Military Review

Very cold war. Special Operations in the Arctic

15
Very cold war. Special Operations in the Arctic



Outlines of a peaceful Soviet tractor emerged from the snowy shimmering haze. Half-wrapped with snow, the tracked vehicle was forever stuck in a deep crack. The next find was a hydrological winch, rusted and frozen into ice. The calculations were fully confirmed - the staff left the station in a big hurry, empty barrels, boards and pieces of equipment were scattered everywhere. The creeping hummocks nearly swallowed the diesel power station and destroyed the improvised runway on the cleared ice. It became clear why the polar explorers did not manage to evacuate the equipment.

Crunching with snow, Leonard Le'Shack cautiously approached the radio tower. There could be no doubt - they managed to find SP-8! The legendary Soviet scientific station now met new inhabitants: a smiling James Smith appeared between the buildings. The second participant of the secret expedition examined the abandoned base with no less interest.

- Leo, are you alright?

- Everything is OK

- It looks like we have a lot of work to do.

“Yeah, Le'Shack barely squeezed his teeth, shivering in the cold wind.

The lights of the “Flying Fortress” swayed in the gloomy sky — throwing off the last bale of equipment, the plane went back to Point Barrow. Below, on the ice, in the middle of the deadly Arctic cold, two living people remained. Coordinates 83 ° north latitude, 130 ° west longitude. Operation Coldfeet has begun.

Komsomolsk youth drifting station "North Pole-8"

Having hoisted the entrance door with a crowbar, the US Navy lieutenant Le'Shack and polar explorer James Smith entered one of the shield houses in the North Pole-8 area. The beam of the lantern rested against a tear-off calendar hanging on the wall - 19 March 1962 of the year. The interior of the Soviet station did not cause much surprise: a chessboard, a stationery set, a stack of books on a rickety shelf, nothing interesting - fiction. Sooty potbelly stove, sink, soft carpet. Cozy. In some places on the walls were posters with the image of Lenin and strong, taut Komsomol members. But the main thing is that the prefab house was installed on runners, which allowed it to be quickly moved across the ice when dangerous cracks appeared nearby.

- Here will be our lair, James

- Yeah. Look, the Russians grew something here, - both polar explorers came to the window. On the windowsill there was a box with earth, among the frozen lumps of soil, dry stalks of onions stuck out. The Arctic ruthlessly killed and sucked the life of the unfortunate plants.

“A sad sight,” Le'Shack concluded.

Having dragged their gear into the house, and having barricaded the door just in case, the Americans were forgotten in a deep sleep, reliving all the events of a difficult day. Landing on the ice, an abandoned Soviet station and the endless Arctic desert - impressions last for a lifetime!

ChTZ Rare Tractor, found at an abandoned polar station in Franz Josef Land

On the morning of May 29, the 1962 of the year, after a quick bite, the explorers set about to complete their tasks. While Le'Shack fiddled with the radio station, Smith cleared the meteorological booth. He got rich trophies: a whole set of thermometers (mercury, alcohol, “dry”, “wet”, maximum and minimum), a hygrometer, a thermograph and a hydrograph with a clock mechanism. Already leaving the meteorological site, the American grabbed the anemometer (a device for measuring wind speed) and Wildv weather vane.
Packing the first wardrobe trunk with the captured equipment, Smith headed towards the radio room ...

“Made in USSR,” Le'Shak echoed enthusiastically, “it was enough to replace the power source as it came to life and earned it at the reception.
The sound of music came from black headphones - the station was tuned to Soviet radio stations in the HF band.

“Okay, now let's get in touch with Barrow.” It is necessary to report on the situation.

