekopsky, Evpatoria, Dniprovsky, Melitopol and Fanagory. Russian state peasants, retired soldiers, immigrants from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Turkey were settled on the peninsula. Potemkin for the development of agriculture in the Crimea invited foreign experts in the field of horticulture, viticulture, sericulture and forestry. Salt extraction was increased. In August 1785, all the ports of the Crimea were exempted from paying customs duties for 5 years and the customs guard was transferred to Perekop. The turnover of Russian trade on the Black Sea by the end of the centuries increased several thousand times and amounted to 2 million rubles. On the peninsula, created a special office for the leadership and development of "agriculture and housekeeping". Already in 1785, Vice-Governor of the Crimea K. I. Gablitz conducted the first scientific description of the peninsula.

Potemkin possessed tremendous energy and ambition. On the shores of the Black Sea, he was able to implement many projects. The Empress fully supported him in this matter. Back in 1777, she wrote to Grimm: “I love unplowed countries. Believe me, they are the best. ” New Russia was really “unplowed” territory where it was possible to carry out the most amazing projects. Fortunately, Potemkin had the full support of the empress and the enormous human and material resources of Russia. In fact, he became a kind of vice-emperor of the South of Russia, who had the full will to implement his plans. Military and political victories were combined with rapid administrative, economic, naval and cultural development of the region.

8 April 1783, the Crimea became Russian

G. A. Potemkin on the Monument "1000 Anniversary of Russia" in Veliky Novgorod.

In the bare steppe, entire cities and ports sprang up — Sevastopol, Kherson, Melitopol, Odessa. Thousands of peasants and workers were directed to the construction of canals, embankments, fortifications, shipyards, moorings, enterprises. Forests were planted. The flows of immigrants (Russians, Germans, Greeks, Armenians, etc.) rushed to Novorossia. By the end of the century, the population of the Crimean peninsula increased to 100 thousand people, mainly due to immigrants from Russia and Little Russia. The richest lands of the southern Russian steppes mastered. In record time, the Black Sea Fleet was built, which quickly became the master of the situation on the Black Sea and gained a series of brilliant victories over the Turkish fleet. Potyomkin planned to build a magnificent, not inferior to the northern capital, the southern capital of the empire - Ekaterinoslav on the Dnieper (now Dnipropetrovsk). It was going to build a huge cathedral, more Vatican St. Peter, a theater, a university, museums, a stock exchange, palaces, gardens and parks.

Versatile talents Potemkin touched and the Russian army. The almighty favorite of the Empress was a supporter of the new tactics and strategy of warfare, encouraged the initiative of the commanders. Replaced the tight uniforms of the German type on a light and comfortable uniforms of the new model, more suited to combat. Soldiers were forbidden to wear braids and use powder, which was a real torment for them.

The transformations went so fast that when in 1787, the Russian ruler Catherine II traveled to the Peninsula through Perekop, visiting Karasubazar, Bakhchisarai, Laspi and Sevastopol, Potemkin had something to boast about. Suffice it to recall the Black Sea Fleet, consisting of three battleships, twelve frigates, twenty small ships, three bombardier ships and two firefighters. It was after this journey that Potemkin received the title of "Taurian" from the empress.

