Military Review

Multipurpose MiG-29С fighter

By the end of 1991, the MAPS of the Dementiev MAPS produced about a year 1,2 thousand MiG-29 single-seat fighters, a plant in Nizhny Novgorod assembled a MiG-200UB about 29. In accordance with the development plan of the Soviet aircraft industry, it was supposed by that time to transfer the MAPS to the production of MiG-29M aircraft: in parallel with the MiG-29, even before 1990, 60 machines of this variant were to be built, and over the next ten years their number was to be increased to 300 -400 (at the same time, in 1986-1995, they hoped to manufacture 27 MiG-29K - ship fighters). But the MiG-29M debugging was delayed, and by the beginning of the 1990-s, only the flight design tests were completed, as well as part of the tests of the first GSE stage. At the same time, an event occurred in the 1986 year, which required immediate measures to be taken to modernize some of the Soviet fighters, including the MiG-29. In Moscow, an employee of one of the defense enterprises Tolkachev was then arrested. Being recruited by Western intelligence, Tolkachev for several years passed the secret information on the equipment and weapon systems of the newest Soviet combat aircraft. During the investigation of the espionage case, it was possible to find out what information could “leak” to the West. In accordance with this, an action plan was developed to compensate for the damage to the country's defenses. In particular, MIG was instructed to modify the MiG-31 interceptor and the MiG-29 fighter with advanced weapon control systems. It was also assumed that, according to their model, the previously launched drilling machines would be refined (at the beginning of the 1980-s, most of the MiG-25П were upgraded to MiG-25PDS in the same way at aircraft repair plants, and a few hundred MiG-23ML - in the MiG-23MLD) . Thus, MiG-29С and MiG-31Б aircraft appeared.

The advanced radar H-019M "Topaz" of the MiG-29S is capable of simultaneously accompanying two targets and firing P-77 missiles (AA-12 "Adder", which in the West is unofficially called "AMRAAMski").

Since the MiG-29М, recently released for testing, in the design and technology plan was quite different from the serial fighter, and the new weapon control system used on it required lengthy refinement, it was decided to unify the new version of the twenty-ninth with the 9- 13 ", mastered in production. The new fighter aircraft planned to introduce new air-to-air guided missiles, originally intended for the MiG-29M. This primarily concerned medium-range guided missiles RVV-AE with an active radar homing head, as well as a P-27T with a thermal homing head, the P-27Т and P-27РE increased launch range. The SUV-29S fighter armament control system was to be built on the basis of the RLPK-29М (radar sighting system) developed at NIIR (scientific and production association "Fazotron") under the guidance of Kirpicheva Yu.P. (and then V. Frantsev). The radar sighting complex consisted of the H019M radar, the new calculator Ts101M, and the optical-electronic sighting and navigation complex OEPrNK-29-1. From the previous RLPK-29, the advanced RLPK-29М was distinguished by increased noise immunity, a system of in-depth embedded monitoring, and new software. This upgrade allowed the simultaneous attack of 2 targets 2 missiles with TGS or ARGS. In OEPRNK-29-1 a combined control mode was implemented for firing at air targets from a cannon. Both complexes SUV-29С could also work in a training mode. The “MiGA” combat load was supposed to increase to 4000 kg (on four multi-lock wing wing holders a suspension of eight 500-kilogram bombs was provided), while the maximum take-off weight of the fighter reached almost 20 tons. In addition, the MiG-29С fighter was supposed to be equipped with a modified automatic control system, which provided improved stability characteristics and controllability at high angles of attack — the maximum angle was brought to 28 degrees.