... The life of polar explorers ran its course. Le'Shak and Smith systematically inspected the station, dismantled and packed the most interesting equipment into wardrobe trunks, searched for any written evidence - specialized literature, letters, notebooks. In the mess-room, a wall newspaper was found where Romanov, the last head of the SP-8 station, just in case noted the date and reasons for the station’s evacuation, as well as an appeal to the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in Leningrad. In another residential area, the Americans found a notebook with secret codes - as it turned out, just a recording of an extramural chess game between employees of SP-8 and the Moscow River Shipping Company.
A considerable surprise was delivered by one of the shield houses - a real Russian bathhouse with an improvised “snow melter” and a pump for pumping water showed up inside!

However, in their reports, Le'Shack and Smith noted a huge contrast between the ascetic interior of the station’s premises and the stunning array of high-end scientific equipment: atmospheric weather probes, astronomical instruments, radio communications, navigation, oceanographic instruments: an automated current recorder, deep-sea science complexes ...
Then, when these things fall into the United States, naval intelligence (Office of Naval Intelligence) experts will make an unexpected conclusion: Soviet scientific instruments have an exceptionally high level of technological performance, and, moreover, are production models.

But the main find was made in the evening on the first day of presence at the abandoned base - the Americans found that the SP-8 electric generators were installed on special damping devices. Why such measures to ensure low noise and vibration? There could be only one explanation - an underwater sonar beacon or a submarine tracking system was installed somewhere nearby. Official история It does not give a clear answer - Le'Shak and Smith were able to find something similar on the SP-8 or top-secret equipment was removed in advance by Soviet polar explorers.

The third day, the last one, was spent on an abandoned polar station. Slowly destroying the traces of their stay, and collecting voluminous bales of trophies (more than 300 photos, 83 documents, 21 samples of instruments and tools!), Leonard Le'Shack and James Smith prepared for evacuation. A radio operator with Point Barrow confirmed the departure of the search and rescue vehicle. Now we just have to wait ...

The Arctic made its own adjustments to the plans of the people - it was not possible to evacuate the reconnaissance group that day. For two days in a row, the Americans pulled out their trunks on the ice and waited for the “Flying Fortress”, sometimes they even heard the roar of engines - alas, a sharp deterioration in the weather every time disrupted the operation. It was getting annoying.
Finally, on the evening of July 2, the cargo was safely delivered on board the aircraft. The turn of Leonard Le'Shack ...

The Americans had a nontrivial task: to deliver cargo and people from the surface of the ice to the board of an airplane racing in the clouds. Landing on the ice is excluded: "Flying Fortress" will break on the multimeter pile of hummocks. To clear the runway by two people, without the use of special equipment - the task is completely unrealistic. The helicopters capable of refueling in the air and overcoming 1000 km over the icy desert did not exist in those years. Available was only the "Flying Fortress" and the same ancient naval patrol aircraft P-2 "Neptune". What to do?

Leonard Le'Shack looked at the proposed solution with apprehension and disbelief. Was - was not! He still has no choice. Le'Shack hooked the hook to his belt and prepared to inflate a balloon with helium.

Above it was heard the growing roar of engines - “Flying Fortress” broke through the lower edge of the clouds and got ready to lift the polar explorers. The navigator and radio operator, leaning out into a transparent blister, watched with interest the two cranks below.

- Uh, you're there! Stir! - The crew of the “fortress” joyfully welcomed Le'Shack and Smith.

Le'Shak sighed heavily and blew a balloon, which immediately broke out of his disobedient hands from the cold and disappeared into the gray sky. A thin nylon rope, the other end of which was attached to the Le'Shack belt, flew after the ball up. Finally, the 150-meter cable twitched and pulled like a string. A sharp gust of wind knocked the prop out from under his feet — a man slid helplessly across the ice, hitting his knees and hands on the sharp edges of the hummocks. And then it exploded in such a way that Le'Shak darkened his eyes for an instant ...

Over the Arctic, at dusk of a polar day a living man flew. Without the aid of parachutes and wings, at a speed of 130 knots per hour, Leonard Le'Shack tumbled in the cold Arctic air, opposing gravity to levitation.
Ice cold frost covered his face, burning wind penetrated into the lungs, threatening to freeze from the inside. The air attraction lasted for six and a half minutes, while Le'Shack, who was suffocatingly hanging on a rope, was lifted up and hoisted to board the plane.

