Military Review

Field Marshal General Christopher Antonovich Minich and his ministry to Russia

Christopher Antonovich Minich (Count Burchard Christoph von Munnich) entered the Russian history as an outstanding military and economic figure, invincible field marshal, who smashed the hordes of the Crimean Tatars and Ottomans. Minich was a German by birth, but as Empress Catherine II truly said: "Not being the son of Russia, he was one of her fathers." He zealously served Russia, did a great job at strengthening the quality of the Russian army, the economy, the rear, and the government system. He dispelled the myth of the invincibility of the Turkish army, which arose after the unsuccessful Prut campaign of Peter. It was Field Marshal Minikh who initiated the series of brilliant victories of the Russian army over the Ottomans.

early years

Burkhart Christopher von Munnich (in a different spelling - Burkhard Christoph von Munnich) was born 9 in May 1683 in Neuenhüntorf (Neuen-Guntorf) near Oldenburg. He was descended from a noble family of Munichs. His father was a great engineer, advisor to the court of the Danish king. Therefore, the son mastered the engineering and drawing arts, knew mathematics well, learned Latin and French, and also gained experience in the field of hydraulic engineering. In 16 years went on a journey, entered as an engineer in the French service and was in Strasbourg when the war began for the Spanish inheritance. The young specialist was well known in certain circles and received an invitation from Marshal Villeroy to stay in the French service. But, he rejected this flattering offer, because he did not want to fight against his compatriots.

Minich left France and entered the service in Hesse-Darmstadt. He served as a captain, and when he distinguished himself during the siege of Landau in 1702, he was transferred to the Hesse-Kassel guard and promoted to major. In 1709, he distinguished himself in the battle of Malplaketka and received the rank of lieutenant colonel. In the battle of Dennes 1712, Minich was badly wounded and captured. In March 1714, peace was signed between France and Austria in Rashtadt. Minich received freedom. In Hesse, he was met with respect, was granted the rank of colonel. He returned to the engineering profession and began building a canal connecting Fulda to Weser.

However, Minich's ambitious soul demanded more significant things. He was not satisfied with the service of the Hessian Landgrave. In the North of Europe there was a war between the Swedish Empire and Russia, Poland and Saxony. Minich entered 1716 for the service of the Elector of Saxon and King of Poland Augustus II. In Warsaw, he formed the Polish regiments and in the 1717 year he was promoted to major general. A brave and active general was involved in active life in Poland: the struggle of the Confederates, the enmity of the Polish gentry against Augustus and his supporters, riotous metropolitan life. As a result, Minich fought duels several times, killed Colonel Gunf, was wounded in another duel. But Augustus forgave a brave general.

In the Russian service

The king's mercies for Minikh caused the envy of a number of high-ranking officials, including the royal favorite Fleming, to him. Not tolerating insults, but not being able to answer the same, Minnich decided to abandon the Saxon service. He wanted to go to Stockholm, the intelligent and brave commander was called to the Swedish service. But the death of the Swedish king Charles XII forced him to accept the offer to go to the Russian service. In 1721, at the invitation of the Russian ambassador in Warsaw, Grigory Dolgorukov, Minich arrived in Russia to conduct engineering affairs, conceived by the sovereign Peter Alekseevich.

When Minich presented the drawing of the new fortification of Kronstadt to Peter, a contented tsar said: “Thanks to Dolgorukov, he delivered me a skilled engineer and general.” Peter and Minich became associates. The simplicity of circumvention, the greatness of the Russian monarch, his colossal plans to transform the state, his active and active life, so opposite to what he saw in the West, captivated Minich. Minikh honestly said that he was not a specialist in the fleet, cavalry, artillery, that he was a poor architect, and offered his services in infantry, serfdom and teaching the emperor’s grandson mathematics, fortification and military art.