It is clear that in Istanbul they did not accept the loss of the Crimean Khanate. The Ottomans, who were underlined by England, were actively preparing for a new war. In addition, the interests of Russia and Turkey clashed in the Caucasus and the Balkan Peninsula. It ended with the fact that Istanbul ultimately demanded the return of the Crimean Peninsula, but received a decisive refusal. 21 August 1787, the Turkish fleet attacked the Russian off the western shores of the Crimean peninsula, which was the signal for the start of a new war. In the Russian-Turkish war 1787 — 1791. success accompanied the Russian arms. In Moldova, Rumyantsev inflicted a number of heavy defeats on the Turkish troops, Golitsyn occupied Iasi and Khotin. Army Potemkin captured Ochakov. Suvorov defeated the Turkish army under Rymnik. The "impregnable" Ishmael and Anapa were captured. The Black Sea Fleet in a series of battles defeated the Turkish fleet. The Yassy peace treaty secured the entire Northern Black Sea region, including the Crimean Peninsula, for the Russian Empire.
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  1. Alikovo
    Alikovo April 8 2013 09: 01
    11
    Khrushchev is the main culprit in the secession of Crimea from Russia.
    1. Alx1miK
      Alx1miK April 8 2013 09: 27
      +1
      Yes, yes, Nikita Sergeevich was still a henpecked man.
    2. nnz226
      nnz226 April 8 2013 12: 53
      +6
      A corncracker deserves only a spit on his grave! Why is the Crimea conquered by Russia not in Russian hands ?! And this is a spit on the grave of the first EBNuty Prizident of the Russian Federation!
      1. strannik595
        strannik595 April 8 2013 17: 32
        -3
        for camels from Ukraine ............. do not care about the grave of the President of Russia, no matter what he is .......... you have your own, no less worthy
      2. Gad
        Gad April 8 2013 20: 47
        0
        Yes, some sought, while others squandered. It’s not only the maize farmer who’s to blame, Yeltsin has shown a soft body, and the current leaders of Russia are concerned about the salvation of Cyprus, not the Russian Crimea!
    3. AntonR7
      AntonR7 April 8 2013 21: 52
      0
      I agree, God forbid, we will return to Russia what belongs to it by right. In vain did they shed blood, so that with a stroke of the pen to give the Crimea.
      1. Alexeymiller
        Alexeymiller April 10 2013 01: 55
        -1
        Did the Russians serve in the Russian army?
        1. washi
          washi April 10 2013 07: 16
          0
          Naturally. All who fight on our side are Russians.
          By the way, in those days there was no state - Ukraine. It was the outskirts of the Russian state and was called Little Russia
    4. Alexeymiller
      Alexeymiller April 10 2013 01: 53
      0
      This statement is stupid. As if Khrushchev knew that the union would fall apart?
    5. Tutashkhia date
      Tutashkhia date 20 July 2020 11: 16
      0
      , not Khrushchev, but Yeltsin. Khrushchev only transferred Crimea from one union republic to another. But Yeltsin ...
      As you know, deportation is the forcible resettlement of a people from one country to another. The Tatars, Germans, Greeks, Armenians, who were evicted by the Soviet authorities from Crimea during the Great Patriotic War, are considered deported. Although, by and large, this movement of peoples cannot be called deportation, since it was carried out within one country - the USSR. The transfer of Crimea from the RSFSR to the Ukrainian SSR, in fact also forcible, without taking into account the opinion of the people, moving the Russian people of the peninsula from one republic of the USSR to another, was not deportation at first either. But in 1991 the USSR was gone. By this time, the Russian majority of the peninsula, in contrast to the aforementioned national groups, was not recognized as victims of the communist regime. In January 1991, the autonomy of Crimea, although it was restored, was part of the Ukrainian SSR, and not the RSFSR. Thus, already in December 1991, after the collapse of the USSR, the Russians of Crimea ended up not in Russia, but in Ukraine. That is, there are signs of deportation - moving from one country to another without the consent of the people, since the referendum on the belonging of the Crimean autonomy to Russia or Ukraine by the Ukrainian authorities was ignored.
  2. vladsolo56
    vladsolo56 April 8 2013 09: 16
    +2
    Turkey still organizes and supports the separatists of the Crimean Tatars. So Ukraine will still have to put things in order there and not by persuasion, that's for sure
    1. Orik
      Orik April 8 2013 10: 00
      13
      All of us will have to put things in order there. We are one people !!!
    2. opkozak
      opkozak April 8 2013 12: 29
      +5
      on the peninsula, there were about 60 thousand people, and 1474 villages.


      I don’t know where the truth is, but on an excursion in the Yevpatoriya mosque, a Tatar guide told me that there are 250000 Tatars living in Crimea, and 5 million in Turkey. I asked him if the Tatars were moving to Crimea from Turkey. He replied that only the owners of restaurants or cafes, but do not change passports. That is, in Crimea only our Tatars repatriated from Uzbekistan. The people are very calm, belonging to the moderate branch of Islam. In Crimea, very favorable conditions have been created for them. There are troubles in the wake of the seizure of land, but they are solvable. Their leader Mustafa Dzhemilev is a very respected person, MP of Ukraine of the VII convocation, member of the Verkhovna Rada Committee on Human Rights, National Minorities and Interethnic Relations.
      Throughout the cadences it remains non-partisan.
      1. biglow
        biglow April 8 2013 17: 13
        +1
        Quote: opkozak
        on the peninsula, there were about 60 thousand people, and 1474 villages.