Smith's ascent was easier - when he saw the wind dragging his comrade across the ice, he kept to the peaceful Soviet tractor until the last moment - finally, the plane “hooked up” the rope and pulled it aboard through the loading ramp.

***

In August, 1962 published the latest edition of the US Naval Intelligence magazine ONI Review under the heading "Operation Coldfeet: An Investigation of the Abandoned Soviet Arctic Drift Station NP 8" (for internal use). The article reflected in detail all the vicissitudes of the expedition to the abandoned polar station SP-8, the cost of the special operation and the results achieved. The Americans were surprised by the scale of Soviet Arctic research, the US Navy was able to get acquainted with the products of Soviet instrument making; Confirmations were received about the use of drifting scientific stations "North Pole" for military purposes, and the CIA made unequivocal conclusions about the state of Soviet science and industry. It was recommended to continue work related to the "visit" of Soviet sites in the Arctic.

Memoirs of Leonard Le'Shack. "The project" Coldfit "- a secret expedition to the Soviet polar station"

The ethical moment did not excite the Americans - by the time of the “visit”, the red flag of the USSR had already been lowered above the abandoned station. According to international maritime law, any “no-man’s” object is considered a “prize” and becomes the property of the finder.

As for the strange "evacuation" of polar explorers, James Smith and Leonard Le'Shak using a nylon cable and a balloon - this is just Fulton's surface-to-air recovery system, adopted by the CIA and the US Air Force in the distant 1958 year . The idea is simple: a person fastens a special harness on himself, a cable clings to his belt, the other end of which is attached to a balloon. The ball does not play any role in the direct lifting of a person - his only task is to stretch the cable in an upright position.


The same B-17 Flying Fortress, involved in the expedition to the joint venture-8.
On the nose of the car is a clearly visible device for gripping the cable

The second element of the system is a low-speed transport aircraft (based on “Flying Fortress”, P-2 “Neptune”, S-2 “Tracker” or C-130 “Hercules”) with folding “mustaches” mounted on the nose. The plane approaches the target at a speed of 200-250 km / h so that the cable is exactly in the “whisker” solution: when the rescue plane “cuts” the cable, the crew selects the payload using a winch. Five minutes of nightmare - and you're on board. Witty and simple.
As experiments have shown, the overload in this case is not so great as to seriously cripple the person, moreover, the “jerk” is partially compensated by the elastic properties of the nylon rope.

Currently, with the development of rotary-wing machines, the system has lost its relevance. However, it is still used by the US Air Force for emergency evacuation of downed pilots and special forces. According to the Americans, Fulton's "air hook" is no more dangerous than the usual parachute jump. Not a bad decision to get a person out of any trouble, including from the Arctic ice floe.

Epilogue

The uninhabited “country of icy horror” became the scene of intrigue and serious confrontation between the USSR and the USA during the Cold War. Despite the unfit living conditions, there were quite a few “dual-use” military facilities and polar stations on the territory of the Arctic.
Russian polar explorer Arthur Chilingarov recalled how he was surprised a lot during the “friendly visit” of an abandoned American station in 1986, despite the “research status” of the facility, all equipment and equipment were marked with US Navy (US Navy).

The former head of the SP-6 station, Nikolay Bryazgin, described how their improvised runway on cleared ice was used to test the landing of the Tu-16 strategic bomber as a “jump airfield”.

At the polar station SP-8, investigated by Leonard Le'shak and James Smith, there was indeed special equipment of the Soviet Navy. Here also worked a group of the Kiev Institute of Hydraulic Instruments - the Naval the fleet required a network of sonar beacons to orient nuclear submarines under ice.