Minich with Peter traveled to Narva, Revel, Kronstadt. He made plans to strengthen Kronstadt, to build a harbor in Oranienbaum, a military port in Rogervik. The demise of his father made Minikh ask the emperor for home leave. Peter let him go, but with the condition that he would come back. Departing the Persian campaign in 1722, the emperor entrusted Minich with the arrangement of navigation on the Neva and granted him the rank of lieutenant-general. After returning from a campaign, the sovereign was very pleased with the work of the general: "No one understands so well and does not fulfill my thoughts like Minihs."

The Ladoga Canal was the cause of the emperor's chagrin. Construction of the Ladoga Canal began in 1719 year. One of the sections of the Vyshnevolotsk waterway that connected the Volga with the Baltic passed through Lake Ladoga. This site was one of the most dangerous and difficult: frequent strong winds on the lake caused the death of hundreds of transport vessels. Therefore, Peter decided to build a bypass channel connecting the Volkhov and Neva. The length of the channel under the project was 111 kilometers (the result was 117 km), and the depth 2,1 m below the level of Lake Ladoga. It began at Novaya Ladoga and ended in Shlisselburg, where the Neva originates from Lake Ladoga. In the first quarter of the XVIII century, this canal became the largest hydraulic structure in Europe. The work went slowly, with serious difficulties, loss of life and high costs. This forced Peter Alekseevich to conduct an investigation. He instructed Minikh to inspect the construction of the canal. Menshikov and his favorite Pisarev (he was the head of the work) tried to prevent him, claiming that Minikh was a bad engineer. Minikh presented a report to the king, where he said that everything that had been done earlier was worthless and presented a new work plan. Opponents of Minich criticized his findings. The emperor decided a dispute in his style: he himself went to inspect the work. He walked with Minikh through the forests and swamps for three days, studied the situation and came to the same conclusions as the German general.

After completing the inspection, the king declared to Pisarev: “... there are two kinds of guilt: a mistake and a mischief - I will always forgive the first, and the second will always punish severely." The emperor ordered the arrest of Skornyakov-Pisarev and the lock German masters, they were put on trial. After this, the construction of the canal was taken under state control. Minich led the work. In 1724, Peter Alekseevich again visited the channel and was so pleased with the works of the general that he said: “Minich cured me - he is capable of great things.” The emperor decided to identify Minich to the place of Bruce as Feldtseyhmeister and entrust him with all hydrotechnical work in the Russian Empire. By the summer of 1725, 25 thousand people were involved in work on the channel: 7 thousand civilian workers and 18 thousand soldiers. The construction of the channel under the leadership of Minich was completed in October 1730, and in the spring of 1731, ships began to walk around it.

Field Marshal General Christopher Antonovich Minich and his ministry to Russia

Channel Map of Emperor Peter the Great (1741-42).

Board of Catherine I and Peter II

The death of Peter Alekseevich put Minikh in a difficult position. His ill-wisher Alexander Menshikov became an all-powerful grandee, actually the ruler of Russia. But, age played his part. Munnich has already lost the ardor and temper of the young years. Life experience taught him to obey life circumstances. He could humble his pride there when it was needed. Acute intelligence, eloquence and dexterity in business allowed him to maintain a high position and continue to serve Russia. In addition, Minich entered into an alliance with Osterman. Therefore, Minich was able to continue work on the construction of the Ladoga Canal, and he was granted the newly founded Order of St.. Alexander Nevsky.

Going to the party Dolgoruky, Minich kept his position after the fall of Menshikov. Despite the conflict between the party of foreigners and the Russian party, Minich was granted the title of count, the rank of general-general and villages near Dorpat. In 1727, Peter II moved with his court to Moscow, where he was crowned. The new emperor was not at all interested in state affairs and led an idle life. Petersburg was empty, there was even an idea to deprive him of the status of the capital. Minich in this situation was appointed ruler of St. Petersburg, and from 1728, he is the Governor-General of St. Petersburg, Ingermanland, Karelia and Finland (up to 1734 of the year).