        Crimean Tatars themselves were only about 100 thousand, Uzbeks and Tajiks came with them, who look very different in appearance, but they were also recorded in the Tatars, and those Tatars who live in Turkey are only called Tatars but they have kinship with the Crimeans. they won’t get anywhere they have their own life there in Turkey and what they do in the Crimea. The situation is really calm, the balance of power is organized on its own and nothing happens except for the little things.
        PS and how did you screw the Soviet flag through a proxy?
        1. biglow
          biglow April 8 2013 17: 55
          +2
          drinks ADMINISTS THANKS FOR THE FLAG OF THE SOVIET UNION. Bendery flag in the furnace
          1. Horde
            Horde April 8 2013 19: 45
            +2
            ADMINISTS THANKS FOR THE FLAG OF THE SOVIET UNION


            I also want to...
          2. AntonR7
            AntonR7 April 8 2013 22: 03
            +1
            and I like the Russian flag more))
            1. Horde
              Horde April 9 2013 07: 33
              -2
              forward to the victory of democracy ...
        2. antiaircrafter
          antiaircrafter April 8 2013 21: 51
          +2
          Quote: biglow
          PS and how did you screw the Soviet flag through a proxy?

          Through the settings in your account.
  3. donchepano
    donchepano April 8 2013 09: 28
    +4
    The article is pleasant for the soul))
  4. omsbon
    omsbon April 8 2013 09: 40
    10
    THE CRIMEA WAS AND WILL BE RUSSIAN!
    1. Ascetic
      Ascetic April 8 2013 10: 53
      +7
      Quote: omsbon
      THE CRIMEA WAS AND WILL BE RUSSIAN!


      The manifesto of Catherine II of April 8 1783 year.

      “On the adoption of the Crimean peninsula, the island of Taman and the entire Kuban side under the Russian state.

      In the Ottoman war that took place with Porta, when the forces and victories of Our arms gave us every right to leave Our Crimea, in the hands of our former, We, with this and other extensive conquests, sacrificed then the renewal of good agreement and friendship with the Port of Ottoman, transforming the peoples at that end Tatars to the region, free and independent, in order to permanently remove cases and ways of strife and coldness, which often occurred between Russia and Porta in the former Tatars state ... But now ... owing to the responsibility of the custody of the Fatherland for us, trying to benefit and to affirm it’s security, equally believing it to be a means that forever alienates the unpleasant causes that revolt the eternal peace between the empires of Russia and the Ottoman prisoner, which we sincerely wish to preserve forever, no less than in replacement and satisfaction of Our losses, We decided to take Our Crimean peninsula, Taman Island and the entire Kuban side under power. ”.
    2. biglow
      biglow April 8 2013 17: 58
      +5
      Quote: omsbon
      CRIMEA WAS AND WILL BE RUSSIAN!