According to the stories of the North Pole-15 employees, nuclear submarines repeatedly surfaced in the polynya near their station — the sailors continued to test the underwater sonar orientation system.
At first, military specialists peacefully got along at the same station with scientists, however, soon misunderstandings arose - regular oceanographic surveys, accompanied by ice drilling and immersion of deep-water instruments, interfered with the work of special military equipment. We had to urgently organize a new station in 40 kilometers from the main one. The secret object received the cipher SP-15F (branch) - here passed the test equipment to detect enemy submarines.

But the main gift to submariners from polar explorers is a map of the bottom of the Arctic Ocean. Long years of hard work, countless measurements in all areas of the Arctic. Twenty years ago, the map was declassified and presented to the whole world as the wealth of Russia - a convincing argument that eloquently testifies to Russia's right to develop deposits at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean.

The source of information on Soviet dual-use stations is Kommersant-Vlast magazine, issue 21 from November 2000.

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  1. Baron Wrangell
    Baron Wrangell April 9 2013 08: 37
    21
    read with pleasure! good article. Soviet scientists have done a lot for the country of the USSR, which unfortunately no longer exists.
    and the Americans, as always, are used to just stealing !, but the cunning way is that the way to evacuate thieves is special!
    1. Evgan
      Evgan April 9 2013 09: 25
      11
      Baron, this is the normal way of getting information. It was used by the Yankees, and we, and I do not see anything wrong with it. And I don't want to call our scouts "thieves" at all. Both these guys and ours were just doing their job.
    2. cumastra1
      cumastra1 April 9 2013 17: 24
      0
      james bonds unfinished
  2. JonnyT
    JonnyT April 9 2013 08: 59
    +6
    All the same, the card was declassified in vain. You can’t behave well with cattle, they’ll spit in your soul. This map is used to lay the paths of their submarines to strike in Russia
    1. SIT
      SIT April 9 2013 11: 40
      +6
      Quote: JonnyT

      All the same, the card was declassified in vain

      Do you think they had not guessed before us to pass under the ice with a side-scan sonar? Most likely they simply do not publish these materials. The history of the exploration of the World Ocean is not so straightforward. We, for example, illustrated a course of lectures on sea currents with a German map with an ink-painted eagle with a swastika intended for the Kriegsmarine submarine. The map was dated 1940, but it showed the Cromwell subsurface current "discovered" by the Cromwell expedition and named after him only in 1952.
  3. avt
    avt April 9 2013 09: 13
    +1
    And here to tell about Antarctic research ...
  4. erased
    erased April 9 2013 09: 23
    +8
    The right to property must be defended by force. It has always been and will continue to be so. So the army and navy must be strong.
  5. pensioner
    pensioner April 9 2013 09: 45
    0
    Quote: Baron Wrangel
    and the Americans, as always, are used to just stealing !, but the cunning way is that the way to evacuate thieves is special!

    Our polar bears slept spies! Punish!
    1. StolzSS
      StolzSS April 9 2013 20: 36
      0
      Oh, our ensign would kill for the fact that the objects were thrown and the guests did not leave the gifts ...
  6. Ilyukha
    Ilyukha April 9 2013 10: 05
    +2
    At Chilingarov, I read how Soviet polar explorers found and dismantled American hydrophones on ice (automatic, not at stations)
    Basically, there are only two ways to try to find a boat under the polar ice:
    1. Using another boat (nuclear)
    2. With the help of hydrophones mounted on ice and lowered to the required depth. The automatic station sends a signal when noise is detected. Type-only passive, since an active gas requires a lot of electricity, batteries are not enough.
    The method of destruction is only atomic submarines, others do not exist.
    1. Old_kapitan
      Old_kapitan April 10 2013 00: 20
      +2
      Basically, there are only two ways to try to find a boat under the polar ice:
      1. Using another boat (nuclear)
      2. With the help of hydrophones mounted on ice and lowered to the required depth. The automatic station sends a signal when noise is detected. Type-only passive, since an active gas requires a lot of electricity, batteries are not enough.
      The method of destruction is only atomic submarines, others do not exist.

