Military Review

Is the Board of the “Chosen Rada” a good or evil for Russia? Part of 2

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Ivan Semyonovich Peresvetov, a native of the West Russian lands, was an experienced soldier and a participant in a number of military conflicts in Europe. At the end of 1538 or the beginning of 1539, he traveled to Russia through Moldova. He fought on the eastern frontiers of Russia, against the Kazan Tatars. He was close to the relatives of the queen, Zakharyin. On the basis of his combat experience, he advanced the idea of ​​manufacturing new type of shields - large shields to protect soldiers from the arrows of Tatar troops, and it was possible to fire back and prepare counterattacks under their cover. Boyar M. Zakharyin even organized an experienced workshop for the manufacture of these shields.


During the reign of Shuisky, a nobleman Peresvetov was among the victims, suffered a lot of insults from the boyars, was deprived of his estate and all his property. Apparently, Peresvetov handed over his writings (“two books”) to the tsar at the end of 1549 through relatives of the sovereign. Peresvetov, speaking as a critic of the boyars and protectors of the "warriors", that is, the nobility. According to Peresvetov, promotion should have been in accordance with personal service, and not “breed.” Peresvetov was a participant in the wars with the Turks, so he studied their military and administrative orders well. For a model, he took the control system of the Ottoman Empire, which at that time was experiencing its heyday. He noted in the Ottomans strict justice, caring for service people, who hold power. In “The Tale of Magmet Saltan”, the author draws the image of an ideal and wise ruler, who must be strict to the nobles (Peresvetov called for the royal “thunderstorm”), and rely on the serving class. The warrior, who apparently was a very well-read man, described the experience of the death of the Byzantine Empire, which died because of the diminishing role of autocratic power, squabbling nobles and social injustice. He noted that the Greeks were religious people, but did not fulfill the will of God, therefore their power fell under the onslaught of the Muslims. He made a very dangerous conclusion for that time: “God loves not faith - the truth,” and “if there is no truth, then there is nothing.” Thus, Peresvetov argued that "truth" is higher than "faith."

Peresvetov was first and foremost a practitioner; he was forced to take a big grudge against injustice with his pen. He pointed out that good wishes are not enough, hard, constant work is needed to achieve the "truth". Human evil was supposed to stop the "Tsar of the Storm". “It is not for sure the king without being a thunderstorm; like a horse under a king without a bridle, and a kingdom without a thunderstorm. " Peresvetov proposed to the tsar a draft of reforms aimed at strengthening the state. An important role in it was played by the ideas of strengthening Russia's defense capability. The king was asked to create a guard and a permanent army, which was supposed to feed on the war, following the example of the ancient Romans. The main attack Peresvetov proposed to send to the east and south, to conquer the fragments of the Horde, Kazan, Astrakhan and Crimean Khanate. What is interesting is that in Peresvetov it gives out not only a warrior, but also a very educated person, he attached great importance to books and philosophical “wisdom”. The king was supposed to be an "enlightened monarch." In addition, Peresvetov opposed the existence of servility and bondage, believing that slaves could not fully serve the sovereign.

A completely different point of view was presented to the tsar by a Russian writer and publicist, the Pskov monk Ermolai-Yerazm. He apparently was a member of the “academy” of Metropolitan Macarius, who did a great job in creating the biographies of Russian saints. His most important journalistic work is the treatise “The Ruler of the Benevolent King”. Researchers date this work to the middle of the 16 century. In this work, a monk who was apparently from a peasant environment or rural clergy suggested that the sovereign undertake a series of socio-economic reforms. The author argued that at the heart of everything lies peasant labor. "All the land is king and to the common people of those works we feed." According to him, the peasantry suffers excessive deprivation, it is ruined by large taxes and the arbitrariness of the chiefs. The peasants are the most oppressed by the boyars. Yermolai-Erazm calls upon the sovereign to take action for the benefit of the whole of Russian society - “to the well-being of all that exist under him, not only with his hedgehog about managing the cave, but even to the last”. His works trace the combination of the theme of mercy and Christian love with condemnation and hostility toward the boyars. The monk proposed to carry out reforms in the system of taxation and land management.

Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich carefully studied these works and further reforms showed that many of the ideas of the writers were adopted by him. Therefore, it cannot be said that the “Elected is glad” was the main initiator of the reforms, the will of the people was expressed by its most enlightened and wise representatives.

