Military Review

Armored Hungary World War II. Medium tank "Turan"

9
In early 1940, Hungarian specialists became interested in experienced secondary a tank G2c (T-21) of the Czechoslovak company Jlkoda. The latter was the development of a well-known light tank of the same company 1B2a (LT-35), which the Hungarians were able to meet in March 1939. Specialists of the Institute of Military Equipment spoke in favor of the T-21, they considered it the best medium tank. Of all the really available. This machine was not at all attracted by the Germans, and they did not mind transferring it to the Hungarians. On June 3, 1940, the T-21 was sent to Budapest, and on June 10 arrived at the Honvedshega Central Test Site in Khaimashkeri. After the tests, during which the T-21 passed 800 km without breakdowns, on August 7, 1940, the parties signed a license contract. September 3, the car was adopted by the Hungarian army under the name "Turan" (Turan). Turan is the mythological ancestral home of the Magyars, located in Central Asia, from where in the VI century they began their resettlement to Europe. Soon the tank received an army index of 40M.


Medium Tank T-21


In preparation for mass production, the original Czech design has undergone some modernization and changes. Hungarian cannon and engine were installed, the booking was strengthened, surveillance devices and communications equipment were replaced. This work was carried out under the direction of the designer of the firm Manfred Weiss, engineer Janos Korbulya. First order for 230

The combat vehicles issued by the 19 Department of Defense September 1940 of the year were divided between four firms: Manfred Weiss (70 units), Magyar Vagon (70), MAVAG (40) and Ganz (50). However, from issuing an order to its actual implementation was still far away. The start of production was hampered by the lack of a complete set of technical documentation, since the latest drawings from Jlkoda were obtained only in March of the 1941 year. The implementation of modernization drawings was also delayed. As a result, the first prototype of the “Turan”, made of non-armored steel, left the factory floor only on July 8. In the army, however, new tanks began to arrive only in May 1942. In total, 285 40М “Turan 40” tanks were produced, in Russian literature they are sometimes referred to as “Turan I”.

The layout and design of the hull and the tower, assembled by riveting on a frame from the corners, basically corresponded to the Czech prototype. The thickness of rolled armor plates of the frontal part of the hull and turret was 50 - 60 mm, sides and stern - 25 mm, roofs and bottoms - 8 - 25 mm.

Medium tank T-21 in the yard of the factory Skoda. The machine has Czechoslovak armament: 47-mm cannon vz.38 and two 7,92-mi machine gun ZB vz.37. MTO roof dismantled


The 40-mm gun 41M 40 / 51 was developed by the company MAVAG based on the 37-mm gun 37М, intended for the tank V-4, the anti-tank gun of the same caliber and the Shkodovsky 37-mm gun А7. One 8-mm machine gun 34 / 40AM Gebauer mounted in the tower in the ball mount, the other - in the front hull on the left along with an optical sight, protected, like the barrels of both machine guns, a massive armor cover. Ammunition guns included 101 shot, and machine guns - 3000 cartridges.

Turan i


The tank was equipped with six periscope observation devices and a viewing slot with triplex in the front hull sheet opposite the driver's seat. The radio station R / 5a was installed near the place of the radio operator.

8-cylinder carburetor V-about-different engine Manfred Weiss-Z horsepower 265 at 2200 rpm allowed the tank with a mass of 18,2 t to accelerate to the maximum speed of 47 km / h. Fuel capacity - 265 l, power reserve - 165 km.

Medium tank "Turan I" during the crossing. 2-I tank division. Poland, 1944 year


The “Turana” transmission consisted of a multi-disc main friction clutch for dry friction, a planetary 6-speed gearbox, a planetary rotation mechanism, and final drives. The transmission units were controlled using a pneumatic servo drive. Provided and backup mechanical drive.

It should be noted that, having a specific power 14,5 hp / t, "Turan" had good mobility and maneuverability. They were provided, among other things, with convenient and low-effort physical controls.

