Military Review

Su-15 Interceptor Fighter

17
The Soviet Su-15 interceptor fighter (according to the NATO Flagon codification) has long been the basis of the Soviet air defense system. The development of this aircraft began at the beginning of the 1960-ies. It so happened that the plane took part in a large number of air incidents involving foreign aircraft that flew into the USSR. The most famous of these was the destruction of the Boeing 747 South Korean passenger aircraft in 1983. In addition, the Su-15 interrupted the flight of Boeing-707 over the Kola Peninsula (again South Korean), and also made one air ram.


This interceptor fighter for its history received several different nicknames. Usually such aviation nicknames often very accurately notice the features and characteristics of military equipment. So it was with this plane. The very first and famous name was “Boeing killer”, the second name came from the first and was sarcastic “dove of peace”, the third nickname - “handsome air defense”. It is worth noting that this aircraft was really a very beautiful car, especially in flight. It was also sometimes called a “pencil,” for the characteristic shape of the fuselage, which was very thin and long.

The Su-15 interceptor fighter was designed to intercept air targets in the speed range from 500 to 3000 km / h and heights from 500 to 23 000 meters. The departure of the aircraft to the meeting area with an air target and until it was detected using on-board radar was carried out using ground-based automated guidance complex called "Air-1". The interception of targets, guidance of missiles with a radar homing head and aiming was carried out by the radar. The infrared homing missiles used a different principle - the infrared (thermal) radiation, which they perceived, came from the target itself.
Su-15 Interceptor Fighter

The construction of the aircraft began in the spring of 1960 of the year, as part of the modernization of the Su-11 (T-47) interceptor plane already in service with the AL-7-2 engines. Also, when creating the machine, the reserve was used on the T-3М (T-37) fighter-interceptor program that was minimized earlier. The new aircraft received the designation Su-15 and working code T-58. The modernization of the aircraft assumed the creation of a new machine capable of intercepting targets in a wider range of flight speeds and altitudes, including on a collision course (to the forward hemisphere). In addition, the possibility of automating all the main stages of the interception operation was considered, for this it was necessary to install an automatic control system on the fighter.

The construction of the prototype fighter-interceptor was completed at the beginning of 1962 of the year, its first flight under the designation T-58D1 performed 30 on May 1962 of the year. Piloted the test pilot V.Ilyushin. State tests (ICG) of the new fighter were carried out in a very short time - from August 1963 to June 1964. Unlike the previously tested Su-9 and Su-11 interceptors, these tests passed without significant incidents and observations. According to the GSE results, the short distance was the biggest drawback of the new fighter.

To eliminate this deficiency, the fuel supply was increased on the plane. It was possible to achieve this by straightening the fuselage lines of the fighter in the area of ​​the wing interface and removing the “waist” that was present on the interceptor’s prototypes. 30 On April 1965, the Su-15 interceptor fighter was adopted by the USSR Air Defense Forces as part of the Su-15-98 interception complex. This interception complex included the Su-15 interceptor fighter (T-58), the armament system with the RP-15 radar ("Orel-D-58") and the UR P-98 radar in two versions: with passive thermal seeker and semi-active radar homing, also part of the complex was the ground part - the guidance system "Air-1".

The serial production of the Su-15 fighter-interceptor began in 1966 at a factory in Novosibirsk, where he replaced the Yak-28П aircraft in the workshops. The first pre-production sample, 6 March 1966, was launched into the sky, under the control of the plant test pilot I. F. Sorokin. The following year, the cars began to arrive in the air defense troops. The very first new fighter aircraft was re-armed with the fighter regiment of the Moscow Air Defense District, which was located at the Dorokhovo airfield. Already in the course of serial production of the aircraft, to improve the take-off and landing characteristics of the fighter, an OPS (boundary layer control) system was introduced on it - blowing off the boundary layer on the flap.

design Features

Su-15 is a supersonic single interceptor fighter, all-metal mid-plane with a normal aerodynamic configuration. The fuselage of the aircraft is a semi-monocoque design, consisting of 2-x parts - the head and tail. In this case, the tail of the aircraft could be undocked for maintenance and replacement of engines. In the nose compartment under the radiotransparent cone was radar RP-15M. Further located: a compartment with a cabin of the pilot, under which there was a niche of the front landing gear and a cabin compartment of equipment. The pilot's cockpit lantern consisted of a fixed visor with an armored block and a sliding part made of heat-resistant plexiglass. On the sides of the cockpit were air intakes that were adjustable, with a vertical three-stage braking wedge. On the side surface of each of the air intakes located on the sash additional air intake.