Ivan IV

The king tried not to deceive people's expectations. One and a half years of work were crowned with the adoption of the Code of Laws in June 1550. Law Code of Ivan IV was the only source of law that eliminated the confusion in the legislative acts. The new collection of laws limited the power of governors and volost on the ground, the case of "about guided robbers" was transferred to the jurisdiction of the labial chiefs. As a result, the lip reform initiated under Elena Glinskaya was continued. The lip reform received a legal justification. Nobles were to elect in each county where the Lab Authority was established, from their class the labial chiefs. Zemstvo elders and kisses were elected in the cities, they tried together with the governors. And in the "black lands" (state), black-nosy peasants elected zemstvo heads ("favorite heads"). Governors, volostely and all the other rulers whom the king appointed to cities and volosts could no longer be judged without the participation of elected representatives of the population: the court, the elders and the best people of the local black-peasant peasant community. In addition, each community was supposed to have not only its elected people and elders at the trial, but also its clergyman, he led the parish people to the court. Thus, under Ivan Vasilyevich, the reform of local self-government was set in motion. The security of ordinary people has been enhanced. For the first time in Russia, and throughout Europe, responsibility for bribes was introduced.

Moreover, the Code of Law of Ivan IV for the first time in Europe ensured the inviolability of the person! For comparison, in Britain, the law on personal immunity was adopted only in 1677 year. Now the governor did not have the right to arrest a person without presenting evidence of his guilt to the local warden and two kisses. At that time, the officials who were elected by the local government in the counties and on the suburbs for the fulfillment of judicial, financial and police functions were called the clerks. The chosen person swore to perform his duties honestly and, in confirmation of the oath, he kissed the cross, hence the name of the position. If there was no evidence, the warden could have released the arrested person and even took a penalty from the administration for “dishonor”. Confirmed the right to release a person from punishment with a reliable guarantee. Severe crimes are now solved only in Moscow. Without a report to the sovereign, the governors did not have the right to "tatya and a murderer and every dashing person ... neither sell, nor execute, nor let go."

Law Code of Ivan IV provided for tax reform, instead of household taxation (it was beneficial to large owners), it was introduced for the amount of land. For this organized land census. The previous Tarkhan letters, which exempted the owners from paying taxes, were annulled. Tarkhany were banned. Feudal landowners were deprived of the right of free trade. They deprived them of trade duties, which the princes and the boyars collected from their possessions. Elena Glinskaya also began a centralized ransom of prisoners from the Tatars, and Ivan Vasilyevich translated this on a permanent basis. To save people from the field, a special tax was set up - “polonyanichnye money.”

Revised and duties peasants. The heaviest of them were Yamskaya and the “staff” - the peasants, at the first request of the authorities, had to give up all the work, to allocate horses, carts, to engage in postal or military transport. The conscription was replaced by a monetary contribution, and among the volunteers began to hire professional coachmen, who received a salary and kept stations with horses.

There have been major changes in the social sphere. The rights of the service class were expanded as proposed by Peresvetov. The transition of service people into enslaving servitude was forbidden. The relations between the feudal lords and dependent peasants were regulated in detail. The Yuryev Day was legally established (November 26 (December 9)), the right of free transfer of peasants was confirmed. By this time, the annual cycle of agricultural work was completed, the peasants carried out calculations on monetary and in-kind obligations in favor of their owners and on state taxes, and received the right to switch to another feudal lord. In the Code of Law it was directly stated that, apart from the payment for the “elderly” and the “carriage”, there are no other duties. The owner had no right to withhold the peasant who paid the two duties. At the same time, the Code of Laws interfered with the forcible conversion of peasants into serfs. The rights of peasants in local government and participation in public processes were expanded. Elected representatives of peasant communities became involved in the investigation and legal proceedings. Now, the governors, neither by the court nor before the court, could not arrest the peasant without the consent of the communal elected commanders (elders and the kisses).

Is the Board of the “Chosen Rada” a good or evil for Russia? Part of 2

A. F. Adashev at the Monument "1000 Anniversary of Russia" in Veliky Novgorod.

Military reform

The reforms affected not only the judicial, tax and social sphere. Many flaws existed in the military field. In the same year 1550 began to carry out reforms in the armed forces. In the military reform, the influence of the tsar’s impressions was very clearly seen in the time of the last Kazan campaigns, when part of the failures were connected with local disputes by the governor. The verdict of the king and the Boyar Duma ordered and limited localism. A clear hierarchy of voivodship places in the regiments was established - the Great, the Right and the Left Hand, the Advance and the Watchdog. It was noted that the order of precedence should be considered only in direct submission. Between those who were not subordinate to each other, localism was not allowed. Territorialism was also canceled during the fighting. Young aristocrats were freed from the local rules. They began their service in 14 - 16 had no military or managerial experience, but the aristocrats considered it to be a loss for their honor to obey someone. Now it was established that they should obey the less high-born, but military leaders who had combat experience, and this was not considered a damage to their honor.