The main task of the MiG-29C is the air defense of small territories, military groups and important objects. In this case, the tactic of using against air targets was assumed as follows:

Ground-based radar stations located in 10-15 kilometers from the line of combat contact (front line) guarantee radar control at a distance of almost 250 kilometers behind enemy aircraft at altitudes greater than 10 thousand. м. and 20-40 kilometers for low-flying targets. MiG-29 takes off from the airfield in standby mode, located from the front line ~ 100 km for a maximum of 8 minutes, it is guided to the target using a hidden transfer from the command point of dates automatically. Air targets flying at altitudes 20-23 th. м. at speeds up to 2 thousand km / h and at altitudes 10-20 th. м. at speeds up to 2,5 thousand km / h fighter can destroy even before they approach the front line. With an economical climb mode, the MiG-29 is capable of destroying stratospheric high-speed air targets at a distance of 240-230 km; and when flying with full afterburner mode - 170-180 km from the airfield. Fighter at medium altitudes suggest to the height of the target. To intercept air targets flying at altitudes 20-23 thousand. m, it suggests to a height of 16-17 th. м. If the MiG-29 should intercept the low-altitude aerial target, then it will fly to the 12-12,5 thou. м. In the future, the fighter moves to the height of 3,5-4 th. m, which ensures stable operation of the onboard RLPK, as well as the ability to perform the necessary vertical maneuver. MiG is induced in the forward hemisphere of the air target. If the first attack fails, the MiG manages to take up a position to carry out a second attack. Mikoyan to test weapons control systems re-equipped two serial MiG type «9-13». The first of them (No.405, onboard No.05) went up in air 20 on January 1989, the second - (No.404, onboard No.04) - 30 on June 1989. On these planes, the operation of the CCB-29C as a whole and the upgraded RLPK-29М, the use of RVV-AE missiles were tested. For example, on 405, for the first time, they carried out a successful simultaneous launch of 2-x missiles at 2-aerial targets. In the course of testing, it was proved that the new weapon control system provides for the sequential or simultaneous launch of rockets on targets that are spaced apart in azimuth over an angle of more than 8 degrees or located at a distance of more than 10 thousand. m on one azimuth. When entering the zone of allowed launches of both targets and the appearance of a single indication of the corresponding symbols on the system screen, the launch could be carried out in automatic or manual mode. If the targets in the zone of permitted launches entered one after another, successively, then rockets were launched in sequence, respectively. In September, the 1991 of the year ended up testing both machines. In 1994, the MiG-29С was adopted. By this time MAPO them. Dementieva produced almost 50 of such fighters, but only 16 of them were acquired by the air forces of Russia. The first MiG-29S entered the fighter regiment in Shaykovka, several vehicles of this type were also transferred to GLITZ in Akhtubinsk and the pulp and paper industry in Lipetsk. The equipment of the fighter with new medium-range missiles, mainly RVV-AE, with active radar homing heads, increased its effectiveness in air combat 2,5-3 times compared with the serial "twenty-ninth."

Despite the increased fuel capacity of the MiG-29C family of aircraft, the installation of a refueling rod is proposed as an option for improvement. In the photo, the MiG-29C follows the Il-78M tanker aircraft during tests at GLITS in Akhtubinsk.

Nevertheless, in 1992, the Russian Ministry of Defense decided to stop the purchase of the MiG-29 - it was considered impractical in the conditions of the economic crisis to simultaneously build two types of front-line fighters. As noted, in the first half of the 1970s the basis of the concept of the fighter park aviation The country's air force was based on the principle of construction on the basis of two types: MiG-29 - 70% and Su-27 - 30%. It was also assumed that the ratio of the cost of these types of fighters will be 1: 1,9. But in practice, making the “instant” so cheap did not work: its cost was only 40-50 percent less than the “su” (in the world market, the cost of the Su-27 is estimated at 30-35 million dollars, and the MiG-29 - 22 -24 million dollars). Regarding the quantitative correlation of these types of aircraft in the structure of the Air Force, according to the data published in the press, it was slightly exceeded in favor of “twins”: in the European part of the USSR, by the end of 1990, at the time of signing the CFE Treaty, 648 MiG-29s and 138 Su were based -27 (82% and 18% respectively), not counting the fighter aircraft of the air defense and navy. After the collapse of the USSR, the Russian Air Force transferred about 400 MiG-29s (80 percent) and a little over 100 Su-27s (20 percent)

Thus, the 16 of the MiG-29C fighters launched at MAPO in the 1991 year have so far become the latest vehicles of this type that have entered service. Su-27 "lasted" a little longer, however, they were built only for the air defense forces. Further developments are known. At the beginning of 1997, at a press conference held at the Russian Ministry of Defense on financing the army, in particular, statistics were given on the procurement of new combat aircraft: the Russian Defense Ministry acquired 1994 machines in 7, 1995 in 1, and - not a single fighter. Moscow Aviation Production Association, specialized since the end of 1996-ies exclusively on the production of military equipment, with the 1960 year left without government order. The design bureau, by this time transformed into the Aviation Scientific-Industrial Complex "MIG", also received very scanty allocations. The only way out in the current situation could be the export of “MiGs”, especially since these planes were always popular in India, in the Middle East and in some former “fraternal” republics of Eastern Europe: by 1992, almost 1991 MiG-300 was sold in 29 foreign States.

