Military Review

Lend-Lease Tanks. Preparation, completing and staffing structure of parts

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Due to the difficult situation at the front, the development of foreign armored vehicles began immediately after its arrival in the USSR. Initial training of crews for foreign tanks Held at the Kazan Tank Technical School. Already on October 15, 1941, 420 crews were sent to the Kazan school from training tank regiments for retraining on British MK vehicles. II, MK. III for a 15-day period. In March 1942, the 23rd and 38th tank regiments were transferred to train tankers for the operation of foreign equipment. The training of crews of armored personnel carriers was assigned to the 20th Tank Regiment (Uryupinsk), which was transferred to the staff of the training tank regiment on March 1, 1942.


In May, 1942, with an increase in foreign deliveries by order of People's Commissar of Defense No. 510 from 23 June 1942, formed from linear tank brigades:

Training tank brigade of American tanks (190-I Utbr).
Training tank brigade of British tanks (194-I utbr).
Two T-60 tank training regiments were transferred to crew training for British and American tanks (16 and 21).
The staff number of brigades and regiments allowed to prepare monthly:

M3 medium crews - 245
M3 lightweight crews - 645
crews MK.II - 300
crews MK.III - 370
Total: 1560 crews per month

In addition, in connection with the arrival of armored vehicles through the southern ports, a training tank brigade with a variable number of 191 people was formed to distill tanks through Iran on the basis of the 800 tank tank brigade. The crew received this compound from the 21-th unit (Yerevan).

3 January 1943. The 190-I American American tanks became the 5, and the British UN tanks 191 - the 6-th brigade, which, together with the 16-th separate training tank regiment, entered the Armored Training Center located in Bitter.

However, in February, 1943 began new changes in the system of staffing and training. Due to the fact that since the beginning of 1943, the Baku “acceptance” has received tanks from Iran for sending directly to the front, it becomes necessary to train crews at the place of receiving equipment. Directive of the Deputy Commissar of Defense No. 24777 of February 18 1943, the 191 UTB is transformed into the 27-th unit with a dislocation in Baku. The 21 UT is transferred to the T-34 states.

Since 1943 has been steadily declining since October, the 6 unit of 18 June 1943 of the year has been reformed into a training brigade of officers, and 5 of the UTB of 24 in October 1943 of the year disbanded. For the training of crews of tanks of foreign production left only 16-th utp.

By the end of the 2 World War I, there were 3 separate training tank regiments of “foreign cars” in the Red Army: 16 (Gorky), 27 (Baku) for training crews of M4 and X2 and 20 (Ryazan) ) for the training of crews of armored personnel carriers (M2, M3, M9, "Universal" and M3A1 "Scout").

For the training of personnel of motorcycle divisions, including those on foreign-made motorcycles (Harley-Davidson, Indian, and BSA), there were 2 separate training motorcycle regiments: 14-oomtsp (Berdichev) and 15- y oumtsp (village. Tashino).

Personnel for the maintenance and operation of American ACS SU-57 (T-48) and М10 were trained at the Training Center of self-propelled artillery (Klyazma), created by 25 November 1942, 10 December 1943, a temporary regimental unit was formed at this center ( 1 "lettered" self-propelled artillery regiment) for training the crews of the above-mentioned ACS, as well as ZSU M15 and M17. Upon completion of the main work regiment, he was disbanded, and the remaining combat vehicles received one of the battalions of the 256-th tank brigade.

The officer cadre commanders (platoon commanders) and military-technical profile trained tank schools, in accordance with the instructions of the Supreme Commander’s Headquarters, focused on a certain type of armored vehicles. In 1942, the commanders of the "Inotank" trained Chkalovsk ("Matilda") and Kazan ("Valentine") tank schools. By the end of World War II, the Kazan Tank School specialized in training the platoon commanders of Sherman and Valentine tanks, 3-e Saratov school of armored vehicles and armored personnel carriers produced commanders and technicians for the units of armored vehicles M2, Scout, Universal, and Kiev Kiev Technical College prepared technicians for Sherman tanks. Motorcycle platoon commanders prepared a motorcycle school (Vyksa), and artillery officers - tank schools, specializing in training crews for the SU-76.

During the war years, the training units had prepared the 16.322 crew for foreign-made tanks and sent them to the 1.243 front of the marching company "inotanks".

Thus, during the war, the system of training crews and commanding personnel for armored, automotive and motorcycle equipment of foreign production was quickly and quickly deployed in the Red Army, which made it possible in a short time to master, operate and effectively use in combat units and units equipped with English or American tanks.

From field camps of training tank units and units, crews and equipment were sent directly to the army in the field.