      Crimea, and so Russian and in Lviv, many do not like it, but we ....
  5. as3wresdf
    as3wresdf April 8 2013 09: 58
    0
    The base of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of all citizens of the Russian Federation on this site twitlink.ws/baza and the main thing was done as if to search for lost relatives, but here is all the information about each of us: correspondence with friends, addresses, phones, place of work, and the worst thing is even mine nudity photo (though I do not know from where ...). In general, I was very scared - but there is such a function as "hide data" of course I used it and I advise everyone not to hesitate, you never know
  6. 120352
    120352 April 8 2013 10: 26
    +2
    And I must stay with them!
  7. Gari
    Gari April 8 2013 10: 33
    +9
    To attract the population, Sevastopol, Theodosius and Kherson were declared open cities for all nationalities friendly to Russia. Foreigners were free to come to these settlements, live there and accept Russian citizenship. Serfdom was not introduced in Crimea, Tatars of non-privileged classes were declared state (state) peasants. The relations between the Crimean nobility and the social groups dependent on them were not changed. The lands and incomes that belonged to the Crimean “king” passed to the imperial treasury.
    Changes for the better, after the annexation of Crimea to Russia, appeared literally before our eyes. Domestic trade duties were eliminated, which immediately increased the trade turnover of Crimea. Entire cities and ports arose in the bare steppe - Sevastopol, Kherson, Melitopol, Odessa. Thousands of peasants and workers were sent to the construction of canals, embankments, fortifications, shipyards, moorings, enterprises. Forests planted. Streams of immigrants (Russians, Germans, Greeks, Armenians, etc.) rushed to New Russia. The population of the Crimean peninsula by the end of the century increased to 100 thousand people, mainly due to immigrants from Russia and Little Russia. The richest lands of the southern Russian steppes were developed. In record time, the Black Sea Fleet was built consisting of three battleships, twelve frigates, twenty small ships, three bombardier ships and two firewalls.
    Potemkin, having the Empress’s full support and the enormous human and material resources of Russia, was a kind of vice emperor of the South of Russia (who could check and control him) - he didn’t saw for himself, he didn’t withdraw capital abroad to any islands.
    Here is an example of the Head - Patriot, Statesman
    His Grace Prince Field Marshal Grigory Alexandrovich Potemkin-Tauride
  8. Goldkonstantin
    Goldkonstantin April 8 2013 10: 38
    +3
    The Empress would know if in almost 150 years there would appear someone Khrushchev Nikita Sergeich, who would immediately cross out all efforts and make useless blood that spilled in the steppes of Tauris ....
    1. AntonR7
      AntonR7 April 8 2013 22: 08
      +1
      I think if she knew she would send at least his ancestors from Russia
    2. Alexeymiller
      Alexeymiller April 10 2013 02: 00
      +1
      What is Khrushchev to blame? If my memory serves me Ukraine and Russia in 1954 were one country) And this was done for more convenient management.
  9. Opera
    Opera April 8 2013 10: 40
    +9
    Potemkin's name is underestimated in history. Thanks to all the same Western propaganda of that time, the expression "Potemkin villages" has firmly entered the lexicon, the meaning of which has nothing to do with the truth. Unfortunately, I have not seen monuments to this great man in the Crimea, and in Russia his name is not deservedly forgotten.
    As for the Crimean Tatars, I want to say that a significant part of them gravitate toward Russia. These are real life observations. Here, the economic one is the material component and the talk about the good life of Kazan Tatars in Russia and the opinion of the post-war generation born and living in the Union.
    1. Gari
      Gari April 8 2013 11: 32
      +3
      Quote: Oper
      Potemkin's name is underestimated in history. Thanks to all the same Western propaganda of that time, the expression "Potemkin villages" has firmly entered the lexicon, the meaning of which has nothing to do with the truth. Unfortunately, I have not seen monuments to this great man in the Crimea, and in Russia his name is not deservedly forgotten.

      I agree to all 100%
      I was very impressed when I read the novel ,, Favorite ,, Pikulya
      I advise about Potemkin — the author depicts an era through the prism of the actions of the protagonist - His Grace Prince Grigory Alexandrovich Potemkin-Tauride, favorite of Catherine II: a complex man, largely contradictory, but certainly talented and intelligent, decisively invading government affairs and seeing his duty as ministry of Russia.
    2. xan
      xan April 8 2013 12: 04
      +2
      Quote: Oper
      Potemkin’s name is underestimated in history.

      I underestimated agree, but this does not mean that in the West they knew only about Potemkin villages. As a kid, I read at Dumas that it is better for the state to have ministers of such embezzlers as Potemkin than such honest ones as Colbert (he was buried at the expense of the state because of the poverty of his family). Here I was still interested in the Soviet Union, what kind of Potemkin is such that Dumas puts him as an example to Western figures.
      1. predator.3
        predator.3 April 8 2013 12: 16
        +6
        "Potemkin villages" - now these are cities: Odessa, Nikolaev, Sevastopol, Dnepropetrovsk, Kharkov, etc.
      2. chehywed
        chehywed April 8 2013 19: 21
        +1
        it is better to have ministers of such embezzlers as Potemkin