      Detecting and hitting submarines under the ice is almost impossible due to the multiple reflection of echo signals. If the submarine still theoretically can (accidentally colliding nose to nose and having time to give a volley), then hydrophones are generally useless: well, they will detect a boat passing almost tightly, will they transmit a signal, and then what? How to aim at a moving target?
      That is why we took such a risky step: in the summer of the 1981, they surfaced, breaking the ice in the pack ice with the hull and fired a salvo at the 2 range with missiles.
      1. Old_kapitan
        Old_kapitan April 10 2013 00: 41
        +1
        By the way, in the article it was mentioned in passing why the GAS was installed in the ice, only it was not the GAS, but hydroacoustic beacons for orienting nuclear submarines under the ice. If in the open ocean we periodically released "Paravan" (both for radio communication and for checking the exact location), then under the ice we were deprived of such a "privilege". And walking only by dead reckoning you can miss so much! ...
  7. svp67
    svp67 April 9 2013 11: 33
    +1
    Class !!! But, I wonder, after the American publication, were our polar explorers given the command to "clean up" the stations during evacuation?
  8. Tartary
    Tartary April 9 2013 11: 48
    +2
    Quote: svp67
    But, I wonder, after the American publication, were our polar explorers given the command to "clean up" the stations during evacuation?

    How else?
    They say that even gaumno with urine in jabs was punctured into pieces and put together with ice in waterproof bags so that American thieves couldn’t find out what our polar explorers were eating, which means they could calculate what kind of crop, what and what where he was in the USSR last year ... lol
  9. Gari
    Gari April 9 2013 11: 49
    15
    Made in USSR, Le'Shack repeated enthusiastically, as soon as the power source was replaced, it came to life and earned an appointment.
    It sounds very symbolic - how can we replace the power sources for our former country
  10. Kir
    Kir April 9 2013 16: 06
    +4
    Many thanks to the author for the article with regards to the evacuation method, it’s so much the flowers, they are a whole group of KPPR sheep (now seal) on one boat, some type of inflatable boat is evacuated with the same kind of makar. another thing is surprising: why couldn’t it be possible to supply base liquidation systems? And the fact that there was a dual purpose, it seems that the pole was not the same as a civil one. With regards to the same quality of equipment with one and Spartan living conditions on the other, so are our identities, the main thing!
  11. Rjn
    Rjn April 9 2013 18: 35
    +4
    And what is this "rare ChTZ"? This is DT-55A - a swamp tractor with widened tracks, produced by the Volgograd (since 1956) and Altai (since 1963) tractor plants.
  12. in reserve
    in reserve April 9 2013 21: 30
    +2
    It was interesting to read, lay out something else in the same way, this information was new to me. The rating is only positive. good
  13. jjj
    jjj April 10 2013 00: 12
    +1
    The Nenets writer Vasily Ledkov once said that in the Arctic in the seventies of the last century they found the latest American armored personnel carrier of the time. And much of the ammunition of the American troops.
  14. Misantrop
    Misantrop April 10 2013 00: 37
    +2
    Vladimir Sanin wrote very well about polar explorers. "For those who are in drift", "At the top of the ground", "Antarctica is hard to let go", etc. I recommend
  15. mansur
    mansur April 10 2013 01: 13
    0
    In another residential building, the Americans found a notepad with secret codes - as it later turned out, it was just a record of a correspondence chess game between the employees of SP-8 and the Moscow River Shipping Agency.
    A considerable surprise was delivered by one of the shield houses - a real Russian bathhouse with an improvised “snow melter” and a pump for pumping water showed up inside!
    The secret codes were fun before the guys left !!!
  16. Krapovy32
    Krapovy32 April 10 2013 07: 57
    +1
    They like some personalities of the USSR to write in the laggards. But in many ways we surpassed this high-tech west. drinks
  17. Aleksys2
    Aleksys2 April 10 2013 08: 16
    0
    It should be noted that during the entire period of navigation along the Northern Sea Route, the United States showed increased attention to the NSR, the peak of which falls in the early 60s of the last century. This is largely due to the fact that our neighbors had nuclear submarines armed with Polaris missiles, which were capable of launching from a submerged position. US nuclear submarines have made several trips to high latitudes. The first American nuclear submarine to reach the North Pole from the Bering Strait on August 3, 1958 was the Nautilus nuclear submarine. In 1960, "Sargo", "Sidregon", "J Washington", "Patrick Henry" made trips to the Arctic, patrolling for an average of 67 days.
    The Soviet nuclear submarine K-3, later named "Lenin Komsomol", under the command of Captain 2nd Rank Lev Zhiltsov first surfaced in the immediate vicinity of the North Pole on July 17, 1962.
    In 1962, US icebreakers North Wind and Burton Island made a joint voyage in the Chukchi and East Siberian seas. The following year, "Nord Wind" explored the area from the Bering Strait to the northernmost point of Chukotka - Cape Shelagsky. And "Burton Island" passed the Laptev Sea and intended to enter the Kara Sea along the Vilkitsky Strait, and then go along the entire route of the Northern Sea Route. But even on the approach to Taimyr, the American icebreaker's rudder broke, and Burton Island, fearing the prospect of wintering in the drifting ice, began to urgently retreat to the east.
    In 1965, "Nord Wind" from the west tried to pass the Northern Sea Route. But in the Vilkitsky Bay, his propeller broke, and the icebreaker was forced to go to England for repairs. And the third attempt by the Americans to pass the Northern Sea Route was not crowned with success. This time "Nord Wind" tried to bypass Severnaya Zemlya from the north. But here pack ice blocked his way.
    In 1965, the government of the Soviet Union warned the United States with a diplomatic note that any foreign vessel that tried to pass through the straits of the Northern Sea Route would be deemed to have entered the territorial waters of the USSR with all the ensuing consequences. But in subsequent years, the appearance of American ice-class vessels in the Long Strait, which separates Wrangel Island from the mainland, was noted.
    By the way, back in the 70s of the last century, the United States expressed claims to Wrangel Island. Our neighbors motivated their desire to get the island by the fact that the Americans discovered and began to develop the island, and the Soviet Union, they say, ignoring international law, seized the island in August 1925 by the crew of the gunboat Red October.
    There are fears that the previous contradictions in the eastern sector of the Arctic against the backdrop of general climate warming and the retreat of pack ice may revive.
  18. postman
    postman April 11 2013 17: 03
    0
    Quote: Author
    it’s just a Fulton surface-to-air recovery system, adopted by the CIA and the US Air Force back in 1958.