Turan I with armored screens


Lengthwise cut


Cross section


The layout of the tank "Turan I": 1 - installation course machine gun and telescopic sight; 2 - surveillance devices; 3 - fuel tank; 4 - engine; 5 - gearbox; 6 - rotation mechanism; 7 - lever mechanical (backup) drive turning mechanism; 8 - gear lever; 9 - tank control system pneumatic cylinder; 10 - turning gear drive lever with pneumatic amplifier; 11 - machine gun embrasure; 12 - driver's access hatch; 13 - accelerator pedal; 14 - brake pedal; 15 - main clutch pedal; 16 - the mechanism of rotation of the tower; 17 - gunhole embrasure

The undercarriage was generally similar to the undercarriage of the Czechoslovak LT-35 light tank and, as applied to one board, consisted of eight small-diameter rubberized dual support rollers interlocked in pairs and assembled into two carts, each of which was suspended on two semi-elliptical leaf springs. Between the front carriage and the guide wheel, which had a gear ring, one double roller was installed, which made it easier for the tank to overcome vertical obstacles. The drive wheel was located behind. The upper branch of the caterpillar was based on five dual rubber-supporting rollers. The design of the undercarriage provided the tank with a soft stroke without strong vertical vibrations and swinging.

In addition to the linear tank, the command version of the Turan RK, designed for company commanders, battalions and regiments, was also developed at the same time. This car had not only a standard radio station R / 5a, but also a radio station R / 4T, the antenna of which was mounted on the rear sheet of the tower.

In May, the 1941 of the year, that is, before the arrival of new tanks in the troops, the Hungarian General Staff raised the issue of upgrading the Turan to change its weapons, apparently impressed by the German tank Pz.IV. The machine, which received the designation 41M “Turan 75” (“Turan II”), installed an 75-mm 41M cannon with a barrel length 25 of calibers and a horizontal wedge gate. The tower had to be redone by increasing its height by 45 mm and changing the shape and size of the fixed commander's turret. Ammunition reduced to 52 artstrikes. The remaining units and assemblies of the tank were not affected. Machine weight increased to 19,2 t, speed and power reserve slightly decreased. In May 1942, the "Turan II" was put into service, in 1943-m launched into mass production; until June, 1944 units were released.

"Turan I" from the 2-th Panzer Division. Eastern Front, April 1944 of the year


Commander "Turan II". The characteristic external difference between this car and the line tank was the presence of three radio antennas on the turret. Of the weapons saved only exchange machine gun; turret machine gun and cannon are missing (wooden imitation was installed instead of the gun)


Along with the linear tanks, the command vehicles of the Turan II 43M were also produced. Their armament consisted of only one 8-mm machine gun in the front hull plate. The turret machine gun and the gun were absent, and instead of the latter a wooden imitation was installed. The tower housed three radio stations - R / 4T, R / 5a and German FuG 16.

Since the short-barreled gun was not suitable for fighting tanks, the Institute of Military Equipment was instructed to work out the issue of arming the "Turan" with a long-barreled 75-mm 43M gun. In parallel, it was planned to increase the thickness of the frontal armor of the hull to 80 mm. At the same time, the mass should have grown to 23 t.

In December, a sample of the 1943M Turan III tank was made, but the serial production could not be deployed due to the lack of a sufficient number of guns.

In the 1944 year, the “turuns”, following the example of the German tanks Pz.NI and Pz.IV, began to hang screens protecting them from cumulative projectiles. A set of such screens for the "Turan" weighed 635 kg.

As already mentioned, the troops “Turun” began to arrive in May 1942, when the first 12 vehicles arrived at the tank school in Esztergom. On 30 in October, 1943 of the Year, Honvedseg, had 242 tanks of this type. The 3 tank regiment 2 was completed most of all

tank division - it counted 120 machines, and in 1 tank regiment of 1 tank division - 61 "Turan 40", another 56 units were part of 1 th cavalry division. In addition, there were two “turs” in the 1 th company of self-propelled guns and three were used as training.