        We would now be such a "embezzler". He took from the treasury with both hands, but also returned a hundredfold. And what did he take? For the development of cities in Southern Russia and the Black Sea Fleet.
    3. Eugene
      Eugene April 8 2013 17: 41
      +3
      Once I heard a phrase from a Crimean Tatar woman: “Stalin is not on them!” This is about Kuevskaya power. How can you get a person, supposedly a victim of the regime.
  10. lab29
    lab29 April 8 2013 10: 48
    +3
    Great things, Great people!
  11. Ascetic
    Ascetic April 8 2013 10: 51
    +7
    In the "Memorial Book of the Tauride Province", published in Simferopol in 1867, a document is given - "A list of public expenditures of the Crimean Khanate" during the reign of Shagin Girey, according to which 152 people received salaries in Turkish levs and Russian rubles. The state and court states of the Crimean Khanate are also indicated there.
    “The staff of the entire civil and military administration of the Crimean state: I. First ranks:
    • Kalga-Sultan, considered the successor of the Khan;

    • Nureddin Sultan, the second heir;

    • sultans, ie princes from the family of Girey;

    • Or-Bey - commandant and governor of the fortress Or-Kapi (Perekop), from the family of Girey;

    • khan vizier;

    • mufti, head of the clergy;

    • kazi-asker, chief spiritual judge;

    • great yeah; those. Minister of Police

    • main treasury;

    • first deferdar, ie Minister of Finance;

    • Bey - Shirinsky, Barynsky, Mansursky, Arginsky, Yashlavsky, etc. P. Second ranks:

    • nuredin, ie governor of the great aga;

    • second deferreds;

    • silichter, ie swordsman;

    • katibi sofa, ie Secretary of the Council;

    • Ak-Medzhi-Bey, i.e. harem keeper;

    • kaimakans of provinces, cities and hordes of Nogai;

    • Murahasy, i.e. representatives at the court of noble families;

    • bash-bulyuk-bash, i.e. chief of staff. III. Third ranks:

    • cadi, ie judges;

    • muslim governors, ie Managers

    • Serdars, generally commanders;

    • dizdary, ie commandants;

    • mint and customs registrars;

    • clerks, ie secretaries of kaymakans and customs.

    In another statement is the calculation of the salary costs to the spouses of the khan, courtiers, to the maintenance of the yard, hunting, etc.

    Court staff:

    Bodyguard Body:

    • 16 people of Edisan Murz, 11 people of Edichkul Murz, 11 people of Dzhambuiluk Murz, 4 Kabardins, 5 Tamanians, 8 Zapintsy;

    • 2 capigi, i.e. chamberlains;

    • kular-agassy or chief of servants and pages;

    • 3 lines, ie shtalmeystery;

    • 1 keeper of breeder deer, who were in the menagerie khan in Chufut-Kale, near Bakhchisaray;

    • 1 keeper of falcon nests;

    • 1 hunter;

    • 1 flight superintendent, i.e. skippers and boaters;

    • 1 Czechosher;

    • 1 sherbetchi;

    • 1 podscheberchi;

    • 1 bash chugadar, ie chief fourier;

    • 28 castugars, i.e. furriers and walkers;

    • 4 tents, ie tent guards;

    • 1 bandmaster;

    • 1 doctor;

    • 1 matargi and 1 mattresses;

    • 11 pages;

    • 1 main cafe and 3 junior cafes;

    • 1 secretary of the khan;

    • 1 caretaker chandelier;

    • Russian cabmen, Russian and German cooks; "tent masters, carpenters, silver coins, masons, gold seamstresses, Chubukchi, etc."
    1. Eugene
      Eugene April 8 2013 17: 43
      +1
      Interesting book!
    2. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny April 8 2013 21: 40
      +4
      since I am from the Argyn clan, I was once looking for where a part of my clan, who lived in the Crimea, went to (for Russians, Kazakhs and Crimean Tatars are different peoples, and in almost any Turkic people I will find a blood relative from my own clan) ... Argyns in Crimea were one of the most influential families of the local khanate. By the way, one of the Argyns, the well-known commander of the Crimean army Argyn Tugai-bey, was a combat ally of Bohdan Khmelnitsky, who called this steppe dweller "my brother is guilty, my soul is guilty".
      Communicated with hundreds of Crimean Tatars, searched for argyns - did not find. Then he found out that the Argyns did not want to live under the rule of the Russian tsarina and left their native land, having moved to the Ottoman Empire in full force. In general, as I understand it, those Crimeans who were descended from the steppes left Crimea (most of them went to Turkey, some to Poland, Lithuania earlier), and those who were not really a Turk, but a Turkized population remained. The current Crimean Tatars have little to do with real Turks. Usually these are the descendants of the Greeks, Armenians and others who switched to the Turkic language in the early Middle Ages.
      But I have not yet found traces of my Argyn family in the Ottoman Empire. I found several settlements that seem to be related to my family name. But is it really so - for me it is not clear. The Turks with whom I spoke on this subject - unfortunately, do not know anything. But I hope to find relatives)