During this period, with the inaction of other dignitaries, he gained tremendous power. As a junior member of the Military Collegium, when Field Marshal Golitsyn was removed to Moscow, Vice President Lassi in Riga, and the inaction of other members of the college, he managed all military affairs. Munnich distributed the deployment of troops, was engaged in their supply, spent recruiting. He continued to work on the construction of the Ladoga Canal. Minikh continued the intensive construction begun at Peter in Petersburg, Vyborg and Kronstadt. At this time, he proved to be a skillful manager, an administrator with very deep knowledge in the field of hydraulic engineering and military affairs. During this period, the beginning of a regular sea connection with Western Europe was laid, and postal and passenger ships began to sail from Kronstadt to Lübeck and Danzig. In the capital on Vasilyevsky Island, they completed the construction of the Building of the Twelve Collegiums and the stone bastions of the Peter and Paul Fortress. Minikh organized parades and reviews of troops and celebrations during the launching of ships on the water, balls and gala dinners. Thus, in these troubled years, Minich was able to preserve his role as the most important city of the Russian Empire behind Petersburg.

In the reign of Anna Ioannovna

Minich was among those who supported Anna Ioannovna and the restoration of the fullness of imperial power. When Empress Anna took full power, Minich hurried to publicize this message in the capital and to support the autocratic power with the oath of the inhabitants and troops. Munnich received an honorary assignment: the burial of the tomb of Peter and the tomb of his wife, who until then had remained in the Peter and Paul Cathedral. Generous rewards were due to his diligence. He was awarded the Order of St.. Apostle Andrew, received the post of President of the Military Collegium, the rank of General Feldtseymehmeister. And in 1732, he received the wand of field marshal and the title of cabinet member (or highest council) under the empress. In addition to Minikh, Osterman, Golovkin and Cherkassky were members of the high council.

Minich was at the top of honors. During this period, the party of foreigners won a complete victory over the Russian party. However, Minich has a rival. A new temporary worker appeared at court - Ernst Johann Biron. This man was insignificant in his gifts, but controlled the will of the empress. Hardly Anna reigned in Russia, Biron received the rank of Chief Chamberlain, the Order of St.. Andrew became a count and a prince. And this is in the absence of any achievements in the field of service to Russia. Suspicious, self-serving and cruel, Biron became a real monster at court. Many Russian dignitaries fell into disgrace and were repressed. Minich was open enemy and rival Biron. Because of this, he fell out with Osterman, this crafty courtier went over to the side of the empress's favorite. The Empress, convinced of the need of Munnich for government, restrained the attacks of his rivals.

Minikh continued important state affairs. The Ladoga Canal was completed, which was a positive development for the development of the Russian economy. Empress Anna, with her retinue, first sailed along the canal on a yacht and opened navigation. Munnich put in order the army finances, established a hospital for the wounded and garrison schools with the troops. The field marshal formed two new guards regiments - the Horse Guards and Izmailovsky (named after the village near Moscow where the sovereign lived). He established the Gentry Cadet Corps for the 200 in the capital, and then the 360 nobles (and in the future, the 400-500 youths should have been trained in it). Minich was the head of the corps until 1741. The cadet corps was divided into 4 classes: in the fourth (lowest) cadets were trained in Russian and Latin, penmanship and arithmetic; in the third - geography, grammar and geometry; in the second, fortifications, artillery, history, correct style and style, rhetoric, jurisprudence, heraldry, morality, and other military and political sciences. In the first class there was a specialization - the cadets were trained in what they showed the greatest success. The cadets of the 5-6 years studied, graduated after passing exams. In addition to Russian, they were taught French and German.

The field marshal made new states for the army, established in the troops a heavy (cuirassier) corps of 12 regiments, formed the first hussar regiments. Minikh equalized the salary of Russian officers with invited foreign military specialists (foreigners had a higher salary). He established sapper regiments - a new branch of military service in Russia, and also created an engineering school for officers. When it was built or improved 50 fortresses. All these activities have strengthened the defense of the Russian Empire.