Tanks "Turan 75" began to enter the Hungarian troops in May 1943; by the end of August, they were already 49, and by March 1944, 107.



The photo above shows a massive armor-mask of recoil devices 75-mm gun.
In the center - an autonomous installation of a course machine gun, the barrel of which is closed by an armor cover. The bullet-proof heads of bolts are clearly visible. In addition to the screens, tracks of caterpillars are placed on the sides of the tower of this tank.
Below - armor covers of sight and machine gun course


In April of the same year, the 2-I tank division was sent to the front, having 120 Turan 40 and 55 Turan 75 in its structure. Hungarian medium tanks received their baptism of fire on 17 on April, when the division counterattacked the advancing Soviet units near Kolomyya. The tank attack on impassable forest and mountainous terrain was not crowned with success. By 26 April, the advance of the Hungarian troops was halted. At the same time losses amounted to 30 tanks. In August - September, the division participated in the battles of Stanislav (now Ivano-Frankivsk), suffered heavy losses, and was taken to the rear.

The 1 Cavalry Division in the summer of 1944 took part in heavy fighting in eastern Poland, retreating to Warsaw. Having lost all her tanks, she was withdrawn to Hungary in September.

Since September, the 1944 of the 124 “Touran” of the 1 Tank Division fought in Tran-Sylvan. In December, battles were fought already in Hungary, near Debrecen and Nyiregyh-za. In addition to 1, both of the other mentioned divisions participated in them. October 30 began fighting for Budapest, which lasted four months. The 2-I tank division was surrounded by the city itself, and the 1-I tank and 1-I cavalry divisions fought north of the capital. As a result of the fierce battles at Lake Balaton in March - April 1945, the Hungarian tank forces ceased to exist. At the same time were destroyed or captured by the Red Army and the last "turun".

"Turan II" with mesh screens, made on the pattern of the German "type of Tom"


The Red Army fighter inspects the captured tank "Turan II", equipped with mesh screens. 1944 year


As already mentioned, the Hungarian medium tank was created on the basis of the Czechoslovak design of the middle 1930-s. Do not delay the preparation for its mass production and have time for its release to 1941 year - "Turan" could become a formidable opponent for the Soviet BT and T-26. But in April, 1944-th this angular riveted machine was already a complete anachronism. It should be noted that the Hungarians adopted the German experience with a significant delay: “Turan II” received a short-barreled 75-mm gun by analogy with Pz.IV. at a time when German tanks were already rearming with long-barreled guns.

In the 1942 year, again taking into account the German experience, the Hungarians decided to create their own assault gun. The only suitable base for it was the "Turan", whose body width was increased by 450 mm. In the 75-mm frontal sheet of a low-profile riveted armored cabin, in a frame, a converted 105-mm infantry howitzer 40М from MAVAG with a barrel length 20,5 caliber was installed. Horizontal howitzer pointing angles ± 11 °, elevation angle - + 25 °. Ammunition SAU consisted of 52 shots of separate loading. Machine gun had no. The engine, transmission and chassis remained the same as that of the base tank. Combat weight was 21,6 t. The crew consisted of four people. This most successful Hungarian armored combat vehicle of the Second World War, which received the designation 40 / 43М "Zriny 105" ("Zriny II"), named after the national hero of Hungary Miklos Zrinyi, was put into service in January 1943 of the year and released in small quantities - total 66 units.


A train with tanks "Turan I" and "Turan II", which came under Soviet attack aviation and captured by units of the 2nd Ukrainian Front. 1944 year


Prototype tank 44М "Turan III" with a long-barreled 75-mm gun



Medium tank "Turan" in the exposition of the Military History Museum of Armored Weapons and Equipment in Kubinka


Self-propelled gun "Zriny II" in the exposition of the Military-Historical Museum of armored weapons and equipment in Kubinka


An attempt was made to create an anti-tank SAU 44M "Zriny 75", armed with a 75-mm 43M gun, the same as the tank "Turan III". A prototype was built in February 1944 of the year, based on the prototype "Turan". However, the production of four serial copies of the case did not go.