      And about whose land this is - Russian, Ukrainian, Turkic - the question, I hope, sooner or later will disappear by itself in the future Union. But shouting "this is the Russian land! Ukraine, return our ancestral lands" is stupid. So you can only alienate both the Ukrainian and the Crimean Tatar. What boundaries were formed in 1991, there are. Otherwise, the "Tatars" will remember where which khanate existed on the territory of the Russian Federation, including the Turkic khanate or the Kasimov khanate. Do not provoke your stupidity, do not face stupidity in response.
      1. AntonR7
        AntonR7 April 8 2013 22: 15
        +1
        No argyn you're wrong. the borders of 1991 need to be reviewed, was in the composition of the RSFSR should again be returned to the Russian Federation, especially since the population of Crimea gravitates to Russia.
        1. Yarbay
          Yarbay April 8 2013 22: 21
          0
          Quote: AntonR7
          No argyn you're wrong. the borders of 1991 need to be reviewed, was in the composition of the RSFSR should again be returned to the Russian Federation, especially since the population of Crimea gravitates to Russia.

          By and large Marek is right !!
          During the partition of the USSR, Russia, represented by its leaders selected by the majority of the population, did not show any claims to the Ukrainian side about the Crimea !!
          So now it’s completely out of place!
  12. alebor
    alebor April 8 2013 10: 56
    +6
    Quote: Alikovo
    Khrushchev is the main culprit in the secession of Crimea from Russia.

    Not feeling much sympathy for Khrushchev, I would nevertheless like to note that he is not so guilty as he is being scolded. In fact, he continued the work of the Lenin government, which transferred the Northern Black Sea region (Novorossia), conquered during the time of Catherine, to the newly created republic of Ukraine (it is surprising that the Kuban was not given), after which the Crimean peninsula was cut off from the territory of the RSFSR. So there was a certain, although perhaps controversial, logic in Khrushchev's actions. In addition, after the transfer, Crimea, as it was, remained a part of the united state of the USSR, there were no transfers and territorial concessions to foreign states. I think that even in the worst nightmare Khrushchev could not dream that in about 30 years Ukraine, together with his "gift", would become "abroad." So the main culprit, in my opinion, is not him, but Lenin and Gorbachev. The first divided the former Russian Empire into many national republics with very disputed borders between them, and the second stupidly ruined it all.
  13. Opera
    Opera April 8 2013 11: 00
    +2
    Do not forget that in addition to all the truly titanic efforts of Potemkin directly in Crimea to improve and generally equip Tauris, he had to make a lot of efforts in convincing the empress herself to join the peninsula. Potemkin knew how to convince the Empress - whitewashed! The Empress for the time being paid the favorite the same, despite the poisonous whisper of Petersburg and European envious ... Unfortunately, only for the time being.
  14. Opera
    Opera April 8 2013 11: 09
    +1
    And what about Khrushchev ... There was only one logic in his actions - to enlist support and receive political dividends from the numerous and influential communists of the Ukrainian SSR. So the momentary "logic" subsequently led to such results!
  15. Russian knight
    Russian knight April 8 2013 11: 19
    +4
    Every meter of Crimean land was sprinkled with blood by Russian soldiers. What would they say if they looked now at an empire that was so quickly split into pieces under the joyful cries of NATO?
  16. fenix57
    fenix57 April 8 2013 11: 23
    +1
    A few dates from recent history:
    The end of the XIX century. - construction of railways, major highways, existing to this day. The construction of a major international trading port in Feodosia. The rapid development of entrepreneurship, trade, industry by representatives of all national communities of the city. Theodosius becomes a real cosmopolitan center of trade, crafts, culture.

