Military Review

Fantasies - to serve the country and the army

The article was prepared based on the report of the public council under the chairman of the military-industrial complex “Fund for Advanced Studies in the System of Defense Innovations”.

The beginning of 2010, in the opinion of many scientists, is the stage of the birth of a new technological order based on discoveries in the fields of biotechnology, nanotechnology, new materials, information and communication and cognitive technologies. The advantage of the new structure compared with the previous one, according to the forecast, will consist in a sharp decrease in the energy intensity and material intensity of production, in the design of materials and organisms with predetermined properties.

Active research is being conducted in these areas in the USA, Europe, Japan, and China. Due to the development of a complex of technologies of a new way, each of the countries hopes to get ahead in the technology race and be the first to introduce them into industry and public institutions, which would be a guarantee of economic leadership and military superiority over the next half century.

It is obvious that Russia has seriously lagged behind the development leaders in the field of modern industrial technologies. But in the case of technologies of a new way of life that do not yet have wide industrial implementation, the very fact of this lag is not fatal. The natural solution for the country is to concentrate available resources on the development of technologies that will ensure its leadership the day after tomorrow.

At the moment when the new technological order, the contours of which today are only groping, will become a reality.

At the same time, it is important to understand: we need to concentrate our efforts on advanced, that is, high-risk studies, not at all because we have an increased propensity to take risks. But rather, on the contrary, because we must eliminate for ourselves an unacceptable risk - the likelihood of a sharp, unfavorable for Russia, shift in the military-strategic balance due to a new generation of technologies coming to the fore. We should not repeat the mistakes of the notorious arms race during the Cold War, but we can avoid participation in the military technology race that has already begun, only at the price of an unacceptably high probability of disappearance from the political map of the world.

Many of the technologies that yesterday occupied the imagination of science fiction - high-precision / selective biomedical weapon, elements of artificial intelligence, creating a new quality of cybertechnologies and management of robotic communities, and so on - today should be concerned about government officials. And especially in Russia - a country that, on the one hand, has something to lose in the global struggle for resources, but on the other hand, it has not yet succeeded in taking reliable positions on the "technological frontier".


Skeptics will say: you need to live to see the anxieties and concerns of the day after tomorrow. And they will be right. Already today, low intensity conflicts around the perimeter of the borders exhaust us. It disturbs the military disparity in the Far East, where Russia is extremely weak not only economically but also militarily, which cannot but affect its status and bargaining position even in the absence of a direct military threat. The answer to these challenges can and should be the development of traditional weapons platforms and production technologies, that is, today's weapons, and de facto yesterday, given the natural inertia in industry and equipment of the Armed Forces.

To parry the already stated, actual, and not hypothetical threats, the complex development of almost all branches of the defense industry is necessary. Speaking of scientific and technical tasks, we can single out several groups of the most important military technologies, the development of which must be supported by placing them on the principle of reduced competence.

1. High competency groups. In these groups, Russia possesses almost the entire set of necessary technologies that ensure independent development of industries with non-critical dependence on imports or the absence of such dependence, and has the potential to improve and develop its potential. In this set: combat aviation and rocketry and technology, the production of engines for military aircraft; non-carrier combat surface ships, submarines; medium and heavy armored combat vehicles; air defense and missile defense systems of all ranges.

2. Groups of insufficient / partially lost competence. In these groups, Russia does not have sufficient potential for completely independent design or production of equipment and essential components, and is forced to rely on foreign partners. This occurs in cases where the relevant research and production centers remained abroad during the division of the USSR, primarily in Ukraine, or in cases where the relevant areas were not sufficiently developed from the outset. In some cases, the lack of competence resulted from the degradation of Russian production associations and design bureaus in the post-Soviet period. These groups include: helicopters and equipment for them; production of helicopter engines; military transport aircraft, commercial aircraft; motor vehicles, light armored combat vehicles, production of low and medium power diesel engines, gearboxes; communications and control equipment for ground forces; unmanned aerial vehicles of the light and middle class, unmanned underwater vehicles, ground robots, engines and equipment for them; small arms, infantry equipment, personal protective equipment; ground cannon artillery systems; aircraft carriers, control ships, universal landing ships; air independent power plants for non-nuclear submarines; spacecraft.

3. Low competence groups. In these groups, Russia either has never had high competencies, or degradation has acquired a systemic scale that calls into question the ability to develop relevant production and development: electronic component base; optical systems; turboprop engines for light-class helicopters and light aircraft; composite materials; UAV heavy class drums UAV.

Technological lag in groups of low and insufficient competence cannot be compensated for simply by buying ready-made technologies and turn-key technological lines. Buy turnkey, you can, as a rule, only "screwdriver technology." At the same time, a policy of technological borrowing in these industries is possible and necessary. It should focus on the full transfer of technology through its development. The transfer of technology implies the possibility, in cooperation with foreign technology centers, to improve it on the basis of its own engineering solutions. If such a solution was developed and implemented in collaboration with representatives of fundamental science, engineering groups, university centers, then we can say that the transfer of technology has been made and it is included in the Russian technological base. One of the approaches to full-fledged technology transfer is the entry into the capital of small and medium-sized innovative companies abroad that carry out research and development for large businesses.

In high competence groups, the current situation can be described by the term “technological barrier”. All developers and manufacturers of weapons from the advanced military-technological countries of the world run into it. The rising cost of military development does not guarantee a proportional growth in the capabilities of the new technology, there is a decrease in return from each invested ruble (or dollar). The cost of aircraft with each generation is growing by an order of magnitude. This leads to an increase in the life cycle of vehicles (the first generation of combat aircraft stayed in the 5 – 7 series for years, the second - 10 – 15, the third - 15 – 20, the fourth generation airplanes created by 30 – 40 years ago remain in the series to this day ) and increase the role of work on the modernization of existing equipment.

