Military Review

Admiral Gorshkov Hyperboloid

Admiral Gorshkov Hyperboloid

Star Wars

In the spring of 1983, US President Ronald Reagan notified the world of plans to place interceptor satellites in near-earth orbit. They were intended for destruction at the initial segment of the flight trajectory of Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles. The program was called the Strategic Defense Initiative, or, abbreviatedly, the PIO.

The Soviet media unanimously began to brand Washington’s militaristic plans, accusing him of whipping up the next round of the arms race.

Meanwhile, in the USSR for several years active work was carried out on the creation of space weapons, including orbital laser systems.

Theme "Aydar"

In the seventies – eighties, several experimental samples of space laser guns were built in the Soviet Union. They were developed to destroy American interceptor satellites in orbit around the Earth. All existing installations were “tied” to a stationary power supply and did not meet the main requirement of military space - full autonomy. Because of this, the designers could not conduct full tests.

To test autonomy for the gun, or, as stated in the documents, a “powerful power plant” (LSG) was decided to be installed on a surface ship. Tasks on testing military laser government assigned to the Navy.

The choice of sailors fell on the auxiliary cargo ship fleet Dixon. The ship had a displacement of 5,5 thousand tons, a length of 150 meters and a speed of 12 knots. These characteristics, as well as the structural features of the vessel, were excellent for installing new equipment and conducting tests. In addition, the ship was left behind its former name and the harmless classification of the cargo ship. So that the West does not worry.

At the beginning of 1978, Dikson arrived at the shipyard in Leningrad. The refurbishment works were carried out under the direction of the Nevskoye design office. In parallel, the assembly of a laser gun began at the Kaluga Turbine Plant. It was supposed to be the most powerful military laser system in the USSR. All works were classified and received the title "Theme" Aydar ".


About stories unique laser ship correspondent "Versions" told the direct participants of this project. Specialists involved in the work on the system have called “Dixon” a “golden fish”. The project cost a fortune - the bill went to hundreds of millions of Soviet rubles.

But the work constantly stumbled over the serious problems of the technical and scientific plan. For example, to install 400 cylinders for compressed air on a ship, shipbuilders had to completely remove the metal lining from both sides.

Later it became clear that the hydrogen accompanying the shooting could inadvertently explode on the ship. He has a habit of accumulating in closed spaces, so they decided to mount enhanced ventilation. The upper deck of the ship was designed so that it could open in two parts. As a result, the hull lost strength and had to be strengthened.

The lasers calculated that the ship’s propulsion system could not give the gun the required energy in 50 megawatts. They proposed to strengthen the ship diesel engines with three jet engines from the Tu-154 aircraft. In the ship I had to make holes again and change the layout of the hold.

No less colossal funds devoured work on the gun itself. For example, the development of an adaptive reflector (such a “copper basin” with a diameter of 30 centimeters, which was supposed to direct a laser beam at a target) cost approximately 2 million Soviet rubles. The whole production association in the Moscow suburban town of Podolsk spent half a year on its production. The required perfect surface was achieved by special grinding. The reflector was handled by the enterprise workers day by day. Then the reflector was equipped with a computer specially designed for it. The computer monitors the state of the surface of the reflector with an accuracy of micron. If the computer detected distortions, it instantly gave a command, and the “cams” ​​attached to the bottom of the 48 reflector began to thresh on the “basin” and straighten its surface. Again with micron accuracy. And so that the reflector does not overheat after contact with the beam, a special lining was attached to it. It was made from priceless beryllium. The thinnest capillaries were drilled in the lining, along which, to the delight of the sailors, a forty-degree solution of alcohol was pumped over. For one experienced shot took 400 liters. However, as the project participants say, after the lecture on the topic “The Effect of Beryllium on the Human Body”, the amount of alcohol consumed at Dixon decreased.

At the end of 1979, Dixon moved to the Black Sea, to Feodosia. In Crimea, at the Ordzhonikidze ship repair plant, the final assembly of the gun and control systems was carried out. In the same place on the ship settled permanent crew - sailors and six KGB officers.

Under the neck of "special importance"

Contrary to the old maritime tradition, a new home base - Sevastopol met “Dixon” without an orchestra and feast. The “dry cargo ship” was set apart from warships on the 12 berth of the North Bay. A few days earlier, approaches to the pier were surrounded by a concrete fence four meters high. We pulled the wire. Let the current. Established the strictest bandwidth mode.

With seafarers and civilian specialists took a "non-disclosure" subscription. Just in case: if anyone is interested, then the subscription expired in 1992 year.

Voroshilov arrows

His first laser salvo "Dickson" produced in the summer of 1980 of the year. They shot from a distance of 4 kilometer on a special target position, located on the coast. The target was struck from the first time, although no one saw the beam itself and the destruction of the target from the shore. A thermal sensor mounted on the target recorded a hit along with a temperature jump. As it turned out, the efficiency of the beam was only 5 percent. All the beam energy was “eaten” by evaporation of moisture from the sea surface. However, the shooting results were considered excellent. After all, the system was developed for space, where, as you know, a complete vacuum.