The weak point of the Russian army was infantry, there were no regular units. She was recruited from militia gathered along the way. By decree of the sovereign, the first regular units began to be formed - archers, gunners. 3 thsd. "Elective" (i.e. the best, specially selected) food pickers have been credited with the archers. They received from the treasury a salary of 4 rubles. in year, weapon. They were settled in a separate suburb next to the royal residence in Vorobiev. In October 1550, it was decided to create a selective royal guard. 1 thousand "best" children of boyars were recruited into it. As a salary, they were allocated estates in the circumference of 70 versts from the capital. They had to be constantly with the king, protected him, carried out the sovereign's instructions. In addition, this select one thousand was a kind of "school" for command personnel. Part of Peresvetov's proposals were implemented.

True, it was not possible to fully transfer the army to a salary of money, there was no money to implement this idea. There were no silver and gold mines in Russia - silver was obtained through trade. It did not turn out to create a guard either - they scored a thousand boyars' children easily, but could not “find” the land. Land ownership near Moscow was long and firmly divided.

Church Reform

Another area where it was necessary to restore order was church affairs. Not so long ago, the Russian state became united, and in church customs, rites, and in various lands, its own features remained. In some places the order of service was violated. Monastic statutes differed among themselves. Some monasteries were addicted to money matters, gave money and grain to growth, and took land for debts. Notable people, who in their old age were tonsured as monks, were obviously not a monastic way of life, had servants, lived in luxury, did not deny themselves food and wine. It is clear that these phenomena could cause dangerous thoughts in people, become a breeding ground for heresies.

This problem was to be resolved by the Sanctified 1551 Cathedral of the Year. It was held in Moscow from February 23 to May 11 in the Assumption Cathedral of the Kremlin, with the participation of Emperor Ivan Vasilievich, the highest clergy and representatives of the Boyar Duma. The decisions of the cathedral were expressed in 100 chapters, so it was called Stoglavy.

During it, a dispute broke out between the Josephites and the non-besiegers, the conflict over church property. The champion of non-possession was Sylvester. However, he did not dare to directly conflict with the Metropolitan. Therefore, as an "weapon" drew the elder Artemy the Hermit. By the patronage of the “Elected Rada” of the “Hermit”, they appointed at one stroke the high and honorable post of hegumen of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery. Artemy and Sylvester began to push the decision on the secularization of monastic lands.

As a result, the decision took a compromise. Church and monastic property was preserved and recognized inviolable. But in favor of the treasury, the lands transferred by the boyars during the infancy of Ivan Vasilyevich, and also taken by the monasteries from the children of the boyar and peasant communities by “violence”, for debts, were seized. This was illegal, since the lands of the children of the boyars (service people) and black-nosy peasants belonged to the state. The further increment of church possessions in the cities was restricted and the purchase of patrimonial possessions by monasteries without a report to the king was prohibited. Usury among priests was forbidden.

The Council also approved the Code of Laws. Carried out the unification of rites and norms of church life. Usury and drunkenness among the clergy were strictly forbidden. One of the most important decisions of the Stoglavy Sobor was the approval in the dioceses and large monasteries of schools, they taught not only future priests, but also secular persons. This was the beginning of the creation of a centralized and extensive education system.


Sylvester on the Monument "1000 Anniversary of Russia" in Veliky Novgorod.
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Articles from this series:
The Board of the "Elected Rada" - good or evil for Russia?
Is the Board of the “Chosen Rada” a good or evil for Russia? Part of 2
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  1. knn54
    knn54 April 4 2013 15: 29
    0
    Thanks to competent transformations, the king ascended over the boyars and became a real autocrat. Adashev and the rest of the reformers began to interfere with him. In addition, during the illness of Ivan in 1553, Adashev and Sylvester were inclined to ensure that in the event of the death of the tsar, not his son, who was in infancy, but his cousin, Vladimir Andreevich Staritsky, would be enthroned. whom the king considered a dangerous rival. Having learned about this a few years later, the king considered the actions of his entourage treason.
  2. Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx April 4 2013 15: 58
    +1
    Thanks to the author. Very informative and patriotic!