The problem of the technological barrier is most relevant to US science and industry. But the EU and Japan are facing the same barrier, and Russia is approaching it. However, in many positions for us it is still ahead. This is a valuable opportunity - to eliminate the backlog that has accumulated in the post-Soviet years from the leader without overstraining and nerves. It is only necessary to choose the key areas correctly, allocate resources and use the so-called “backwardness benefits”: the ability to carry out selective technological borrowing and “cut corners”, that is, not to mechanically repeat the trajectory of the pioneers, but to go to the same targets in a more economical way.

In other words, a catch-up modernization in the framework of traditional technologies and weapon platforms is today possible and necessary. However, it must be clearly understood that it serves the needs of today and cannot be the main stake in development issues. The desire to repeat the success of leaders in the development of industrial technologies that have already been developed will select much more strength and resources than the struggle for leadership in the technologies of a new way.


Prospective technologies are concentrated in five main areas of application: human technology, network technology, robotics, transport, energy.

In the last three positions, Russian specifics are important. As the largest and underdeveloped country, Russia needs efficient “distance reduction” technologies. As a country with bulky and centralized energy systems that are extremely vulnerable in the context of modern wars, Russia needs the development of autonomous energy. Finally, as a country relatively sparsely populated, a country with a very long and turbulent southern border, Russia needs the maximum possible automation and robotization in both industry and military construction.
Let us give several examples of promising areas of scientific and technical research, where practical results can be achieved in the near future.

1. Human technology - the creation of advanced biomedical technologies that can prevent human death as a result of injuries, diseases or infections - from diagnosis to recovery or even complete reconstruction of tissues and organs of the body. Perspective development directions:
- management of the genome - the creation of technologies to manage the ability of a person to survive in extreme conditions due to the activation of existing regulation mechanisms in his own genome;
- artificial blood - the creation of a technology for the industrial production of safe and non-toxic artificial blood, identical to donor blood, due to the controlled differentiation of human stem cells;
- organ bioengineering - creation of technologies for growing organs and tissues from human cells using the method of recreating a natural organ when existing biomedical technologies are already powerless: in cases of loss of vital organs as a result of injuries, infections or the development of malignant neoplasms.

2. Robotics technologies - the creation of equipment capable of performing a wide range of mechanical operations, observing and delivering payloads to any point on Earth, including miniature manipulations, high-altitude movements and underwater operations. Perspective development directions:
- deep-sea autonomous robot - creating a deep-sea autonomous robot with a superlong active operation time for servicing cables and surveying the ocean floor, with the possibility of transmitting data on command using a high-speed long-distance acoustic system;
- exoskeleton / power armor - the creation of an exoskeleton that enhances a person’s muscular strength and facilitates the performance of heavy work - unloading, loading, repair. In the future - the creation of an autonomous power armor, providing a sharp increase in the combat load of the fighter and increase its security;
- a high-altitude UAV - the creation of a high-altitude unmanned reconnaissance and target designation system of a super-long locking time (up to 1 of the year), using its hyperspectral portrait for target recognition.

3. Network technologies - operating with a set of objects, tools and systems as a single managed space, in particular, converging information (C4ISR + technologies), developing technical means of communication, intelligence and information processing, as well as means of scientific and technical intelligence, socio-cultural analysis and Internet technologies. Perspective development directions:
- neurohybrid pattern recognition chip - the creation of a neurochip based on the culture of animal nerve cells of animal embryos for data processing systems with a large number of sensors and cameras capable of learning and expanding computing power;
- integrated network technologies and intelligent networks for managing robots - creating technologies for operating a set of objects, tools and systems as a single managed space, in particular - mixing information (C4ISR + technology), developing technical means of communication, tactical intelligence and information processing, as well as data of the results of heterogeneous means of monitoring and observation, forecasts and modeling.

4. Energy - ensuring the autonomy of existing and promising technology, improving the efficiency of power plants, energy storage. Perspective development directions:
- wireless transmission of electricity - the creation of technologies for the transmission of electrical energy without the use of conductive elements in an electrical circuit. Increases autonomy of existing equipment and infrastructure;
- ionistors and redox-batteries - development and implementation of technologies allowing to ensure high speed of charging devices and technical devices;
- power plants based on biofuels and “associated heat” - the development and implementation of systems that maximize the use of organic waste energy and renewable resources (plants), as well as the associated heat of existing industrial and energy systems.

5. Transport - the creation of technologies that allow people and means of destruction to move in space through even faster air travel, massive space flights, as well as the most secure and autonomous movements on the ground. Perspective development directions:
- hypersonic aircraft - the creation of an aircraft capable of flying in the atmosphere with hypersonic speed and over long distances;
- electromagnetic catapult - the creation of the installation, alternative to the jet engine, to accelerate objects with the help of electromagnetic forces;
- space elevator - the creation of a cable transportation system based on the action of centrifugal force will reduce the cost of delivering cargo to the geostationary orbit by several orders of magnitude and from there to Earth.

Achievements of high scientific results in critical technologies will provide a breakthrough to a completely new technological level. Accordingly, any efforts beyond critical technologies can only have a temporary effect, which is not critical in the future. This is precisely what distinguishes the defense research programs of leading countries, on the one hand, and countries of the second and third world, on the other. While the latter are improving traditional weapons and security platforms, the former are increasingly focused on breakthrough critical security technologies.

If Russia misses time, the consequences can be difficult: the lag in these sectors will have to be made up for decades, while qualitative changes can provide the enemy with an overwhelming superiority in combat capability and, as a result, undermine the capabilities of the Russian Armed Forces to protect the sovereignty and integrity of the country, the lives and freedoms of its citizens.


The spheres of equipment of the armed forces and industry are very inertial, they naturally act as supporters of the status quo and are interested, as a rule, only in improving and modernizing traditional weapons platforms. Therefore, special institutes are sometimes created for the tasks of advanced development, designed to at least partially redirect the system of defense R & D from the past, that is, from servicing existing platforms, to the future.