War of the Polish Succession

However, while actively working to strengthen the army, Minich could not help but notice that he was practically removed from foreign policy. Despite the fact that he was a member of the cabinet, he was secretly negotiating with Austria and Prussia for the establishment on the Polish throne of the Saxon Elector Frederick Augustus (in addition, Russia and Austria formed an alliance against Turkey). In 1733, Polish King Augustus II passed away. The French proposed to the Polish throne candidature of Stanislav Leschinsky, who was already the Polish king and grand duke of Lithuania in 1704 — 1709, being an ally of Sweden. His daughter was married to the French king Louis XV. Russia and Austria were strongly opposed to the candidature of Leshchinsky. Leschinsky’s assertion in Rzecz Pospolita would have been a significant political victory for France and Sweden and undermined Russian influence in Poland. There was a danger that a powerful anti-Russian coalition would be created, consisting of Sweden, the Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire, with the support of France.

Most of the Diet chose Leshchinsky to be kings. However, part of the nobility did not recognize him king and published a manifesto, where it was announced about the destruction of the principle of "free veto" (lat. Liberum veto). They began to fight against Leshchinsky and his supporters. Opponents of Leshchinsky held their own Diet and elected Friedrich August as king of the Saxon Elector. Leshchinsky with his supporters, as well as accompanied by French and Swedish ambassadors, went to Danzig, where he wanted to wait for the French squadron with the troops. Danzig was a port and was considered the best Polish fortress and one of the best fortresses in Europe. Its seaside location made it possible to receive assistance from Sweden and France.

Russian troops were sent to help the opponents Leschinsky. 15-thousand The corps was led by Minich’s rival, General-in-Chief Peter Lassi.

To be continued ...
Articles from this series:
Field Marshal General Christopher Antonovich Minich and his ministry to Russia
Field Marshal Christopher Antonovich Minich: the capture of Ochakov, the brilliant Stavuchan victory and the overthrow of Biron
Field Marshal General Christopher Antonovich Minich: Siege of Danzig and Defeat of the Crimean Khanate
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  1. bubla5
    bubla5 April 5 2013 07: 24
    Anyway, he didn’t work for the good of Russia, something began to praise foreigners, we all had kings, ours will defeat foreign troops, and the captured prisoners of the so-called senior officers were taken to their service
    1. Fox
      Fox April 5 2013 08: 57
      here, brother, you're wrong. Minikh did a lot for Russia. And the fact that he was betrayed by the "liberals" of that time ... so this is the "spiral of history."
      1. bubla5
        bubla5 April 5 2013 09: 34
        Yes, I did a lot, but on the corpses of Russians, the city and the canal were built with
  2. DimychDV
    DimychDV April 5 2013 09: 16
    And this, you see, is written in the light of the invitation of foreign pilots to our civil aviation. The builders have already been replaced by the Chinese. Peasants are also on them. We solder our men and wean idleness. and in schools some hysterical aunts teach ... Not all, fortunately.
    1. RoTTor
      RoTTor April 7 2013 14: 18
      In the morning you are not hungover because you are angry?
  3. avt
    avt April 5 2013 09: 20
    Interesting was the uncle. True, historians do not favor him very much, but he lived such a life - Akunin and his detectives are resting.
  4. svp67
    svp67 April 5 2013 09: 24
    Quote: avt
    Interesting was the uncle. True, historians do not favor him very much, but he lived such a life - Akunin and his detectives are resting.