    1918-1921 - the brutal battles of the Civil War and the Kaiser Germany intervention ended with the victory of the Bolsheviks, the inclusion of Crimea into the Soviet Union (1922) with the formation of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as part of the Russian Federation. In Feodosia are tens of thousands of White Guards and their families. Their destruction is carried out by the Hungarian communists Bela Kun and Mate Zalka under the leadership of a Bolshevichka nicknamed Zemlyachka.

    1941-1944 - bloody battles of the Second World War. Theodosius passes from hand to hand four times. The city is experiencing bombing, repeated landings and attacks by land units.

    May 18, 1944 - mass deportation of Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians, Greeks, Gypsies to the regions of Central Asia and Siberia. Political rehabilitation in 1967 and the massive return of deported peoples since 1989 (Perestroika).

    February 4-11, 1945 - The Crimean (Yalta) Conference of the Heads of Government of the USSR, the USA and Great Britain determined the post-war structure of the world.

    1954 - Crimea becomes an area within Ukraine.

    1971- 1982 - Crimean meetings of the Secretary General of the Central Committee of the CPSU L.I. Brezhnev with the leaders of fraternal parties and countries; rapid development of resorts and tourism; the development of heavy industry and the chemicalization of agriculture creates environmental problems.

    1991 - "putsch" in Moscow and the arrest of M. Gorbachev at his dacha in Foros. The collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea becomes an Autonomous Republic within Ukraine, and Big Yalta becomes the summer political capital of Ukraine and the countries of the Black Sea region.
  17. CAMS
    CAMS April 8 2013 11: 27
    +1
    I can’t imagine Ukraine (near the edge) and Russia separately, all efforts are needed to strengthen science, well, about the beyond, our let’s go to the occupants
  18. Opera
    Opera April 8 2013 11: 28
    +3
    Unfortunately, history does not know the "subjunctiveness" ... And the soldiers would hardly talk about this topic at all ...
    You can't say better than in the film "Ivan Vasilyevich Changes His Profession": * What are you, impostor, squandering state lands! So you won't have enough of any volosts ... *
  19. zao74
    zao74 April 8 2013 11: 59
    +2
    And the hunchbacked, labeled p .. for everything was blown away.
  20. don.kryyuger
    don.kryyuger April 8 2013 16: 53
    +2
    And what are the Britons! Until now, they have only trouble for Russia. "Again the Englishwoman is hurting!", Catherine's words !!, are still relevant.
  21. savastyanov
    savastyanov April 8 2013 17: 49
    +2
    It is unfortunate that the Crimea, for which Russia fought for many years, was simply presented to Ukraine.
  22. ImPerts
    ImPerts April 8 2013 18: 01
    0
    I was in Crimea under Kuchma. All the guides spoke about the conquest of Crimea by Russians. But, the farther south, that is, towards the South Coast, the less talked about it. And they didn’t forget about it at the South Coast, but more often in the north. Although, though ... The general impression of the Crimea. They love and respect us there.
    1. Borodko
      Borodko April 8 2013 22: 42
      0
      already numb and use like all of the money
  23. fellow misha
    fellow misha April 8 2013 18: 24
    0
    This event was the logical result of a long struggle of Russia with the Crimean Khanate and Turkey, which kept Crimea in vassal dependence.

    The fate of Crimea was decided during the Russo-Turkish war of 1768-1774. The Russian army, led by Vasily Dolgorukov, invaded the peninsula. The troops of Khan Selim III were defeated, Bakhchisaray destroyed, the peninsula devastated. Khan Selim III fled to Istanbul. The Crimean aristocracy laid down its arms and agreed with the accession of Sahib II Giray. Crimea was declared independent of the Ottoman Empire.