In the US, it is the world famous DARPA. In Israel, the Directorate for the Development of Armaments and Industrial Technical Infrastructure (MAFAT), as well as the Office of the Chief Scientist (VSU) of the Israel Industrial Technology Ministry, is a unique institution designed to plan science and technology policy in promising areas. In France, the General Directorate of Armaments (DGA) is the main state-owned investor in the technology field of tomorrow. In the PRC, the State Administration of Defense Science, Technology, and Industry (GUONTP, SASTIND).

Each of these institutions is unique, but they have common features that should be present in the Russian counterpart: high communication activity, in which broad sectors of the scientific, technical and business community are involved in the projects, including international cooperation programs; high level of competition in the development and flexibility of organizational forms; high rate of change of technological paradigms and susceptibility to new knowledge.

Russia has created a similar tool aimed at supporting the development of advanced technologies and developments - the Advanced Research Foundation (PFD). The Foundation has an obvious difference from the listed institutions. The same DARPA exists in a developed defense research and development support system. The US military has subordinate hundreds of research and development units aimed at solving current problems. We do not have such a system today. Already at the start of work, the managers of the Fund will have to face the problem of the research and production base. While foreign counterparts are now working in the finished infrastructure of innovation.


Ideas of advanced development often cause skepticism among observers, and it is quite natural. However, skeptics often do not take into account that different spheres of science and technology sometimes exist in different times. There are systems that in Russian conditions are very far behind the average level of Western countries, but there are institutions and systems that lead in the development of knowledge and even technological solutions. This heterogeneity of the development space should be taken into account by the technological policy of the state. The experience of managing “leading” activity systems can become a model in terms of the formation of the basic framework of the national innovation system.

Research by the Center for Science Statistics under the leadership of Dmitry Rubwalter revealed about 80 areas of scientific knowledge in which the level of Russian scientists exceeds the world average (studies were conducted on the basis of the citation index and in fairly wide areas). In the course of work on the report on the concept of development of the Advanced Research Foundation, the authors of these lines had the opportunity to see that many scientists and developers who are held in leadership positions in their fields have much to offer to military science and the defense industry.

In other words, in the Russian practice-oriented science there are sprouts of the future that can develop not only into new technologies, but also into new industries. However, this development rests on a number of barriers. If for a long time there was a shortage of funds, today other problems are coming to the fore.

1. The absence of a single body regulating the technological policy of the state. Not a single state structure is capable of simultaneously setting scientific and technical tasks, planning their implementation, and supporting work until a specific result is achieved. The lack of a target order in the scientific and technical sphere, interdepartmental and supra-departmental coordination makes the support of science unsuccessful. In this situation, a slight improvement in existing technologies is possible, but the formation of a new technological agenda and its translation in the form of specific requirements for technical developments is hardly possible.

2. The decline of applied science and the lack of a developed system of defense research and development. In the USSR, there was a powerful network of applied institutes, design institutes that carried out research and development, as well as the SCST system responsible for the quality of development. It was in these institutes that the R & D was conducted, which ensured the advancement from basic research to practical use. This network was the most destroyed in the post-Soviet period. While the fundamental science in Russia in the post-Soviet period continued to receive government funding and somehow survive, the branch science (research institutes, design bureaus, university laboratories), designed to develop prototypes and adapt them to implementation, gradually degraded. In the case of defense research, the matter is exacerbated by the legacy of the “Serdyukov” reforms: the notorious optimization has particularly sharply affected the teams of defense research institutes and universities.

3. Underdevelopment and inflexibility of contracting mechanisms in the field of R & D. Procedural flaws are the result of substantive ones: working for reporting, and not for result, is closely related to the lack of practice of setting scientific and technical tasks, with the inability of the state to form a specific and correct target order for the development of technologies. Among the problems in this area are often mentioned: restrictions on the executors, when the contract is formally concluded with the organization, and the role of the project manager is insignificant (with the exception of RFBR grants, where agreements are worked out directly with the researcher), the tendency towards contract unification case, for example, in matters of intellectual property rights), the opacity of competitive procedures.

4. Lack of pre-venture financing mechanisms. Representatives of venture capital in Russia complain about the lack of interesting investment tools. Scientists and developers - for a lack of investment. In addition to the natural professional aberration of vision, this mismatch of perspectives also has an objective reason: most of the developments simply do not get a chance to reach the stage when they may become interesting to venture capital. Available financial instruments come into effect only after the prospect of commercialization of the development. Up to this point, other forms of innovation support are needed, mostly related to the scientific and technological ordering mechanisms existing in most developed countries at the level of the state and / or corporations. In the Russian Federation, similar mechanisms are missing or are in their infancy. The state-owned development institutions, Rosnano, RVC and others, do not solve this problem.

5. Lack of domestic technology market. Insufficient demand for new technologies from Russian corporations is associated with objective, systemic reasons, and not only with a low level of entrepreneurial culture. The assets of Russian corporations belong primarily to obsolete structures. Under these conditions, it is difficult to develop high-tech productions capable of competing in the civilian market with the products of Western corporations, and such examples are still extremely rare.


The problems and risks listed above are not only limitations of the external environment that will have to be taken into account in the operation of the FPI. These are the challenges that the project must answer. Of course, the Fund cannot solve all the problems listed nationwide, but it can and should solve them on the scale of its own activities.

First of all, according to its design, the Foundation is intended to be an instrument of target order from the state in the field of science and technology policy. And potentially - a mechanism for coordinating priority inter-specific, interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral scientific and technical research projects across departmental boundaries. An important element of its activities should be not only the order and financing of development, but also their support at subsequent stages of the life cycle, up to the introduction into production / arming. In many cases, it is not so much financial resources that will be important as the project’s status as a priority, trustworthy one, which would allow, with less friction, coordination in various government agencies.