But the tests of the laser gun cooled the ambitions of the commander-in-chief of the Navy, Admiral of the Soviet Navy Gorshkov, who dreamed of installing “hyperboloids” on almost every ship. In addition to low combat performance, the system was cumbersome and difficult to operate. It took more than a day to prepare the cannon for a shot, the shot itself lasted 0,9 seconds. To combat the atmosphere that absorbs laser radiation, scientists have invented to launch a combat beam inside the so-called ray of enlightenment. As a result, we managed to slightly increase the combat power of the laser, which could already burn through the skin of the aircraft, but at a distance of only 400 meters.

The laser tests were completed by 1985 year.

Two-way bluff

Despite the fact that the tests were successfully completed, the designers and the military looked at their offspring skeptically. Everyone understood that it would not be possible to put such a system into orbit in the next 20 – 30 years. This was also known to the highest party leadership of the country. The management was not satisfied with the terms and the impending prospect of gigantic expenses. Designers offered more economical design. For example, the launch into orbit of the so-called unmanned satellites - kamikaze. In the event of war, they, according to the plan of scientists, were to approach the American interceptors and explode. The most likely idea was to create special orbital systems spraying coal dust in orbit. Clouds of such dust were supposed to block the enemy’s combat lasers. But all this, despite the seeming simplicity, again required tremendous material costs.

The same problems faced overseas. The outcome of the space arms race that did not take place was the negotiations “On Defense and Space”, which started in March 1985. They were the impetus for the bilateral coagulation of military space programs.

There is an opinion that in fact no one was going to put combat satellites into orbit. In developing space weapons, Moscow and Washington simply bluffed to undermine each other’s economies. For greater likelihood, did not skimp on large expenses.

After negotiations as proof of good intentions, the Soviet Union demonstratively stopped working simultaneously on several space programs. In 1985, the Aydar theme was curtailed. About "Dixon" forgotten.

The editors do not have official data on the future of this unique ship. But according to recent reports, during the division of the Black Sea Fleet, the laser ship "Dikson" went to Ukraine.

From the Editors of the site “Courage”: according to the typology of the Typhoon, the experimental ship Dikson of the 59610 project, which successfully tested the naval laser weapon, was suspiciously quickly written off by Ukraine. The total confusion of the 1990-ies, which came with the collapse of the USSR, has caused many machinations, including at the highest level. When a ship was written off, a “silent” scandal occurred: the top-secret test documentation disappeared without a trace (!!!), although one can easily guess who got the fruits of many years of work. Moreover, the ship itself was in excellent technical condition, had five serviceable diesel generators, but was sold to India to a private company for the price of scrap metal! Without a sanction from above, such cases are practically excluded, and our country has suffered damage, possibly billions of dollars.

Experimental ship "Dickson" on the Black Sea. In front of the navigating bridge one can clearly see a large platform on which the MSU laser installation stood.
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  1. svp67
    svp67 April 6 2013 09: 34
    Sooner or later, but our country will still return to the development of this topic, that's just a pity for the lost time.
    1. Civil
      Civil April 7 2013 12: 07
      Dixon went to Ukraine? So 100% came to the USA.
      1. carbofo
        carbofo April 7 2013 21: 41
        our independent mom sell their mother for bucks :(
        1. BM-13
          BM-13 7 August 2014 15: 22
          Quote: carbofo
          our independent mom sell their mother for bucks :(
          Yes, some for nothing, just like that, out of spiritual meanness.
      2. Old_kapitan
        Old_kapitan April 9 2013 06: 36
        Dixon went to Ukraine? So 100% came to the USA.