    And on the basis of what does the current owner own the peninsula? This was not a gift from the Russian people because the Russian people cannot give things for which they paid with the lives of their best sons and daughters.
  24. melkie
    melkie April 8 2013 19: 54
    +1
    Historically, Crimea is Russian land and is abundantly watered with Russian blood, what the hell is the territory of Ukraine? It is necessary to return Crimea by any means, preferably diplomatic.
    1. AntonR7
      AntonR7 April 8 2013 22: 06
      +1
      I completely agree, God forbid, we will return if our power is not corrupt.
  25. pawlo77
    pawlo77 April 8 2013 22: 02
    +2
    good evening everyone! I was born and raised in Simferopol after the army worked in the Simferopol "golden eagle" (riot police in Ukrainian who do not know). I tell you right in the 90s with the Crimean Tatars we had problems and oh what. I don’t remember exactly, like May 18 is their day of deportation, so we were constantly at the ready all over the school. and only we and the Russian fleet were for them a deterrent from direct aggression. don't tell me about their friendliness.
  26. George
    George April 8 2013 22: 34
    0
    Prince Dolgoruky Vasily Mikhailovich. But he earned the officer rank and sword, the first to climb the ramparts of Perekop. And he was only 14 years old. Minich personally presented the young hero with a well-deserved reward, and also managed to defend him in front of Anna Ioannovna, who pursued Dolgoruky. At her command, the Dolgoruky did not dare to teach literacy. And already as a general, Vasily Mikhailovich did not know how to write, which, however, does not detract from his merits both as a military man and as commander in chief of Moscow.
    Muscovites appreciated him for his simplicity, justice and patriarchy. Good, he was strict with his subordinates. “I am a military man, not paid for in ink,” he said, emphasizing his aversion to bribery and crocheting. “The prince lived in Russian, was a hospice, a generous man. Moscow cried about him for a long time, and it still makes me sad for all comparisons with those who take its place. ” I. M. Dolgoruky in his “Temple of the Heart”. Another poet, also a contemporary, Yu. A. Neledinsky-Meletsky dedicated an epitaph to him:



    “Passerby, do not be amazed that the magnificent mausoleum
    Do not you see it above the dust;
    There are villains covered by it;
    For virtue there is no glory from that!
    May pride perishable tombs build,
    According to Dolgorukov, Moscow is sobbing! ”
  27. bublic82009
    bublic82009 April 8 2013 22: 43
    +1
    Hundreds of thousands of Russian soldiers died over my peninsula. and our rulers so stupidly gave Crimea to ungrateful am.
  28. Nevyatoy
    Nevyatoy April 9 2013 01: 57
    +1
    "The power of Russia can only be undermined by the separation of Ukraine from it ... it is necessary not only to tear away, but also to oppose Ukraine to Russia. To do this, you only need to find and raise traitors among the elite and, with their help, change the self-consciousness of one part of the great nation to such an extent that it will to hate everything Russian, to hate your kind, without realizing it. Everything else is a matter of time. "
    Otto von Bismarck
    1. xan
      xan April 9 2013 12: 20
      0
      Of course, I’m not Bismarck, but I believe that Russia's power is undermined by internal fragmentation, rabid bureaucratic corruption and a monstrous stratification of income. Ukraine and Belarus have nothing to do with it, it all depends on Russia.
  29. EvilDentist
    EvilDentist April 9 2013 11: 44
    0
    Ukraine should be with Russia, from this only benefits to both states, against there can only be well-stubborn Tupar Natsiks, on both sides, by the way, or overt foreign agents (C). Only now Turkey definitely has not come to terms with the loss of Crimea and will never accept; if the reunification process takes too long (still not a fact that is feasible) drags on - the Turks will take advantage of it in any way, Turkey at this stage is a rather strong state, much stronger than Ukraine, and then there are constant ramps between governments, all kinds of European vectors and so on: - /
  30. aviamed90
    aviamed90 April 9 2013 11: 48
    0
    These are the dates that should be celebrated at the state level! And not the construction of another pipe to the west ...
  31. alert_timka
    alert_timka April 9 2013 19: 57
    +1
    Quote: Alikovo
    Khrushchev is the main culprit in the secession of Crimea from Russia.

    I am touched by this phrase that Khrushchev tore off the Crimea from Russia and gave it, but can I ask who he gave the Crimea to? And I will answer myself, he gave it to the Soviet Union. Since the Ukrainian SSR was part of the USSR. And I can assume that in a nightmare he did not even imagine the collapse of the USSR. Some of his khalut have been looking since modern times because he didn’t make many guns, ruined the aircraft and went in cycles on missiles. And what else could he do when not one anti-aircraft gun and fighter standing in service took American planes flying over the USSR to the very Urals. And there was no such plane in the USSR capable of reaching America and giving a decent answer. So, the correct position was then the submarine fleet and ICBMs, thanks to which he could tell them in the face of Kuzkin’s mother
    1. Alexeymiller
      Alexeymiller April 10 2013 02: 04
      0
      I totally agree.