At the time of the first appearance in the Red Army of the British and American armored vehicles, the main tank formation of the Red Army was a brigade. This situation was due to the loss of materiel in the summer and autumn of 1941, as well as the alleged defensive strategy of the Soviet troops. There were several types of staffing for mixed tank brigades, however, in connection with the entry of foreign tanks into the Red Army, a special staff at the battalion level was developed for them. Thus, it allowed the use of foreign vehicles as part of a separate battalion, and as part of a separate tank brigade.

The tank battalion of British tanks (staff No. 010 / 395) consisted of a tank 24 (MK.I "Matilda" -21, T-60 - 3) and had a number of 150 people.

The tank battalion of the American tanks (staff No. 010 / 396) numbered the 23 tank (MSW - 11, MSL - 12) and had a number of 190 people.

Tank battalions could be included in a tank brigade (staff No. 010 / 345 from 15.02.1942 g.) Of 1107 personnel, which included 46-48 tanks (in two battalions). However, in practice, the existing material part could be combined in subdivisions and units in various combinations (only states for individual tank brigades in 1941 –1942 existed at least 7).

Acquaintance with the material part of the English tank "Tetrarch". 151-I Tbr, 45-I Army of the Transcaucasian Front. March 1942


Training the crew of the MH tank is average. 21 - I tank training brigade, 1942g. (left). A group of cadets under the leadership of the young leader Pankevich for studying the American tank MZ Light (right).


Testing the interaction of tanks "Matilda" 196-th Tbr with infantry in the area of ​​the 360-th SD. Kalininsky front, 29 June 1942g.


In October, 1942 was developed and approved by the staff of the 010 / 267 Separate Guards Tank Regiment of 214 men, consisting of an 21 tank KB-1С or English heavy tanks MK.VI Churchill.

The title of "Guards" with the approval of this state was assigned immediately according to the directive on the formation of the regiment. The task of such a part is in close cooperation with infantry and artillery to break through the enemy's deep-echeloned defense.

During 1942-1943, several breakthrough tank regiments were formed in British tanks operating on various sectors of the Great Patriotic War fronts.

In addition to the breakthrough Guards Tank Regiments (regiments equipped with Churchill, sometimes referred to as the Breakthrough Heavy Tank Regiments), in 1944, separate tank regiments (staff No. 010 / 463) of army or front line submission began to form in large numbers. In their composition often included the most diverse technology, most often "Inotank". There were the following options: 11 KB-1С and ten MK.IV "Churchill" (82-th TP) or 11 М4А2 and ten "Valentine IX" (212-th TP).

In 1942, new large units began to form — tank and mechanized corps.

Tank corps began to form 31 March 1942, according to the Directive of the NKO No. 724218 ss. The corps consisted of control (staff No. 010 / 369), two tank (staff No. 010 / 345 - 010 / 352) and one motorized rifle brigade.

The hull consisted of 5603 man and 100 tanks. In 1942, foreign products were directed to the acquisition of 9, 10 and 11 TC. English and American equipment was used mainly with the Soviet tanks T-60, T-70.

The mechanized corps (of the second formation) began to re-create the 8 of September 1942 of the year according to the directive of the NKO No. 1104308 ss. The mechanized corps consisted of control, three mechanized and one tank brigades with attached units. The only corps fully equipped with foreign (English) production machines was the 5, mechanized during the period when it was engaged in combat operations as part of the South-Western Front (1943). In the future, many tank regiments of mechanized corps were equipped with American tanks M4А2.

In 1942, tank armies began to form in the USSR. By 1944, there were six of them. The composition of each army was different and established a separate directive to form, but its typical structure was established by the resolution of the State Defense Committee number 2791. The tank army consisted of a command, two tank and mechanized corps, a motorcycle regiment, a zenith-artillery division, a fighter-anti-tank artillery regiment, a howitzer artillery regiment, a mortar regiment of the guards. The total number of the tank army - 46000-48000 people, 620-654 tank, 189 self-propelled units.

As a rule, tank armies (especially towards the end of the war) were equipped with the same type of Soviet armament. But, unlike the linear parts, the attached units sometimes had foreign tanks and self-propelled guns. Thus, in the 1 th Guards Tank Army in 1944, there was a 6 th motorcycle regiment (ten Valentine IX tanks, eight SU-57, 13 Scouts, 12 Willis and 204 of the BSA, Indian) , “Harley-Davidson”) and 19 th Sabr (65 SU-57), 67-I evacuation company (two towers T-980 “Diamond”).

As for armored car and motorcycle units, the first ones were represented by reconnaissance battalions, and the second - by motorcycle battalions and individual motorcycle regiments.

During the Great Patriotic War, there were two full-time structures of armored reconnaissance battalions as part of the corps: No. 010 / 389 (20 armored personnel carriers, 12 armored vehicles, 208 people) and No. 010 / 289 (22 armored vehicles, seven T-XNXXXX vehicles, seven T-XNXXXX vehicles, seven T-XNXXXX vehicles, seven tanks). ).