Secondly, the Foundation is focused on supporting research and development at complex and vulnerable stages of the innovation cycle - the transition from developments embodied, as a rule, in experimental single devices to full-fledged technology.

Thirdly, the organizational and legal form of the Fund, established aside from the departmental R & D system, creates additional freedom of action in making decisions and organizing procedures. The Foundation can afford not only to formally execute instructions and regulations, but also, the only one in the entire infrastructure of defense research, to disregard red tape, discard prejudices and do just that for the good of the cause.

In other words, the very idea of ​​the Foundation, expressed in the law, creates a unique opportunity to fill those gaps in the national innovation system, which do not allow to reveal the potential of advanced developments. Replenish - at least in relation to a limited number of priority defense projects. But often it is the experience of individual projects that allows you to go to system solutions. From Soviet stories One can recall the experience of the Special Committee for the management of work on atomic energy and the First Main Directorate under the SNK / USSR Council of Ministers, as well as the committees on radar and rocket technology. These structures, created under the curtain of the Second World War, were designed to eliminate the backlog of the USSR in the development of relevant types of equipment and industries. Having accomplished this task, they served as the basis for creating not the emergency and emergency, but the basic mechanisms of scientific and technical policy in the military-industrial complex.

Of course, we do not have that amount of resources, and possibly that historical time, which are necessary to create something similar in scale to the American or Soviet system of defense R & D. But this is precisely why it is important to clearly define priorities and focus on those groups of critical technologies that are associated with qualitatively new military capabilities and, accordingly, the risks of changing the global strategic balance.

In this work, we can be inspired by the experience of global leadership projects. But we cannot and should not mechanically repeat it - this is the complexity of the game ahead of the curve. Unlike Tolstoy's “happy families”, each successful model of innovative development is successful in its own way.
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  1. avt
    avt April 3 2013 15: 12 New
    And in the picture it’s kind of a project of the Sukhov strategist who won the competition, but the theme was given to Grandfather all the same and the Tu-160 appeared. Or did you recognize it? It seems not.
    1. ShturmKGB
      ShturmKGB April 3 2013 15: 31 New
      On the picture is the aerospace plane M-19 ...
      1. Ingvald_Bueny
        Ingvald_Bueny April 3 2013 16: 45 New
        In the picture in the article, one of the options for the strategic bomber "Design Bureau named after P.O. Sukhoi" T-4MS, an integrated circuit strategist of the flying wing type.
        1. mankurt
          mankurt April 3 2013 16: 52 New
          In the picture in the article, one of the options for a strategic bomber

          such as a flying ship

          or flying locomotive

          or flying submarine

          When you don’t put into series and don’t spend money on use, all technological innovations end up like this:
          1. mankurt
            mankurt April 3 2013 18: 46 New
            Quote: mankurt

            When not to serialize and do not spend money on usingall technological innovations end:


            Any weapon must be reliable competent convenient and accurate. Otherwise, he has no place in the armed forces.
            1. elmi
              elmi April 3 2013 23: 04 New
              What a pity, so much goodness disappears. At least some components and decommissioned weapons would be sent to Syria
          2. mosgeo1
            mosgeo1 April 3 2013 19: 24 New
            Well, you are a hero, the wrong questions!
      2. angolaforever
        angolaforever April 3 2013 17: 13 New
        I think the brains of our Slavic people will always be ahead of the rest.
    2. Arkan
      Arkan April 3 2013 15: 31 New
      The Tu-160, as far as I remember, was a competitor to the T-4 or Sotka (item 100). In the photo in the article, it’s clearly not him.
      1. avt
        avt April 3 2013 16: 33 New
        Quote: Arkan
        The Tu-160, as far as I remember, was a competitor to the T-4 or Sotka

        No, I’ve interrupted the Tu-22m cell, and I talked about the strategist competition, there Myasischev also participated and his achievements were transferred to Tupolev, but Sukhoi won the competition and the project looks very much like this picture.
        1. Arkan
          Arkan April 3 2013 23: 01 New
          Quote: avt
          No, I’ve interrupted the Tu-22m cell, and I talked about the strategist competition, there Myasischev also participated and his achievements were transferred to Tupolev, but Sukhoi won the competition and the project looks very much like this picture.

          I see. Thanks!
  2. Hius-124
    Hius-124 April 3 2013 15: 47 New
    The "track" from fantastic thought to the front part must be reduced at times !!!! That's where the talent field is. hi
    1. lubin
      lubin April 3 2013 19: 48 New
      Yes, talents and nuggets more than anywhere else in Russia. That would not interfere, would work.
  3. shurup
    shurup April 3 2013 16: 03 New
    I do not like it when a newspaper calls itself independent. This is either a fiction or a cover.
    I don’t like it when the next fund starts to get closer to the budget pie, and also to the most delicious part.
    If an extrabudgetary fund can organize and tender any products without using the classic kickback system, then ... this is just a fantasy on the subject.
    In this case, after the dispersal of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation and the abolition of "academics of various sciences", including and among other breeding "academies, young scientists and engineers will be able to budge this rusty engine and turn it into a sparkling locomotive, and for the whole economy.
    If we see all familiar faces in the fund's management, then the cut is guaranteed.
    1. baltika-18
      baltika-18 April 3 2013 16: 33 New
      Quote: shurup
      I don’t like it when the next fund starts to get closer to the budget pie, and also to the most delicious part.

      Yes, in the article it all comes down to this.
      No one can cope, we need a fund. Yes, in order for everything, we just need to change the system in the country.
      To carry out nationalization, to introduce planning.
      State control over R&D and support.
      1. ziqzaq
        ziqzaq April 3 2013 16: 45 New
        Quote: baltika-18
        No one can cope, we need a fund. Yes, in order for everything, we just need to change the system in the country.