        And why was it generally transferred to Ukraine? Wasn't needed? I'm not talking about test documentation. That's where the most important enemies sat!
    2. StolzSS
      StolzSS April 7 2013 18: 10
      There was one more program of a space laser that was more realistic that a laser could be put into orbit by an energy rocket that was being made for a snowstorm, but Humpback personally canceled the launch ....
      1. alex86
        alex86 April 7 2013 20: 55
        trust the TV less, "Skif" did not "fly", unfortunately ...
  2. Mother russia
    Mother russia April 6 2013 10: 01
    The topic is interesting, I think that its development will continue in the near future.
    1. carbofo
      carbofo April 7 2013 21: 44
      And no one has closed such topics, just the technology has not grown to the desired level.
      Remember how firearms developed, the first samples to kill anyone if you get in and with difficulty 50 could!
      And now it's kilometers.
      All in good time.
      1. washi
        washi April 9 2013 15: 30
        We had everything. Have you ever wondered why the United States has turned down the development of high-tech weapons?
  3. erased
    erased April 6 2013 10: 04
    As always. The high-class work of Soviet scientists, the invested funds, and as a result - the betrayal of the elite of a new democratic and politolerant Russia. Amer put everything to himself.
    And again, no one will answer for betrayal.
  4. avt
    avt April 6 2013 10: 06
    ,, Despite the fact that the tests were successfully completed, the designers and the military looked at their brainchild with skepticism. Everybody understood perfectly well that it would not be possible to put such a system into orbit in the next 20-30 years. The country's top party leadership was also aware of this. The management was not satisfied with the terms and the impending prospect of gigantic expenditures. "========" Skif "not launched into orbit and ruined by Gorachev is a refutation of this statement and confirmation of a serious attitude towards this topic, Ustinov's favorite topic.
  5. bulvas
    bulvas April 6 2013 10: 33
    it hurts to read when it ends?
    as soon as possible, everyone is in a hurry to sell everything and fill their pocket
  6. medwed1976
    medwed1976 April 6 2013 16: 12
    This COUNTRY is delayed *
  7. medwed1976
    medwed1976 April 6 2013 16: 46
    such COUNTRY prosr * whether ... eh ...
    the USSR
    1. washi
      washi April 9 2013 15: 31
      Such developments have sold ....
  8. knn54
    knn54 April 6 2013 16: 58
    After the division of the Black Sea Fleet, this experimental ship with the world's first and only experimental combat laser defense system went to Ukraine, which it simply sold as scrap metal. Information appeared in the Western media about the purchase by the United States Department of Defense of a scrap metal consignment consisting of several Soviet warships. In the hold of one of them, the Yankees found 35-megawatt power generators, special rotary mechanisms, large-capacity refrigeration units and other equipment for laser weapons. The Pentagon immediately classified ALL information about the technical capabilities of the latest Soviet weapons ...
  9. Bear52
    Bear52 April 6 2013 18: 37
    And just things, comrades! Increase the efficiency of lasers by several orders of magnitude, huh? The mattresses also do not really work out. bully And what a burst-breakthrough would be ... sweet dream! good
    1. Raven1972
      Raven1972 April 7 2013 20: 24
      We have such a wonderful complex - MTLK-50-120 developed by TRINITY, look if interested)))) hi
  10. Eugene
    Eugene April 6 2013 23: 15
    There is a good series on this topic, in the "Impact Force" cycle. By the way, almonds are blooming in Crimea. And I wish that to everyone.
  11. xomaNN
    xomaNN April 7 2013 12: 44
    Money in the Union was spent on such developments exorbitantly, it is. But the rhetorical question, because both sides were 90% aware of the results of each other, maybe this stopped the hot heads of the military commanders of the USA and the USSR?
  12. xomaNN
    xomaNN April 7 2013 12: 47
    Money for such developments in the Union was spent exorbitantly. But, maybe this stopped the hot heads of the military commanders of the USA and the USSR, because 90% did they know about the results of each other’s development?
  13. gregor6549
    gregor6549 April 7 2013 17: 55
    In the 70 and 80 years in the USSR, many projects of high-energy weapons of directional and non-directional action were developed, not only in the optical, but also in other wavelengths (for example, in the microwave range). But many of these developments were ruined both from within (not very many company managers wanted to take extra chores on their asses with an unpredictable result), and from the outside, from behind a hill. Moreover, with the advent of Gorbachev and with the beginning of the collapse of the Union, a number of leading Soviet specialists in this area either lured over a hill or passed away under strange circumstances. For example, in one of the Belarusian research institutes in the middle of 70x an application was even submitted for opening in this area. The result was that the leadership of the research institute wanted to stick to the application, the author was offended and quit and it all ended with a zero result, although the experts' feedback on the application was the most positive and needed to be slightly corrected. Something similar appeared in the States only thirty years later. Many copyright certificates in this area were also bought up for nothing and went there, over the hill. And now, in order to return everything to at least the same state that it was during the years being described, you need a great desire from the Russian leadership, very solid funding for the corresponding R&D in academic and industrial institutes, and of course time.
    1. Alex
      Alex 1 October 2013 19: 07
      in order to return everything to at least the same state that it was during the years being described, you need a great desire from the Russian leadership, very solid funding for the corresponding R&D in academic and industrial institutes, and of course time.

      First of all, it is necessary to return the school to its normal (pre-Gorbachev) state. Then - to introduce entrance exams to universities and to eradicate any bullshit like the "Bologna system" and other things. And only then can we talk about the revival of science and technology.
  14. Alex
    Alex 1 October 2013 19: 09
    Hyperboloids from the time of Herbert Wales and Alexei Tolstoy haunt anyone. Well, let the generals have fun. But at his own expense.
  15. BM-13
    BM-13 7 August 2014 15: 24
    The idea is exciting, but something, IMHO, is too fantastic. Anyway, bye.