From October 1 1943, the battalions of assault artillery on 30 SAU in each began to form in the Hungarian army, which, along with German combat vehicles, Zrinyi began to receive weapons along with German-made combat vehicles. By 1945, all the remaining SAUs of this type were in the 20-th Eger and 24-th Kosice battalions. The last units, armed with these self-propelled guns, capitulated in Czechoslovakia.

Zrinyi I


Zrinyi II


Armed with a 105-mm howitzer self-propelled gun "Zrinyi" was a powerful assault gun


Battery self-propelled guns "Zriny II" during tactical exercises. 1943 year


"Zriny" were typical assault guns. They successfully accompanied the attacking infantry with fire and maneuver, but they could no longer fight the Soviet tanks in 1944. In this situation, the Germans rearmed their StuG III with long-barreled guns, turning them into tank destroyers. Hungarians, with their more backward economies, such an event turned out to be too much.

Only two combat vehicles from the family of Hungarian medium tanks have survived to this day. “Turan 75” (number 2Н423) and “Zriny 105” (number ZN022) can be seen in the exposition of the museum of armored weapons and equipment in Kubinka near Moscow.

Armored Hungary World War II. Medium tank "Turan"


Author:
Articles from this series:
Armored Hungary World War II. Light tank "Toldi"
Armored Hungary World War II. Medium tank "Turan"
Armored Hungary World War II. Heavy tank "Tosh"
Armored Hungary World War II. Self-propelled installation "Nimrod"
Armored Hungary World War II. Armored car "Chabo"
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  1. Grishka100watt
    Grishka100watt April 8 2013 09: 30 New
    +2
    ATP for the article.
    1. Civil
      Civil April 8 2013 12: 20 New
      +2
      thanks for the article ... all the same, the Hungarians were the most combat-ready allies of the Germans,
      1. Sakhalininsk
        Sakhalininsk April 8 2013 15: 09 New
        +4
        Quote: Civil
        all the same, the Hungarians were the most efficient allies of the Germans


        and at the same time they were distinguished by rare cruelty towards prisoners and civilians, for which at one time the Magyars were not taken prisoner at all, but this is lyrics, and in fact the Magyars armored vehicles, although the best among the Hitler satellites, really junk with a capital letter.
        PS to the author + for an interesting essay.
        1. Marek Rozny
          Marek Rozny April 9 2013 03: 03 New
          +2
          Quote: Sakhalininets
          and at the same time differed in rare cruelty

          genes play)))) Hungarians - are very different in mentality from all other Europeans.
          The video shows the Hungarians. Kurultay in their country last year. Despite the fact that they now look like Europeans, believe in Christ and speak the Finno-Ugric dialect, as mentally Asian steppes were, they remained.
          And indeed for all Europeans (even in the 18-19 centuries!), Hungarians have always been associated precisely with Asian military brutality, and Hungarian wars were considered in Europe - the most desperate grunts who are contemptuous of their own deaths and others.


          And this is an image of Khan Arpad, who is revered by the Hungarians as "the founder of the nation." I no longer remind that Kagan Attila is practically a "divine ancestor" for the Hungarians))))
  2. as3wresdf
    as3wresdf April 8 2013 09: 55 New
    0
    The base of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of all citizens of the Russian Federation on this site twitlink.ws/baza and the main thing was done as if to search for lost relatives, but here is all the information about each of us: correspondence with friends, addresses, phones, place of work, and the worst thing is even mine nudity photo (though I do not know from where ...). In general, I was very scared - but there is such a function as "hide data" of course I used it and I advise everyone not to hesitate, you never know
  3. Yeraz
    Yeraz April 8 2013 11: 05 New
    +2
    The name of the tank smiled)
    1. Yarbay
      Yarbay April 8 2013 14: 44 New
      +3
      Quote: Yeraz
      The name of the tank smiled)