The aircraft was equipped with a triangular wing, which had a sweep angle in 60 degrees along the leading edge. To increase the lift force during takeoff and landing, each of the wing consoles had rotary flaps with a boundary layer control system (UPS), the presence of this system contributed to an increase in the efficiency of aircraft flaps. Initially, this system was not connected, but later it was fixed. To improve takeoff and landing performance and reduce inductive resistance, starting with the 11 series of the fighter, the wing design has undergone a number of changes. In particular, the wing area was brought to 36,6 square. meters, and the leading edge of the end portion has acquired a kink in 45 degrees, as well as aerodynamic twist. The tail of the aircraft consisted of a keel with a rudder and a stabilizer.

The chassis of the fighter-interceptor was a three-post classic. The front pillar was retracted into the fuselage of the aircraft and equipped with a brake wheel of 660x200 mm size, the main landing gear pillars were retracted in wing niches to the axis of the aircraft and equipped with single wheels of 880x230 mm size The brake drums of the latter had a spirit-water cooling. In addition, the aircraft was provided for the installation of a brake landing parachute, which was located in a container under the rudder.

The fighter was controlled by boosters (boosters), which were included in an irreversible pattern and were mounted near the controls - ailerons, stabilizer, rudder. Four autonomous hydraulic systems provided for the production and cleaning of the chassis, brake flaps, flaps, shutters of jet engine nozzles, control of air intakes, power supply of the on-board radar antenna drive. The working fluid of the system was - AMG-10. The fighter was also equipped with 3 autonomous pneumatic systems. Pneumatic systems were used for emergency and main wheel braking, emergency release of flaps and landing gear, pressurized hydraulic tank and so on.

The Su-15 fuel system included pipelines, fuel tanks and special units. A total of 3 fuselage, 2 wing and 2 outboard fuel tanks were on the plane. PTB were placed under the fuselage of the car on two girder holders. The total capacity of the interceptor fuel system with outboard fuel tanks was 8060 liters. Aviation kerosene of the following brands could be used as fuel: T-1, T-2, TC-1, PT.

The Su-15 life support system included an oxygen supply system and an air conditioning system. During flights at speeds up to 900 km / h and at altitudes less than 10 km, the standard equipment of the pilot consisted of a ZSh-3 safety helmet, an oxygen mask KM-32, a ventilated overalls VK-3 or VK-4. During flights at supersonic speeds, the pilot wore a special high-altitude compensating suit. This could be VKK-4, VKK-6 (6P), as well as the GSH-4MS, GSH-6М or GSH-4MP helmets. The fighter-interceptor was equipped with an ejection seat of the KS-4, which provided the pilot with the safe escape of the aircraft throughout the entire range of speeds and flight altitudes, including run and mileage at speeds above 140-150 km / h.

Air ram

A rather rare case for jet aircraft is connected with the Su-15 fighter - an air ram. 18 July 1981, a CL-44 transport aircraft, owned by Transportes Aereo Rioplatense from Argentina, flew Tel Aviv-Tehran, carrying weapon for Iran. Most likely, inadvertently, this aircraft invaded the airspace of the USSR from Armenia. A Su-15TM fighter-interceptor led by Captain Kulyapin was raised to intercept it. Accompanying the CL-44, he, according to the international code, gave signs to the intruder to follow him. However, the Argentine plane did not react and continued to fly towards the border. There was no time left to attack with the help of R-98 missiles, and Kulyapin was ordered to ram the intruder, which he did, having hit the CL-44 stabilizer with the fuselage. After that, the transport plane went into a tailspin and crashed, killing 4 members of its crew. At the same time, the Su-15 pilot safely ejected and survived. For this ram he was presented to the Order of the Battle Red Banner. It was just the 2nd and last case of rams in the history of jet aircraft.

Flight performance of the Su-15TM:

Dimensions: wingspan - 9,43 m., Length - 22,03 m., Height - 4,84 m.
Wing area - 36,6 square. m
The normal take-off weight of the aircraft is 17 200 kg., The maximum take-off is 17 900 kg.
Engine type - 2 TRDF Р13-300, maximum thrust - 2х65,7 kN.
The maximum speed is 2230 km / h.
Practical range - 1380 km.
Practical ceiling - 18 100 m.
Crew - 1 man.
Combat load: 1500 kg on 6 suspension units: 2 SD medium range P-98 and 2-4 SD near range P-60. It is possible to install 2-x gun containers UPK-23-250 (250 shells), 2-x bombs FAB-250 (instead of PTB) or 2 blocks NAR.