    Fact. Already for how he went to execution and kept in exile, he can be STRONGLY respected.
  5. Uzoliv
    Uzoliv April 5 2013 10: 14
    Quote from the author: "During this period, the party of foreigners won a complete victory over the Russian party."
    Such a concept as a single batch of foreigners did not exist. Yes, there was Biron, the Empress’s lover, and for obvious reasons, he had a significant influence. In place of Biron there could be a Russian, he was there by the way. Before Biron was Bestuzhev, who could not keep the woman. Love is an unpredictable feeling.
    But let's leave the lyrics, let's talk about the facts. Consider the dominance of foreigners on the most important pillar for the Russian Empire, its army, and more specifically on its officer corps.
    It was under Anna (or if you want under Biron) in 1732 that the differences in the salaries of officers of a foreigner and of Russian origin were eliminated. Prior to this, with the same rank the foreigner received twice as much. The commission that resolved this issue was headed by Minich.
    The number of foreign generals and senior officers in the Russian army under the Bironovshchina has a steady downward trend. The same thing happens in the navy.
    Here is another curious fact, the attitude towards foreigners, moreover from the side of Minich. In November 1738, Minich reported to the Cabinet that foreign officers, as well as Livonian and Estonian soldiers serving in the Russian army, had found a way to improve their affairs. They submit a letter of resignation, receive awards, money, and, “having spent some time in their homes,” again ask for admission to the Russian military service, moreover, they settle mainly in the Ostsee garrisons, which were considered a sinecure under the conditions of service at that time. Minich considered such an order unacceptable and demanded to close this loophole for foreigners and Ostseytsy. According to the decree of the Cabinet of Ministers, starting from November 29, 1738, the newly recruited foreigners and Ostseys were sent to the field army, which, as you know, was at war then with the Turks.
    So not everything is so simple.
  6. politruk419
    politruk419 April 5 2013 11: 10
    About Miniha
    Slandered Field Marshal

    .... Before Miniha, the valiant Russian army and no less valiant Zaporozhye Cossacks fumbled with Crimean predators for more than three hundred years. We messed around in the same scenario. Tatars went on the raid. The Cossacks repelled him and, if it turned out, they themselves tried to steal a stranger, and then drink. Several times the steppe burned Kiev, once even Moscow. The peak of the Slavic successes in Crimea was the capture of Kafa by the hetman Sagaidachny in 1616, which they managed to thoroughly forget about in the time of Minich. But they well remembered the encirclement of the army of Peter I on the Prut, when only the bribery of the corrupt Turkish command saved the victors at Poltava from surrender.
    The insoluble problem of the war with the Tatars seemed to be the lack of food and water in the steppe. Gangs of nomads were content with little, eating raw horse meat. The Russian army was huddled by the rivers - the Dnieper and the Don - along which food could be transported.
    “No, you can't!” - declared the field marshal. - We will go directly to Bakhchisarai!
    - And what will we eat in the Wild Field? - asked the Russian generals who remembered the previous defeats.
    “I'm not going to drain you through fasting, gentlemen,” the iron German grinned. “We will carry everything we need with us.”
    - Tatars can recapture convoys ...
    “They will not beat you if you obey my orders implicitly!”
    The hardworking German immigrant made Slavic loafers work hard as if they were all born in his native Oldenburg. After all, who said war is heroism? War is just a job.
    The main base of the operation was Kiev. Forty thousand carts and fifty thousand bulls were driven here. Lined up in a giant square, the infantry surrounded the convoy closed quadrangle on all sides. The cavalry took a place on the flanks. The bulls pitifully mourned, foreseeing the fate of the canned food, and with God's help, unhurried transitions (no more than ten versts a day), the Russian army, led by the German will, moved to the steppe. The Tatars only licked, trying to prick this hedgehog, bristling in all directions. But unsuccessfully! A month later, the Russian regiments inevitable in their offensive were under Perekop. On May 21, they captured the isthmus, on June 5 Yevpatoriya, and on the 16th (for the first time in history!) Lurking in the cozy valley of Bakhchisaray. The capital of the khan was robbed, dirtied, devastated, and set on fire in parting. Having eaten and drunk everything that is possible in the Crimea, the army left the peninsula solely due to the onset of illness and lack of food. In one of the battles, the Cossacks captured the khan’s stroller and his spyglass of English work. Minich bargained it for money from the Cossacks and in subsequent campaigns did not use any other. The field marshal could simply take her away using his position, but was scrupulous in German - he wanted to be not only feared, but respected.
    A year later, the army of Minikh captured Ochakov, then Khotin, defeated the Turks in an open field near the Stavuchans. Minich dreamed of going to Constantinople. But Russia, unlike him, was already tired and made peace. The only real result of the war was that the Tatars were now afraid to go on a raid on Ukraine - the “walk” of Minikh to Bakhchisarai broke their psyche forever.