      Somehow I met with the Hungarian, they consider themselves Türks !!
      1. Marek Rozny
        Marek Rozny April 8 2013 21: 50 New
        +4
        No Hungarian friend of mine considers himself a Finno-Ugric, but exclusively Türks. And when I found out that they even celebrate the oldest holiday of Tengrianism - Karachun - I was stunned. This holiday we did not survive at all, our Tengrian holidays were replaced in the Middle Ages by the Persian Nauryz and Muslim holidays, and their December Karachun was preserved - this is amazing!
        And there are a lot of words - alma, sakal, balta, ana, etc.
        1. Marek Rozny
          Marek Rozny April 9 2013 06: 34 New
          +2
          By the way, I recall the analogy with the Turkish tank "Altai") And although the name was given not directly in honor of the Turkic ancestral home, but in honor of the Turkish general, who had such a nickname (in turn, he received the nickname because of the Turkish football team, which was called in honor of the Altai Mountains), but the names still look consonant and beautiful - the Turan tank, the Altai tank. The next Turkic tank (I won’t be surprised if the Azerbaijanis create it) will be called what? Ergenekon, Khan-Tengri, Siberia, Uch-Sumer (Belukha mountain)? )))
  4. Doctor Evil
    Doctor Evil April 8 2013 11: 58 New
    0
    I read it with pleasure! Honored plus. Thank you to the author!
  5. Vovka levka
    Vovka levka April 8 2013 13: 11 New
    +1
    Excellent article
  6. Marek Rozny
    Marek Rozny April 8 2013 21: 54 New
    +1
    The article is interesting. I read excitedly.
    But only one phrase stung the eyes: "Turan is the mythological ancestral home of the Magyars, located in Central Asia, from where in the XNUMXth century they began their migration to Europe."
    Why is it mythological? All Turkic peoples still call the gigantic territory of steppe Eurasia Turan. Yes, even the Persian-speaking peoples at the word "Turan" will understand geographically the territory - "Turkic ecumene". This concept already knows how many thousand years. Back in the days of Cyrus and Darius, it was already mentioned as a concept designating the land of the nomads of Central Eurasia.
    And the first part of the ancestors of modern Hungarians (Huns) settled in Pannonia during the Hunnic campaigns. And it began long before the 6th century.
    1. Yarbay
      Yarbay April 8 2013 22: 15 New
      +2
      Quote: Marek Rozny
      But only one phrase stung the eyes: "Turan is the mythological ancestral home of the Magyars, located in Central Asia, from where in the XNUMXth century they began their migration to Europe."
      Why is it mythological? All Turkic peoples still call the gigantic territory of steppe Eurasia Turan. Yes, even the Persian-speaking peoples at the word "Turan" will understand geographically the territory - "Turkic ecumene".