    1. Actually the Fulton Aerial Retrieval System in common Skyhook.
    2. He began work in 1950 and developed everything for $ 30.000 (those), and on November 24.11.1952, XNUMX, the CIA conducted the first "combat" use "in Manhuria
    John T. Downey Richard G. Fecteau tried to pull the courier. Unsuccessfully .S-47 was shot down by the Chinese.
    And the first successful one (with people), yes, 12.08.1958/6/XNUMX was lifted aboard in XNUMX minutes.
    acceleration 7g - testers describe as "kick in the ass"




    For those who want to "try" themselves, here is a typical instruction
  19. postman
    postman April 11 2013 17: 06
    +1
    Quote: Author
    it’s just a Fulton surface-to-air recovery system, adopted by the CIA and the US Air Force back in 1958.

    1. Actually the Fulton Aerial Retrieval System in common Skyhook.
    2. He began work in 1950 and developed everything for $ 30.000 (those), and on November 24.11.1952, XNUMX, the CIA conducted the first "combat" use "in Manhuria
    John T. Downey Richard G. Fecteau tried to pull the courier. Unsuccessfully .S-47 was shot down by the Chinese.
    And the first successful one (with people), yes, 12.08.1958/6/XNUMX was lifted aboard in XNUMX minutes.
    acceleration 7g - testers describe as "kick in the ass"






    For those who want to "try" themselves, here is a typical instruction
    1. postman
      postman April 11 2013 17: 08
      0