Therefore, the 30 fighters of the MiG-29С that were not bought by the Russian Air Force were converted into an export version of the MiG-29СЭ. They are currently located in Lukhovitsy in the warehouse of the MAPS in storage. By the way, here are a few dozen of the new MiG-1992 of the type “29-9” released before 12 of the year. The design bureau prepared documentation for the refinement of such fighters in the MiG-29SD version, similar in weapon control system, the nomenclature used weapons and the MiG-29SE self-propelled gun (MiG-29CD differs from the MiG-29CE, it has a lower built-in REB equipment, therefore, it has a lower cost; the internal fuel supply on this aircraft is somewhat smaller, but the MiG-29СD fuel system provides suspension for the underwing suspended fuel tanks). It is the MiG-29SD that is the subject of negotiations on the well-known “Malaysian” agreement, which provides for the phased modernization of the delivered fighters, in particular, their equipment with an in-flight refueling system.

Both export vehicles are equipped with RLPK-29МE Topaz (radar sighting system) and OEPrNK-29-1E (optical-electronic sighting and navigation complex). The range of weapons of these fighters, in addition to the gun GSH-301 (150 ammunition ammunition), includes missiles near - up to 6 P-73; medium-range missiles - up to 6 RVB-AE, two P-27Т1 or P-27Р1; long-range missiles - two P-27РЭ1 or Р-27ТЭ1. In addition, the aircraft are armed with unguided rockets, bombs and incendiary tanks with a total weight of up to 4 tons, placed on 6 underwing points of the suspension. In accordance with the requirements of the customer, the composition of the aircraft equipment can be changed (it is also possible to use foreign equipment). For example, the fighters for the Malaysian Air Force set up the radio system TACAN AN / APN-118, instrumental landing equipment VOR / ILS-71, GPS receiver TNL-1000, the defendant of the state identification system COSSOR, the aircraft responder CO-69М, which Works in conjunction with Western navigation systems, an additional radio station P-800L1 of the decimeter and meter bands with a frequency of 243 MHz.

An experienced MiG-29SE was first publicly demonstrated in the LII in Zhukovsky. According to some reports, Malaysia has become interested in this aircraft.

One of the conditions put forward by Malaysia when 07.06.1994 signed the contract for the supply of MiG-29 fighter jets was their equipment with in-flight refueling system. Prior to that, no serial MiG-29 had such a system (the refueling equipment was planned to be used only on the MiG-29K, therefore, in their design they immediately provided compartments for the placement of pipelines and a fuel receiver bar). It was impossible to install a retractable refueling bar in front of the cockpit on the MiG-29 (MiG-31B, MiG-29К, Su-30, Su-27К, Su-24М, etc.) without serious alterations to the structure. In this regard, the specialists of MAPO MIG developed a compromise solution, the system was made removable with the placement of part of the equipment (bar, bar mount and piping attachment points) in a fairing jutting out at the junction of the aircraft cockpit and left wing flow.

The weight of the sliding boom-fuel receiver was equal to 75 kilograms, and the rest of the system elements - up to 30 kilograms. The tip of the rod was unified for receiving fuel from the Il-78 tanker aircraft, and from foreign tankers KS-130, KS-10, etc. It is possible to refuel both the internal and outboard tanks of the fighter, the maximum fuel transfer rate is 900 liters per minute. The fuel receiver, the support beam, which supports it in the extended position, and other protruding parts of the system can be removed from the aircraft within an hour and, if necessary, installed again. The design of the refueling system makes it possible to install it on any modification of the MiG-29 with a minimum of aircraft modifications. To facilitate the refueling process, the fighter’s ACS and navigation equipment were also slightly modified. Search and guaranteed meeting with the tanker aircraft are provided by the onboard short-range navigation system. The pilot, after the release of the fuel-receiver bar, switches the automatic control system to the “stabilization during refueling” mode, and it, parrying external disturbances, keeps the vehicle at the required distance from the tanker.