For the acquisition of such units, especially in the first state, they used Scouts, less frequently half-tracked MNNXX armored personnel carriers.

Motorcycle battalions and regiments had several variants of staff organization, but the most common were the following:

a) The motorcycle battalion (staff No. 010 / 432) consisted of ten tanks (T-34 or Valentine IX), five armored vehicles, ten armored personnel carriers, 111 motorcycles, 451 people.

b) A separate motorcycle regiment (staff No. 010 / 433) consisted of ten tanks (T-34 or Valentine IX, 13 Scouts, five armored personnel carriers (М2, MK.I Universal), three armored vehicles (BA-64 ), 214 motorcycles with a population of 1188 people.

Motorcycle battalions were considered army reconnaissance corps, and motorcycle regiments were considered army reconnaissance. On the 1 of May 1945, the Red Army had four separate, 37 corps motorcycle battalions and 11 separate motorcycle regiments, armed with partly foreign-made equipment.

In June, the 1944 of the year began the formation of light self-propelled artillery brigades (Sabr), equipped with self-propelled SU-57 (T-48) installations of American production on the chassis of the half-track transporter. These compounds consisted of 60 SAU in three self-propelled artillery divisions. Each division (20 machines) had 4 batteries for 5 SU-57. The 16-i and 22-i sabr were organized according to staff number 010 / 408 and, in addition to the ACS, used British IX Valentine IX tanks as commander vehicles on 5. 19-I Sabr, formed in November 1944 of the year (staff number 010 / 508), along with 60-linear, had 5 commander SU-57. In addition, during the 1944 year, several dozen separate armored car companies were formed, consisting of six “Scouts” and a battery of four SU-57.

In addition to full-time structures, separate battalions of the SU-57 dual-battery (eight vehicles) were attached to individual motorcycle regiments and battalions, as well as other units.

According to the directive of the General Staff of the Red Army (No. 3 / 306747 of 22.03.1944), the 1223 and 1239 units of the tank battalions were reorganized into self-propelled artillery regiments with the same numbering. Equipped with American-made S10 ACSs, these regiments consisted of 21 ACSs in each regiment (staff No. 010 / 484). Due to the small number of machines supplied (52 pieces), these were the only parts equipped with this kind of equipment.

Almost immediately after the start of operation of the Allied armored vehicles in the Red Army, the question arose of organizing its repair in the USSR. To this end, in December 1941 in Moscow, repair base number 82 was formed, and in 1942-1943, repair bases of number 12 (Baku, and then Saratov), ​​No. 66 (Kuibyshev, then Tbilisi), № 97 (Gorky). Repair of armored personnel carriers from 1943 of the year was carried out by the Rembaz No. 2 (Moscow), and foreign-made motorcycles organized by the Rembaz No. 1944 in Kiev at the beginning of the 135 of the year. The largest was the Rembaz No. 97, organized in June 1942. She served not only the combat units, but also the training units of the Gorky tank training center and put in order the equipment coming under the lend-lease. Only in January-March 1943 of the repbase was repaired with major, average and current repairs and transferred to the troops of 415 tanks (“Matilda” - 61, “Valentine” - 23, MH average - 161, MZ light -126, “Sherman” - 39 , “Churchill” - 5) and 14 BTR “Universal”. In total, during the war, the repair bases were repaired only with the overhaul of 2407 foreign-made tanks.

Thus, during the Great Patriotic War in the USSR, a system of training units was quickly created for training “Inotank” crews; special staffs were developed that included foreign equipment in battles (especially in the second half of the war), according to their tactical and technical characteristics and design features, as well as an effective system for restoring damaged machines.

The machine gunners under the command of the l.M.Lensky master the English BTR "Universal". South-Western Front, July 1942.


Lend-Lease Tanks. Preparation, completing and staffing structure of parts
MZ light tanks "Suvorov" and MH average "For Stalin" from the 241 tbr with the assault of machine gunners on exercises before the battles. District of Stalingrad, October 1942g.
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Articles from this series:
Lend-Lease Tanks. Agreements and supply lines for BTT
Lend-Lease Tanks. Volumes and modifications
Lend-Lease Tanks. Preparation, completing and staffing structure of parts
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  1. svp67
    svp67 April 4 2013 09: 13 New
    +3
    Class !!! And more ... fellow
  2. avt
    avt April 4 2013 09: 16 New
    +3
    Good level good and photos are well selected. Interesting article +
  3. Vovka levka
    Vovka levka April 4 2013 11: 23 New
    +3
    For more such articles, the analysis is good.
  4. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi April 4 2013 16: 57 New
    +3
    Thanks. I enjoyed the level of the article sincerely.
  5. yurta2013
    yurta2013 1 May 2013 11: 50 New
    0
    It is a pity our Stalinists do not like to read such articles. Maybe a lot would be understood differently.