        This is for sure as long as the liberal thieves are in power only so that nothing will be able to tear off a piece from the Motherland .......
        1. zvereok
          zvereok April 3 2013 18: 52 New
          What kind of war? With Russia? Which armies? Just in Cyprus, accept the right law.
      2. sergius60
        sergius60 April 3 2013 18: 19 New
        You are an optimist, however. That is, you are proposing to give all resources to OFFICERS? "Nationalization" and "State Control" sounds beautiful. But all the PRESENT guys will steer this. "Cadres are everything." Remember the author of the quote? But IF the execution and confiscation will be returned, then "there might be" and the result will be from the OFFICIALS. There is only one small question left. Do they need it?
      3. ramzes1776
        ramzes1776 April 3 2013 21: 26 New
        Quote: baltika-18
        Nobody copes, you need a fund.

        As if this fund had not become another fund for withdrawing money from the budget. I hope this fund is not managed by comrades like Chubais or Serdyukov and K.
      4. Garrin
        Garrin April 3 2013 21: 29 New
        Quote: baltika-18
        No one can cope, we need a fund. Yes, in order for everything, we just need to change the system in the country.

        The head is Chubys, and the manager is Serdyukov. And our life will flow like a river.
    2. sergius60
      sergius60 April 3 2013 18: 08 New
      Truth, truth verb.
      Newspaper, television, this is a powerful technological process that requires energy, resources and money. And now, to twist this mechanism for the sake of the possibility of some kind of "rogue journalist" to blather YOUR OPINION? Right now. I believed it.
      The only hope is that in real elite there is an interest to fuck everyone on the "ball". Not for that they rushed UP, to carry the tails of others. The character has formed, sir, however. I won't talk about the morality of these guys. But if they decide that these new developments are a TOOL for rolling competitors into the asphalt ... Then you can clear your throat for shouts: "Glory to Russia !!!"
    3. wax
      wax April 4 2013 00: 28 New
      That's about the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation, you are in vain. It was the RAS that was first and foremost financed only so that the academicians would not die of hunger.
      The main generators of new ideas were the Grefs, Chubais, Potanins and others.

      By the mid-20s, in spite of the Civil War and the difficulties of the restoration period, more than 70 institutions were founded, which played a prominent role in the development of Soviet science. Among them: State Optical Institute (GOI, 1918, founder - D.S.Rozhdestvensky), Central Aerohydrodynamic (TsAGI, 1918; one of the organizers and first director - N. Ye. Zhukovsky). State Hydrological (1919), biological physics (1919, according to the project and under the leadership of P.P. Lazarev), biological chemistry (1920, under the leadership of A.N.Bach), for the study of the North (1920), the floating sea, which laid the foundation for the sea expeditionary work (1921), Petrograd Physics and Technology (1921, organizer and first director - A.F. Ioffe), State Radium (1922, according to the project and under the leadership of V.I. Vernadsky), etc.
      By the beginning of 1941, 167 scientific institutions (78 institutes and their associations) worked as part of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, including the Geological Institute (1930), the Institute of Physical Chemistry (1931), and the V.I. P.N. Lebedeva (FIAN; 1934, supervisor S.I. Vavilov), Institute of Organic Chemistry (1934, supervisor A.E. Favorsky and N.D. Zelinsky), Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (1934, supervisor N.S. Kurnakov), the Institute for Physical Problems (1934, supervisor P. L. Kapitsa), the Institute of Theoretical Geophysics (1938, supervisor O. Yu. Schmidt) and many others.
      During the war, the issues of organizing research were decided by the Scientific and Technical Council under the authorized GKO for science. The network of scientific research institutes and laboratories continued to grow: in 1941–45, 240 new scientific institutions were created; among them: institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences - Pacific (1942) and crystallography (1943), laboratories of volcanology, helminthology, etc. The USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (1944) and the RSFSR Academy of Pedagogical Sciences (1943) were founded. Intense work in the field of important national economic and theoretical problems contributed to the further development of scientific research activities in the field. During the war, the Academy of Sciences was created in Georgia (1941), Armenia (1943), Uzbekistan (1943), Azerbaijan (1945). The network of scientific institutions in Siberia grew. By the end of the war, 15 higher educational institutions and 19 research institutes worked here. Scientific institutions of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR were organized in a number of regions of the country: West Siberian (1943), Kirghiz (1943) and Kazan (1945) branches, a base in the Komi ASSR (1944). The USSR won the war largely thanks to the scientific developments of Soviet scientists.
      The same strained after the war.
      The result is known - parity in the latest weapons. And for a quarter of a century we have been drawing from the storerooms of Soviet science and technology. A huge time.
      And you are talking about work "on the knee". Where should they work, young scientists and engineers, in which scientific schools to gain knowledge and experience? They wipe their feet about science. And you go there. As for the "academicians" of self-invented and proliferating academies, yes, they should be prohibited from using the titles and titles adopted and used in the RAS. In the Russian Academy of Sciences, a scientist cannot be elected without a Ph.D. degree, and in homegrown "academies" one can be an academician without any academic degrees and contributions to science only on the basis of a monetary contribution to this "academy" or positions with access to budget money.
  4. VadimSt
    VadimSt April 3 2013 16: 05 New
    The root of evil is that having set ambitious goals for the revival of Russia, the government does not dare to go for reprivatization. It is no secret that in 80-90, the “red director’s corps”, together with the “crooks from the authorities”, pulled out the most technological, profitable and promising structures from the structure of state enterprises. The remaining structures were left "for starters" to the state, or brought to bankruptcy - with the subsequent purchase of the second wave by the invaders.