    This field-marshal, who had never complained and slept three hours a day, with a face covered with strong-wrinkled wrinkles, was as indefatigable as Suvorov subsequently. Neither war nor disgrace broke him. He died in the eighty-fifth year, having survived eight (!) Kings. The conquest of Crimea by Suvorov and Potemkin, happened according to his plan. And the fact that now this Crimea belongs to Ukraine is the merit of this German - unjustly slandered and forgotten. Forgotten precisely because he was too big.
    Oles Elderberry. Secret History of Ukraine-Rus.
    1. George
      George April 5 2013 17: 42
      Hello all.
      Honestly warps from such statements

      Quote: politruk419
      Hardworking German immigrant made Slavic loafers work hard as if they were all born in his native Oldenburg

      It’s as if we didn’t have an army, but only a hoax with axes and forks.
      1. politruk419
        politruk419 April 6 2013 06: 33
        Quote: GEORGE
        Hello all.
        Honestly warps from such statements

        This is a statement by Olesya Elderberry.
        To the credit of the author, we must admit that he is one of the few modern Ukrainian historians and journalists who beating to death with Svidomo idiocy of the current Ukrainian historiography. For which he is constantly attacked and persecuted. This is OUR MAN.

        For those interested in topical topics on the history of Ukraine and "Ukrainians", I would strongly recommend reading his "Ghoul Taras Shevchenko" and the same Secret History. Even if we take into account that the author is somewhat unnecessarily merciless to the violent imagination of the current pseudoscientists - self-seekers, then all the same, aesthetic pleasure and healthy laughter prolonging our life - I guarantee!
        In principle, he is just as merciless to "Great Russian nonsense".
        It’s as if we didn’t have an army, but only a hoax with axes and forks.
        It was of course. Normal regular army of the European sample. Thanks to Peter the Great and Baryatinsky (a little earlier)
        But Turkey, in alliance with the Crimea, also beat her regularly. Until Minikh, Potemkin, Rumyantsev and Suvorov appeared. But Charles XII, in a European way, broke off "at the very least".
        1. George
          George April 7 2013 19: 45
          Thank you, I found his site and read at his leisure.
          In this way, we can write that Catherine 2 forced the Slavic loafers to work hard, etc. etc. And about any commander who led our army to victory.
          I am not against the well-deserved exaltation of Minich, especially if he is worthy of him. I am against the dousing of my people. With respect.
  7. knn54
    knn54 April 5 2013 14: 00
    Indeed, B.-Kh. Minikh played a large role in the construction of new Russia not only as a military reformer and commander. He was an outstanding politician and an outstanding engineer ...
    PS The Russian state has the advantage over others that it is controlled directly by God himself, otherwise it is impossible to understand how it exists.
    Field Marshal Minih
  8. valerei
    valerei April 5 2013 14: 58
    Thanks to the author for an interesting publication. I read something: Minih, Minih and that's it. But it turns out what kind of person and professional he was and how much he did for Russia.
  9. penguin
    penguin April 5 2013 16: 24
    I did not argue much, but he, as a representative of his time and as a foreigner, was alien to the care of a simple soldier. During the very campaign when the Russian troops reached Moldova, more people died of bloody diarrhea than the hands of an enemy. He owns the words that you can not spare the soldiers to serve well in Russia - there are so many of them (though I do not remember literally what he said). Despite this, the Man was great. A talented engineer with an excellent education, a brilliant manager, which confirms his work in many posts, and the victory over the Turkish army is 90 thousand people. in the battle of the Stavucans with their own losses, 13 killed and 54 wounded put him in the ranks of the famous commanders. And how energetic he was - after 20 years of exile in Pelym, at the age of 78, he took the oath to Catherine II and was appointed to manage the Baltic ports, while not really doing business but not sitting at home. In addition, at such an advanced age he did not give up his vocation - he continued to develop various engineering projects. In the end, it was not just that he was included in the list of 128 most outstanding personalities in Russian history at the Monument to the 1000th Anniversary of Russia in Veliky Novgorod.