Information sources:
-http: //www.airwar.ru/enc/fighter/su15.html
-http: //www.sukhoi.org/planes/museum/su15
-http: //avia-simply.ru/su-15-groza-boingov
-http: //ru.wikipedia.org
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  1. Vadivak
    Vadivak April 8 2013 09: 36 New
    +5
    Combat use. I draw your attention to the fact that both downed planes were of the same airline with the name KAL or dermo in our

    March 20, 1978 An interceptor of the USSR air defense forces in the Kem region shot down a South Korean airliner Boeing 707, which operated the Paris-Anchorage flight and, for inexplicable reasons, ended up in the sky of north-west Russia. On a plane that did not respond to requests from the ground, the fighter launched the R-98 rocket, tearing off part of the plane to Boeing (which was taken by the Soviet interceptor pilot for launching a cruise missile from the enemy aircraft and also fired on the second UR). The damaged liner successfully made an emergency landing on the ice of a frozen lake.

    Another combat episode involving Su-15 ended more tragically: 01.09.83/747/747. also, the South Korean airliner Boeing 15, flying along the Anchorage-Seoul highway, unexpectedly plunged into the airspace of Russia, crossed Kamchatka, flew over the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, and then again appeared over Soviet territory (Sakhalin Island). Attempts to contact the aircraft were unsuccessful and when leaving the USSR airspace the Boeing XNUMX was destroyed by a missile launched from the Su-XNUMXTM,
    1. pint45
      pint45 April 15 2013 16: 54 New
      0
      But there was an autopilot SAU-58; and the pilot was sitting in a candy wrapper, right?
  2. as3wresdf
    as3wresdf April 8 2013 09: 55 New
    0
    The base of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of all citizens of the Russian Federation on this site twitlink.ws/baza and most importantly did something like searching for lost relatives, but here is all the information about each of us: correspondence with friends, addresses, phone numbers, place of work, and what’s worst is even mine exposure of photos (I don’t know where from ...). In general, I was very scared - but there is such a function as “hide data”, of course I took advantage of it and I advise everyone not to hesitate,
  3. Witch
    Witch April 8 2013 11: 52 New
    +2
    beautiful car
  4. Sirocco
    Sirocco April 8 2013 14: 55 New
    +2
    Somehow they undeservedly forgot about this plane, thanks for reminding us of its combat everyday life.
  5. xomaNN
    xomaNN April 8 2013 15: 26 New
    +2
    Ram on a jet ... It's strong!
  6. Odysseus
    Odysseus April 8 2013 15: 40 New
    +2
    A good airplane for its time. A workhorse of air defense. But it was not very small at low altitudes.
    1. Andrey Yuryevich
      Andrey Yuryevich April 8 2013 17: 53 New
      +2
      so after all, an interceptor, not an attack aircraft ...
  7. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign April 8 2013 18: 40 New
    +2
    Thanks to the author for the reminder of the excellent air defense fighter, which has been in service for almost 25 years.
  8. Nayhas
    Nayhas April 8 2013 21: 37 New
    +1
    A very good aircraft that meets the requirements of cost-effectiveness, which is now categorically not observed, if efficiency, then the cost is prohibitive without the possibility of mass production ...
  9. Denis
    Denis April 8 2013 22: 12 New
    +3
    South Korean passenger plane Boeing 747 in 1983. In addition, the Su-15 interrupted the flight of the Boeing 707 over the Kola Peninsula (again South Korean),
    The trend, however ...
    And what did these South Koreans need to learn so much?
  10. cobalt
    cobalt April 9 2013 07: 16 New
    +4
    Here is an excerpt from the article Hot Sky by Alexander Kotlobovsky. Both situations with Boeing are described here. I believe that they were shot down correctly. Any self-respecting power should show its strength and capabilities in protecting and inviolability of its borders, only then it will be respected. Here are the Chinese well done. 2-3 years ago, an American reconnaissance plane was intercepted and put on its airfield. Gutted all his latest stuffing and only after that they returned the plane to the Americans. So they need, do not hell with the borders of sovereign states to violate.