    The consequences are known - the ground for exorbitant corruption, lobbying for injections of state funds for the modernization of private and joint structures, the practically destroyed system of securing state secrets, the uncontrolled drain of brains, technologies, the collapse of industrial potential, etc.
    1. ShturmKGB
      ShturmKGB April 3 2013 16: 10 New
      The central bank needs to be taken under control of either the president or the government, otherwise it turns out according to the constitution and federal laws. is independent from these organs!
      1. sergius60
        sergius60 April 3 2013 18: 22 New
        June is not far. We'll see. There are suspicions that VVP is planning something like that.
      2. Viking
        Viking April 3 2013 18: 23 New
        The central bank must be taken under the control of either the president or the government, otherwise it turns out, according to the constitution and federal laws, it is independent of these bodies!

        It is not worth repeating what is written in the headings of any referential articles.

        Article 5. The Bank of Russia is accountable to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation.
        The State Duma:
        appoints and dismisses the Chairman of the Bank of Russia on the proposal of the President of the Russian Federation;
        appoints and dismisses members of the Board of Directors of the Bank of Russia (hereinafter referred to as the Board of Directors) on the proposal of the Chairman of the Bank of Russia, agreed with the President of the Russian Federation
        sends and recalls representatives of the State Duma to the National Banking Council within the framework of its quota;
        considers the main directions of a unified state monetary policy and makes a decision on them;
        considers the annual report of the Bank of Russia and makes a decision on it;
        decides on the verification by the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation of the financial and economic activities of the Bank of Russia, its structural divisions and institutions. The specified decision can be made only on the basis of a proposal by the National Banking Council;
        holds parliamentary hearings on the activities of the Bank of Russia with the participation of its representatives;
        hears reports of the Chairman of the Bank of Russia on the activities of the Bank of Russia (when presenting the annual report and the main directions of the unified state monetary policy).
        The Bank of Russia shall submit information to the State Duma and the President of the Russian Federation in the manner established by federal laws.
        1. ShturmKGB
          ShturmKGB April 4 2013 13: 07 New
          Article 76 chapter 3 n. 2. Constitution of the Russian Federation. Protecting and ensuring the stability of the ruble is the main function of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, which it carries out independently from other public authorities.
          Federal Law of 10 July 2002 year N 86-ФЗ.
          The functions and powers stipulated by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and this Federal Law are performed by the Bank of Russia independently of other federal government bodies, government bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and local governments.
          1. Viking
            Viking April 4 2013 14: 25 New
            3 Article. The objectives of the Bank of Russia are:
            protection and ensuring the stability of the ruble;
            development and strengthening of the banking system of the Russian Federation;
            ensuring stability and development of the national payment system.
            The receipt of profit is not the goal of the Bank of Russia.

            4 Article. The Bank of Russia performs the following functions:
            1) in cooperation with the Government of the Russian Federation develops and conducts a unified state monetary and credit policy;
    2. wax
      wax April 4 2013 00: 45 New
      You may not know, but the "red directors' corps" was the honor and glory of the USSR. But what is the current management corps like? Almost a quarter of a century has passed since the destruction of the USSR, since the beginning of perestroika as many as 28 years (if you remember, 19 years have passed since the end of the Civil War and the formation of the USSR until the beginning of the war, and 16 years have passed since the end of the Second World War to the flight of Soviet people into space).
  5. Zhmurkis
    Zhmurkis April 3 2013 16: 24 New
    The article put a minus. Much has been written and to no avail. Continuous blah blah blah. Everything is bad from the category and we will die soon. There is no secret in the Russian Federation, after that I stopped reading, the author is not in the subject.
  6. FC SKIF
    FC SKIF April 3 2013 16: 25 New
    In the 1900 year, London residents were questioned about the problem No.1 in their city. Londoners were sure that this would be a problem of horse manure. Are you sure that everything will be as in forecasts and life will not make changes?
    1. sergius60
      sergius60 April 3 2013 18: 24 New
      Even Mendeleev conducted scientific research on this topic. The problem THEN was not a joke at all.
  7. mladenec
    mladenec April 3 2013 16: 41 New
    I doubt the Foundation for Advanced Study, in my opinion, money is down the drain, I remember a scientific article by some scientist about the further development of science and technology, for 25 years, and so he did not guess and 20 percent what awaits in 25 years !!!! There was one, ... wrote about the technique 100 years later and came true 95%, and the name of this man was Jules Verne. ;)
    And I remember another scientist interview, where he was asked about the prospects of the energy sector in 20 years, to which he answered only fools will predict the development of technologies for such a period, because even for 5 years it is problematic to predict the direction of development of scientific and technological revolution.
    Whoever, please tell me, because I am not aware of any breakthrough developments of the Amerov Foundation for Advanced Study, it was possible to implement in reality what I remember: the Boeing laser is shit, closed, any combat lasers are a failure.
    non-lethal electromagnetic high-frequency (microwave) gun-lag cripples operators, but whatever ??????? !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    In America, this fund for a drink is understandable, but here ????
    1. Igarr
      Igarr April 3 2013 19: 41 New
      Huh ... let's answer ...
      Amers on the life of breakthrough developments did not.
      Applied - Mama Do not Cry,
      ....... and to compose new - ..on it is .. Slavs (Tesla, Mendeleev, Nipkov, Sakharov, Zuse) .. there are Germans, the same Zuse, von Neumann, von Braun, Senger. Sometimes the English come across - Bacon, Wiener.
      But in the application team - Edison, Ford, Jobs, Univaki, Paul Allen - with whom, in fact, Microsoft started.
      Not breakthroughs matter.
      And literate, broadcast-the correct spending of funds.
      Here the Americans are well done. Learn, study and learn from them.
      We like - quietly tweaked 7 billion ... divided among themselves, supposedly sewn-covered. But no - there are dissatisfied. So - everything is out.
      And the Americans - the soul is wide open ... guys, we need to snitch .. a lot. But we will do a lot. We show everyone - even "gilded" something. We plant naked girls on the hoods. Everyone will be happy, pour champagne.
      And tyryat - no less.
      And there is no resentment against them. Though they looked at the girls, who had time to drink champagne.
      So it goes.
      1. Tersky
        Tersky April 3 2013 20: 07 New
        Quote: Igarr
        And tyryat - no less. And there is no resentment against them.