      Quote: Postman
      For those who want to "try" themselves, here is a typical instruction

      page number 2
      Instructions for CIA operatives in English
      1. Santa Fe
        April 11 2013 18: 10
        +1
        Video in the topic! But the most interesting picture (second) does not want to open ((
        Quote: Postman
        Instructions for CIA operatives in English

        Wow ... but I thought the CIA operatives communicate in Mongolian
        Quote: Postman
        https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publication

        s / csi-studies / studies / 95unclass / 104.gif

        all questions to google, this photo falls out on request first
        Quote: Postman
        For those who want to "try" themselves, here is a typical instruction

        WHAT ARE YOU? !! stop
        It is necessary to clarify: DO NOT try to build it at home!
        1. postman
          postman April 11 2013 18: 53
          0
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          It is necessary to clarify: DO NOT try to build it at home!

          Oleg has died.
          Do you have a B-17 at home? or Hercules (not porridge) at worst?
          MENE does not have.
          But the most interesting picture (second) does not want to open ((
          Picture or video?
          (video works, pictures are clickable)
          but I realized the second.
          Hold
        2. postman
          postman April 11 2013 18: 56
          0

          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          It is necessary to clarify: DO NOT try to build it at home!

          Oleg has died.
          Do you have a B-17 at home? or Hercules (not porridge) at worst?
          MENE does not have.
          But the most interesting picture (second) does not want to open ((
          Picture or video?
          (video works, pictures are clickable)
          but I realized the second.
          Hold
        3. postman
          postman April 11 2013 18: 57
          0
          Oleg has died.
          Do you have a B-17 at home? or Hercules (not porridge) at worst?
          MENE does not have.
          But the most interesting picture (second) does not want to open ((
          Picture or video?
          (video works, pictures are clickable)
          but I realized the second.
          Hold ....
          Eeee Not fastened. something is wrong. TSRushniki. Probably. to email

          So far, only such
          expelled
          1. postman
            postman April 11 2013 19: 00
            0
            Quote: Postman
            So far, only such

            and how it ends ("home conditions")
            1. Santa Fe
              April 11 2013 19: 33
              0
              received. now it's up to the small
              Quote: Postman
              Do you have a B-17 at home? or Hercules

              I didn’t bother with such trifles!
              there is Gumrak, the direction of the strip is known - 110 degrees (11 / 29)

              hop ... and after 12 hours on the Yucatan Peninsula!


              moment on 5: 50
              1. postman
                postman April 11 2013 20: 14
                0
                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                hop.

                Hop .... I told you use counterfeit.
                ==================================================
                Antonia Santilli is good
                at Stills from Il boss
                even better (I don’t post photos and videos, otherwise they’ll ban, so take a look)
                http://entertainnow.net/video/photos.php?page=2&type=m&id=13124

                Gut?
                1. Santa Fe
                  April 12 2013 03: 12
                  0
                  Quote: Postman
                  http://entertainnow.net/video/photos.php?page=2&type=m&id=13124
                  Gut?

                  zer gut
        4. saturn.mmm
          saturn.mmm April 11 2013 22: 22
          0
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          Video in the topic!

          Thank you very much for the article, I read it with great pleasure.
          smile And let me say that the entire operation of the Americans was carried out without any use of aircraft carriers.
          1. Santa Fe
            April 12 2013 03: 12
            +1
            Quote: saturn.mmm
            And let me say that the entire operation of the Americans was carried out without any use of aircraft carriers.

            Yes, this is a very important circumstance!
            yes ))))
  20. postman
    postman April 11 2013 17: 11
    0
    Oleg why you do not specify a source of information?
    CIA USA
    Historical document
    Posted: Apr 14, 2007 7:03 pm
    Last updated: June 27, 2008 9:48 AM

    fool
    ?
    Are not you afraid that they will be attracted for violation of intellectual rights?
    a photo:
    https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publication
    s / csi-studies / studies / 95unclass / 104.gif