  10. sdf3wresdgg
    sdf3wresdgg April 5 2013 16: 59
    The base of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of all citizens of the Russian Federation on this site and the main thing was done as if to search for lost relatives, but here is all the information about each of us: correspondence with friends, addresses, phone numbers, place of work, and the worst thing is even mine nudity photo (though I do not know from where ...). In general, I was very scared - but there is such a function as "hide data" of course I used it and I advise everyone not to hesitate, you never know
  11. knn54
    knn54 April 5 2013 18: 05
    But the death of the Swedish king Charles XII forced him to accept the offer to switch to Russian service.
    Karl 12 did something useful for Russia.
  12. savastyanov
    savastyanov April 5 2013 20: 22
    One of the best commanders
    1. datur
      datur April 6 2013 13: 01
      One of the best military commanders ---- the military commander was not a bad one !!!! hi but got into politics-in vain !!! yes
  13. AntonR7
    AntonR7 April 7 2013 14: 23
    Yes, perhaps one of the few non-Russians who were more Russian than some Russians!
  14. RoTTor
    RoTTor April 7 2013 14: 52
    [B]I didn’t steal, I didn’t take bribes, I didn’t do whiteness. He brought all the imperfections of Peter to mind. Thanks to him, the capital was returned to St. Petersburg from Moscow, where he actually moved under Peter the Second.
    . It was thanks to Minich that the system for training officers and engineers was created and earned, they stopped squandering state funds on the idiotic floodlights that Peter adored. You can continue ... But you better learn history, because HISTORY is an EXACT SCIENCE that few people want to know.
    It is clear why the true Russian hero and the true patriot of Russia are transferred to the scent of weeks by leavened cheers-patriots. They are always a Russian thief according to patchport. Patriotism is not determined by nationality. But they don’t understand this. [/
  15. RoTTor
    RoTTor April 7 2013 15: 07
    He didn’t take bribes, he didn’t steal government money, he didn’t engage in whimsy, he didn’t betray.
    It was Minich who brought to mind several of Peter's projects, which were “black holes”, where money and tens of thousands of Russian lives fell through.
    It was thanks to Minich that some order in finances was brought in.
    Minich created a SYSTEM for training officers and engineers.
    Thanks to Minikh, who made St. Petersburg extremely unsuccessful for the capital habitable, the Ladoga Canal solved the problem of its food supply.
    You can continue, BUT learn the story :? HISTORY - EXACT SCIENCE, which few people study and understand.
    It is clear why the true heroes and patriots are not Russian in origin, so hated by the idiotic kvass ura-patriots.
    Let me remind you of Julian Semenov. In the continuation of “17 Moments,” he says through the lips of Müller: “... look at the Soviet encyclopedia:“ ... the great Russian Soviet poet was born into a poor Jewish family in a Belarusian town. Who interfered with the idiot Hitler to do the same "... Einstein is a great German scientist born in a Jewish family" then we, and not the enemies, would have had a wonderful weapon! ”
    Patriotism is not determined by origin. But Urya-patriots cannot understand this, such is a Russian thief by nationality and is close and dear.
  16. Alikovo
    Alikovo April 8 2013 00: 02
    in the old days, not all foreigners served Russia as a minis. at the time of ushakov, one foreigner served in the fleet so he almost derailed the entire Black Sea fleet.