Designed during the Cold War, the MiG-29 was an important milestone in stories Soviet aircraft industry, combining excellent maneuverability with the ability to use a wide range of weapons. Having passed a series of upgrades in recent years, this aircraft was never able to realize its full potential, but this was the result of not technical, but very different reasons.

In 1995, the new MiG-29 №4808, the onboard №357 were converted for testing of the new refueling system. 16 November 1995, the first refueling from tanker Il-78 was performed by R.P. Taskaev, chief pilot of MAPO "MIG". In the tests of the system also took part MR. Alykov, test pilot OKB, and also A.A. Goncharov and V.D. Shushunov, military pilots. According to the testers, the refueling system implemented on the MiG-29 makes this difficult stage of the flight accessible even to mid-skilled pilots, and the equipment that provides the search for the tanker and docking is much better than previously used on Russian-made military aircraft. Tests have shown that the installation of the fuel receiver in the external fairing did not have a significant impact on the flight characteristics, stability and controllability of the MiG-29. The ferrying range with three outboard fuel tanks increased from 2900 to 5200 kilometers with one refueling. Refueling was performed at altitudes up to 8 km at speeds of 400-600 km / h. A number of refueling stations were also made at speeds of 350-500 km / h to simulate fuel intake from the KS-130 (the Malaysian Air Force has 6 C-130 transport turboprop aircraft that can be converted into tankers). In January, 1996 completed flights under the test program and the refueling system was recommended for use on the MiG-29 of various modifications.

Aircraft performance characteristics:
Modification - MiG-29С;
Length - 17,32 m;
Height - 4,73 m;
Wingspan - 11,36 m;
Wing area - 38,06 m2;
Empty weight - 11200 kg;
Normal take-off weight - 15600 kg;
Maximum take-off weight - 19700 kg;
Internal fuel - 4540 kg;
Fuel in hanging tanks - kg 3800;
Engine type - 2 TRDDF RD-33;
Thrust - 2x8300 kgf;
Maximum speed at height - 2450 km / h;
Maximum speed at the ground - 1500 km / h;
Practical range at low altitude - 710 km;
Practical range at high altitude - 1500 km;
Practical range with outboard tanks - 2100 km;
Maximum rate of climb - 19800 m / min
Practical ceiling - 18000 m;
Crew - 1 man;
- one built-in gun GSH-301 caliber 30 mm;
- combat load - 4000 kg
The six underwing nodes housed:
- from 2 to 4 URVV P-27P / 6 RVV-AE / to 6 P-60M or P-73
- 500- or 250-kg bombs, container KMGU;
- in blocks B-8М1 and С-24Б НАР 80 С-8.