        !! good !! +! Igor, hi ! I always read your comments with interest and pleasure, today I decided to supplement (I love subtle humor) The main thing is to spit correctly, out of Serdyuk and the girls, and shampoo, and natyril immeasurably, it seems not sewn and not covered and to this day they have not planted fellow most importantly, the GDP has no offense no , and broadcasting type "And with whom to work?" what ... The Amers weren't even close ... laughing
        1. Igarr
          Igarr April 3 2013 20: 10 New
          This is the worst. Learn !!!!
          With Slavic speed.
      2. mladenec
        mladenec April 5 2013 13: 03 New
        Quote: Igarr
        And in the competent, broadcast-correct spending of funds.

        Hmm ... that is, you are implying that the 56 billion spent on the creation of the F-35 resulted in the appearance of I von 4c?
        Or have you confirmed my words with your usual humor?
        Drank bobla does not bring any benefit to them, what we have, because this is nonsense.
        "They steal no less," are you joking? One has only to look at the costs of creating something in the USA, and on the results of these expenses it becomes clear who is the world champion in theft !!!!!!!
  8. amp
    amp April 3 2013 16: 57 New
    Generals always prepare for the past war.
    The military in the USSR were preparing for the Second World War, making thousands of tanks, which were of little use in Afghanistan and Chechnya. The present ones will be preparing for a new Chechnya. Although the wars of the future may be completely different.
    This is human psychology like that.
    1. Melchakov
      Melchakov April 3 2013 17: 17 New
      Quote: amp

      Generals always prepare for the past war.

      Not always. The Third Reich (no matter how nice it was) is an example of this.
    2. Avenger711
      Avenger711 April 3 2013 23: 16 New
      You know, do not write nonsense, tanks in Afghanistan, even outdated ones, showed themselves just fine, once again demonstrating that the main armor in the weapon is thicker and the gun is larger.
      And do not teach generals, they are still professionals.
  9. ATATA
    ATATA April 3 2013 17: 18 New
    Yes. The article is excessively long. All these funds are promising, breakthrough research used to be called one phrase.
    Fundamental science. Here it is necessary to tumble money without sparing. Since fundamental science is today, it is applied science after 10 years and another 10 years from production.
  10. Volkhov
    Volkhov April 3 2013 17: 30 New
    While the Russian Federation is subordinate to the United States, all worthwhile innovations will be sent there, enriching the Chekists and other intermediaries. Perhaps the article was prepared by these structures, which sold the entire Soviet backlog and stand idle without goods ... the title does not say which country and army should serve imagination.
    If Russia is meant, then it is necessary to fantasize in the direction of its independence in the first place and protection of the right decisions in the second. Academician Berezovsky came to an acceptable decision regarding the influence on the pro-Western elite, but could not defend his understanding ...
    A picture of the world is needed first.
  11. Andrey_K
    Andrey_K April 3 2013 17: 36 New
    Mentioned in energy: energy transfer without wires and batteries will only make sense if there is ... energy itself.
    Only then will it be possible to switch to electric cars, electric planes (receiving energy remotely), etc.
    And for this it is necessary to increase electricity production by 10 times - to cover the oil, gas and coal share.
    (and if you also sell for export - then 100 times)
    And for this it is necessary either to build space power plants, or to jump-start to increase nuclear energy with a closed cycle.
  12. Asgard
    Asgard April 3 2013 17: 42 New
    Everything is bad ... We will all die ....

    The thought of a person, inventor, scientist, in fact, simply requires support, in words and actions of other People ....
    Then there will be a discovery, an invention, an airplane - it will fly and the car will work ...

    The question is ONLY in the way of organization ....
    But This is not ... Let us explain with examples.
    RAS. There is a whole commission to combat False Science. That is, there is a respected organization, according to IDEA (fix)) it should be engaged in Science .... and it is struggling with what IS NOT (with False Science))
    I will express seditious thought, maybe false science is the very SCIENCE))) ???
    Or maybe Livanov (the minister)) and right to disperse this hell out of puffed "academicians" ???
    *** a guy turned to Putin, give me money (30 million rubles)) for the development of a DOMESTIC Operating System for Chinese computers (since we don’t do ours)))) well, what’s the result-DID NOT GIVE)) the guy solders to the knee and a notebook with a cell writes the program code)))

    *** There is such Unitsky (engineer), he proposes to build a transport system on suspended rails (of his own design)) for transporting people and goods. An experimental track was built along which the converted Zil-130 traveled by pillars (disassembled near Moscow)) in Australia, the plant uses a site — actually, trolleys with ore load go ... Medvedev asked for money, he said, look for it yourself ....

    *** A man in Togliatti built an engine and assembled it on his knee (unfortunately disappeared)), even references to it disappeared ....

    Yes, and we look at reality — what was invented in the last 50 years — nothing .... They came up with a cell phone a long time ago, and thanks to the Kotelnikov Equation (an ideal receiver))V. Kotelnikov established the dependence of the degree of distortion of the signals at the output of the receiver from the sum of the signal and interference acting at the input of the receiver. He then searched for the conditions under which this mathematical dependence provides minimal signal distortion..
    Computers and phones are less steel, yes .... the principles have not changed ....
    GMOs are "created" Jews from biblical times, they only made us eat this cheap stuff .......
    The Americans flew to the moon .... It's generally funny .... Where is this rocket (show the drawings)) why do not they build it right now, but fly on our (developed in the USSR)) engines ......

    Somehow it is necessary to change the leadership - then there will be progress ..... and maybe, alas, regression is visible and the goal is the same - money .... and this is considered a success in life .....