      I agree completely, probably the author did not know about it !!
    2. washi
      washi April 9 2013 18: 40 New
      -2
      Sorry, dear, but I have not yet found the Kazakh history textbooks that I promised you. Gave for temporary use to read, it turned out to be permanent. One Russian, another Kazakh. They served nearby, received apartments and wound them up. I remember my words.
      Kazakhs are a great nation, all come from the great steppe of Kazakhstan, but why such a great nation had no written language. Why did the Great People begin to accept a religion alien to them? Indeed, on the basis of religion, Kazakhs and Uzbeks were formed, subjects of the Uzbek khan who converted to Islam
      1. Marek Rozny
        Marek Rozny April 10 2013 04: 09 New
        +3
        Vasya, you have merged with the "textbooks" like a child. Let's go.
        1) Kazakhs are an ordinary people. No better, no worse than others. There are "competitive" advantages, there are disadvantages. From your lips the phrases "great people", "respected", "excuse me" sound fake and provocative. Apart from a crooked grin, this does not cause anything. If someone else spoke, I would have treated differently, but knowing your mockery, I do not perceive anything else but a desire to offend.
        2) I got into a puddle about writing again. Before the Cyrillic alphabet, introduced before the Second World War, there was writing in the Latin alphabet. Before her, Kazakhs used the Arabic alphabet. Even earlier, the Sogdian script (the Sogdians are the assimilated Iranian-speaking people of Central Asia, dissolved in the Tajiks and Uzbeks), and even earlier - the common Turkic runic writing ("Orkhon-Yenisei"). Moreover, writing appeared among the Turks half a thousand years earlier than among the ancestors of the Russians, if anything. And the Russians themselves have not invented any special writing, but use what the Bulgarians have invented.
        3) About Islam - again, as usual, dashed off garbage. Islam in our steppe spread gradually (mainly from the 8th century), long before Chingizid Khan Uzbek. By the 13th century, all Turkic science, the entire Turkic "business elite", all the townspeople, all the khans were already ordinary Muslims. Only the steppe part of the Turks adopted Islam quite superficially, in fact professing traditional Tengrianism (however, this picture persisted until the 19th and 20th centuries). Khan Uzbek simply de jure appointed Islam as the official religion of the Turks, although de facto it was already so. A small part of the Christian Turks (mainly Murza) left Uzbek for the Moscow ulus, where they settled. And the initiative of the khan did not affect the lives of the rest of the Turks. Uzbek (like Khan Berke before him) recognized the supremacy of Islam in Ulug Ulus (Golden Horde, in your opinion) in order to strengthen allied relations with the Muslim Turks who lived outside the Horde and ruled in Muslim countries (see the relationship between Berke and Uzbek with the Mamelukes). After the "scuffle" of the Horde Turks of Berke with the Mameluk Turks of Beibars, both sides quickly reconciled, since the steppe inhabitants are not able to strongly enmity with each other. Moreover, both figures cemented relations with dynastic marriages, created allied relations, and when Byzantium tried to "annoy" Beibarsu, the ruler of the Golden Horde Berke immediately reacted by sending troops and forcing the Byzantine emperor to "make peace" with the Mamelukes. Under Berke's successor, Khan Uzbek, these ties were further strengthened. It was Baybars who "charmed" the Uzbek with the Muslim religion.
        Well, about "Kazakhs and Uzbeks were formed on the basis of religion" - complete crap, which shows how far you are from the topic under discussion. The Kazakhs as a people with the self-designation "Cossack" were formed in the middle of the 15th century as a result of the conflict between the Chingizid elite - the sultans Zhanibek and Kerey with Khan Abulkhair. The sultans freaked out at their khan, who refused to hand over to the sultans one offender who killed a man from the sultan's entourage, sent the khan three letters and migrated with loyal clans from the former ruler, becoming independent rulers of the newly formed state - Kazak Khandygy (Kazakh Khanate). The word "Uzbek" (more precisely "ozbek") literally means "his own master", which practically coincides in meaning with the concept of "Cossack" ("free"). The ethnonym "Uzbek" was entrenched in those clans of steppe dwellers that remained in the power of Khan Abulkhair, and the ethnonym "Cossack" was entrenched in the ulus of Zhanibek and Kerey.
  7. Conepatus
    Conepatus April 8 2013 23: 12 New
    0
    An interesting article. I did not know about Hungarian armored vehicles at all.
    The main thing is that WoT get these tank building models as late as possible.
    1. Snoop
      Snoop April 9 2013 17: 31 New
      +1
      Surpass then lol and what a standard tank :) it’ll go to Art. 5 level :) the top gun will be 75 mm :)
      1. Conepatus
        Conepatus April 9 2013 17: 43 New
        -1
        But how many of these new products do you need? It’s better if at least one patch is made to improve the quality of the game. When I started playing, 3-4 patches were released per year. Now there are 8-10 patches and all are raw.
  8. Alex
    Alex 30 September 2013 23: 44 New
    +2
    The article is great! But the pitfalls of chances - in passing, they had no one to hope for, with such a level of technology and the economy of their novices. What, in fact, is known.
  9. VIAD5IK
    VIAD5IK 26 October 2015 13: 16 New
    0
    I thought, I was looking for something.
    In short, my version of the Hungarian branch