    But the most serious incident in the North occurred on April 20, 1978, when the passenger Voeing 707 of the South Korean airline KAL crossed the border in the Kola Peninsula district. Boeing commander Kim Chang Kew and navigator Lee Chun Sin later admitted that the violation was their fault. The flight of the liner was stopped by the pilot of the 365th IAP Captain A. Bosov on the Su-15TM, ​​who hit the Boeing’s wing with two R-60 missiles, after which he made an emergency landing on one of the frozen lakes near the town of Kem. Two passengers died and several were injured from a rocket explosion and landing on ice.

    In the 80s, we were actively tested for strength. Each year, the air defense forces' operators carried out PJIC screens near the borders of more than 3000 reconnaissance and combat aircraft - mainly the Air Force and the US Navy. A particularly tense situation in the early 80s developed in the Far East. There during 1982-83. US reconnaissance and combat aircraft repeatedly approached the Soviet border in deployed combat formations characteristic of combat operations. If in 1982 they violated the border 5 times, then in 1983 (by the beginning of September) - already 10.

    At the end of March 1983, three strike aircraft carrier groups entered the waters of the Aleutian Islands near Soviet Kamchatka, where they conducted three-week exercises. And on April 4, the Americans launched an unprecedented rally: 6 A-7 planes that took off from the Midway and Enterprise aircraft carriers invaded 2 to 30 km deep into the airspace of the USSR and carried out conditional bombing on the territory of Green Island in the Kuril chain. Fearing responsibility, the IAD air defense commander did not take off duty fighter units of his unit — the fear of initiative and the indecision of the commanders were the brainchild of Brezhnev's "reform."

    The tragic culmination of this was the September 1, 1983 penetration into the airspace of the USSR by the South Korean Boeing 747 airliner, which ended in the deaths of many people.

    Major Gennady Osipovich, who flew from the Sokol airport (Sakhalin Island) to the Su-15, did not even assume that he was going to intercept a civilian aircraft rather than a military one. In that year, General Kornukov’s pilots often made sorties against reconnaissance aircraft of the RC-135 type, very similar to the ill-fated Boeing. Having seen the mark of the target on the airborne radar, Osipovich confidently identified it as RC-135, and therefore without hesitation he carried out a command from the control unit to destroy the intruder.

    US Air Force Electronic Intelligence Aircraft RC-135

    What happened then is known to the whole world. I would only like to note that it would be unfair to blame the pilot (as well as his colleagues from 27 IAD) for the tragedy that happened. The situation in the area itself, especially after the incident over the island of Zeleny, was so tense that the Boeing was simply doomed - shortly before that, the division command received an order to more resolutely stop border violations.
    1. Chicot 1
      Chicot 1 April 9 2013 15: 42 New
      +3
      I completely agree with you, dear Maxim. Nefig was to meddle where they did not ask to meddle ...

      A Su-15 fighter-interceptor (aircraft number 17 red) knocks down a Korean Boeing-747-230B (KAL airline; aircraft number HL7442; flight KAL-007, Anchorage-Seoul), September 1, 1983. Painting by artist Andrei Zhirnov.
    2. Chicot 1
      Chicot 1 April 9 2013 15: 57 New
      +1
      The route of the South Korean Boeing 747 (flight KAL-007). Red intermittent - planned (full-time), solid red - real (actual).
      1. albert
        albert April 10 2013 00: 00 New
        +1
        The story with this Boeing over Sakhalin is very dark. I recommend that everyone interested read M. Brune's The Secret of Flight 007
      2. aviamed90
        aviamed90 April 10 2013 13: 24 New
        +1
        He served in the Air Force in Primorye in the 90s. We had a map of reconnaissance flights U-2 and RC-135 in our regiment. The routes of their constant flights exactly coincide with the actual route of the Boeing (only in the Sakhalin region it passed south).
    3. Black Colonel
      Black Colonel April 15 2013 14: 51 New
      +1
      By the way, regarding the penetration of the South Korean Boeing 1 airliner into the airspace of the USSR on September 1983, 747, which ended in the death of many people. There was a program on this subject. There is NO EVIDENCE that there were passengers on board, NO. Even secondary. Not to mention the fact that real people died - THESE PEOPLE DID NOT EXIST. So it was a vile provocation.
    4. Anatoly Anatolii
      Anatoly Anatolii 12 January 2020 17: 59 New
      0
      Su 15 was not from the Falcon, but from Pereyaslavlka
  11. pint45
    pint45 April 11 2013 21: 03 New
    +1
    He glanced quickly and the atopilot was there and he did a really good job, however.