    And this is a non-life path - it is a collapse for a Creator-man, you can’t do anything ....
    1. SPACE
      SPACE April 3 2013 19: 39 New
      "Talents need help, mediocrity break through themselves"
    2. wax
      wax April 4 2013 01: 12 New
      I saw Yunitsky talking. Long. Assertive man. His ideas are twenty years old. Only his ideas did not go either in America or in our country.
      In general, there is no reason to evaluate ideas according to the degree of their originality and attractiveness in the media. There is a field of unsurpassed scientists and inventors Petrik and Gryzlov. Therefore, the Russian Academy of Sciences has a commission to expose pseudoscience, because pseudoscience, like rust, has covered everything and everything, which is worth only laser chasing icicles (Matveenko) and cloud control (Luzhkov). Examples of darkness. But this money could go to science.
    3. Cartoon
      Cartoon April 4 2013 10: 47 New
      Quote: Asgard
      The Americans flew to the moon .... It's generally funny .... Where is this rocket (show the drawings)) why do not they build it right now, but fly on our (developed in the USSR)) engines ......

      You are a stupid man, if you are led by this myth. The Americans flew to the moon, but only there was little sense from it, and it flew into a pretty penny. And the drawings - google "Saturn and Saturn-5 rocket." And why they are not building now - the answer is simple too much money apiece.
      1. fzr1000
        fzr1000 April 4 2013 21: 51 New
        Well, it's one thing to fly over and fly around the moon. Saturn 5 is suitable for this. But take off from the moon on that sideloop is nonsense ....
      2. mladenec
        mladenec April 5 2013 13: 19 New
        Stupid you person
        the inquisitor said to Copernicus, because the earth is flat !!!
        the first thing I found
        and such a sea there
  13. воронов
    воронов April 3 2013 20: 09 New
    Very interesting article
  14. Hius-124
    Hius-124 April 3 2013 20: 13 New
    Asgard is right. Just for the purpose of optimizing the processes from development to implementation, we flocked this herd of managers, but didn’t guess with time - the PEPSI generation, they don’t have knowledge - everything is for sale, these scanty specialists are hanging around in all areas of life, and others and no. So there are "effective" managers who cannot and cannot do nichrome. sad
  15. DAOSS
    DAOSS April 3 2013 21: 33 New
    A boring, non-readable article for thesis (
    1. wax
      wax April 4 2013 01: 12 New
      What dissertation are you talking about?
  16. R1a1
    R1a1 April 3 2013 21: 56 New
    Someone in the know that the closest to the truth of experiments on the verge of science and mysticism, but initiated by science, was Nicolo Tesla - Serb. Do you know how close the Serbs are to the Russians, and in particular Tesla?)
    1. ansons
      ansons April 4 2013 23: 49 New
      Something like this drinks
      [video] [/ video]
      Something video I could not insert, strange request
  17. medwed1976
    medwed1976 April 3 2013 23: 02 New
    Quote: ramzes1776
    As if this fund had not become another fund for withdrawing money from the budget. I hope this fund is not managed by comrades like Chubais or Serdyukov and K.

    Unfortunately, we have such "comrades" a dime a dozen, they perfectly master the "art" of managing public finances - the "art" of transferring money from hand to hand until they disappear
  18. George
    George April 3 2013 23: 42 New
    The US military is subordinate to hundreds of research units aimed at solving current problems. Today we do not have such a system

    Because they ditched their own. How many specialists have lost, how much time and labor. There is a deliberate inhibition of our development, which, in principle, some have always sought ...
  19. wax
    wax April 4 2013 01: 20 New
    If we talk about breakthrough developments, then we must increase the role and, accordingly, the financing of academic and branch science, as was done in the twenties and sixties in the USSR. Otherwise, DAMs, Matveyenko, Gryzlovs, Zhirinovskys ... or Serdyukovs (a stop in the ditch) will determine the prospects.
  20. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee April 4 2013 04: 14 New
    Yeah ... Our Skolkovo and Chubais NANO technologies for budget cuts will far advance our science and defense industry am
  21. valokordin
    valokordin April 4 2013 06: 31 New
    Quote: Uncle Lee
    Yeah ... Our Skolkovo and Chubais NANO technologies for budget cuts will far advance our science and defense industry

    Good morning everyone, I was late reading this publication. The article is deeply thought out, raising questions of the country's survival. The answer is extremely simple. In the current situation, a breakthrough in the technological plan is not possible:
    1) there is no motivation for people to achieve this goal
    2) no funds
    3) no education.
    4) total corruption.
    1. If, under Soviet rule, the driving force of technological progress was the enormous energy of the human mind, freed from exploitation, the desire to catch up and overtake the opposite system. The spirit of socialist patriotism. The material component of this process was in the background. Now this is not.
    2. The means in the country, in order to motivate progress in the country is not enough, despite the gigantic amounts from the sale of raw materials. The proceeds from this article go mainly to the pockets of oligarchs, the rest goes to officials, and the young inventor gets crumbs, since his ideas are stolen by being co-authored by his senior comrades, whom the authorities and oligarchs have set to manage the process (an example is Skolkovo and Nanotechnology).
    3. The discipline is destroyed and continues to fall apart, for example, the ministers Fursenko and Livanov.
    4. Corruption is the norm of society, and no matter how it fights against it in the current conditions, it rests on it and can control people, having the ability to keep everyone hooked and fear to be attracted in case of disobedience. And for a technological breakthrough, creativity and corruption are incompatible.
    You can write about this endlessly, but in short, this is the case.
  22. mladenec
    mladenec April 5 2013 13: 02 New
    Quote: Igarr
    And in the competent, broadcast-correct spending of funds.

    Hmm ... that is, you are implying that the 56 billion spent on the creation of the F-35 resulted in the appearance of I von 4c?
    Or have you confirmed my words with your usual humor?
    Drank bobla does not bring any benefit to them, what we have, because this is nonsense.
    "They steal no less," are you joking? One has only to look at the costs of creating something in the USA, and on the results of these expenses it becomes clear who is the world champion in theft !!!!!!!