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  1. Hemi cuda
    Hemi cuda April 2 2013 09: 03
    Thank you for the article.
    1. greenx
      greenx April 3 2013 10: 27
      comment verification
  2. Wedmak
    Wedmak April 2 2013 09: 33
    And now the Mig-29 has mastered its full potential, or is it still possible to refine?
  3. Vovka levka
    Vovka levka April 2 2013 09: 59
    I quote - "Ground radar stations located 10-15 kilometers from the line of contact (front line) guarantee radar control at a distance of almost 250 kilometers behind enemy aircraft at altitudes of over 10 thousand meters and 20-40 kilometers for low-flying targets. MiG -29 takes off from the airfield in standby mode, located from the front line ~ 100 km for a maximum of 8 minutes, it is guided to the target using a hidden transfer from the command post of the dates automatically. " What radar stations, at a distance of 10-15 km. from the front, who will let them be there. The airfield is at a distance of 100 km. It's like the second world war. What a circus this is. Everything is explained simply, by the range of action, the amount of fuel. That is, they made a car, take what they gave, and combat use, write something.
    1. Zerstorer
      Zerstorer April 2 2013 10: 44
      The only interceptor that is able to operate without a command center is the MiG-31. And then they work four.
    2. vjhbc
      vjhbc April 2 2013 20: 07
      this is a well-known instant disease pilots called him an aerodrome defense fighter
      Quote: Vovka Levka
      Airfield at a distance of 100 km., This is what the second world. What a circus. Everything is explained simply, by range, by the amount of fuel. That is, they made a car, take what they gave, and military use, write something.
  4. General
    General April 2 2013 10: 22
    MiG-29-this Legend
  5. bazilio
    bazilio April 2 2013 10: 48
    The car is beautiful, you can’t say anything, and the maneuverable characteristics are excellent, but .... This raises the question - as far as I remember, the USSR Air Force planned to have 2 fighters - one light (MiG29) and one heavy (Su 27). The USA had the same approach - light F16 and heavy F15. At first glance, the "division of labor" between fighters along the range looks justified. However, a light fighter should be much cheaper than a heavy one and, therefore, more massive. If the difference in price between a light and a heavy fighter is not great, then another question arises - why do we need a fighter that is a little cheaper but also with almost 2 times less range? Simply put, which is better, to have 2 different aircraft or one universal? who has any opinions?
    1. Odysseus
      Odysseus April 2 2013 12: 35
      Quote: bazilio
      However, a light fighter should be much cheaper than a heavy one and therefore more massive. If the price difference between a light and a heavy fighter is not large, then another question arises - why do we need a fighter a little cheaper but with an almost 2 times shorter range? in other words, what is better - to have 2 different planes or one universal? who has any opinions?

      Why didn't the Americans start making one "universal" F-15?
      In fact, these planes have different goals: the F-15 fighter-interceptor and gaining air supremacy. The F-16 is an aircraft for the BVB (it didn’t even have medium-range missiles), and for working on the ground.
      First of all, we have a Su-27 fighter-interceptor, the Mig-29 was going to the Air Force to replace the Mig-23. So, the Mig-29 had no problems with mass superiority.
      It seems to me that you are somewhat confusing the realities of the 80s when these aircraft were created, and the conditions of today.
      Now the technology has advanced and we can really talk about the creation of universal aircraft.
      1. bazilio
        bazilio April 2 2013 17: 44
        Quote: Odyssey
        It seems to me that you are somewhat confusing the realities of the 80s when these aircraft were created, and the conditions of today.

        No, I'm talking about something else. I think that the Su 27 or F 15 can also cope with those combat missions that were put before the MiG 29 or F 16. If so, then Drying turns out to be more universal but at the same time more expensive aircraft. So the question arises: is it better to arm itself with only one universal Su-27 type aircraft, despite the fact that it is expensive or to take part of the combat missions onto a second aircraft, which is cheaper, easier, but with less payload, with a smaller radius of action.
        1. evgenii67
          evgenii67 April 2 2013 22: 22
          Quote: bazilio
          So the question arises which is better, it will arm itself with only one universal Su-27 type aircraft

          Are you not from Poghosyan? In Russia, already on a super duper jet in civil aviation have made a bet crying
          1. bazilio
            bazilio April 3 2013 08: 28
            Quote: evgenii67
            Are you not from Poghosyan?

            No, dear, I'm on my own. And that was my question and not a hint or suggestion. I myself do not fully know which option is better, with 2 planes or 1m. Just if you look by analogy with tanks, after WWII they refused to use different classes of tanks (medium, heavy) and left only 1 view. But the tasks of the tanks and the tasks of the fighters are different, and therefore I raised this question - what is better than 2 aircraft or 1 universal?
        2. Odysseus
          Odysseus April 3 2013 14: 01
          Quote: bazilio
          So the question arises: is it better to arm itself with only one universal Su-27 type aircraft, despite the fact that it is expensive or to take part of the combat missions onto a second aircraft, which is cheaper, easier, but with less payload, with a smaller radius of action.

          If it was possible to cope with all the tasks with one aircraft, then they would do so. But only now the US Air Force began to completely unify the fleet for the F-35, and then they have a "safety net" in the form of the F-22 and F-18 E.
          In general, the choice of the Air Force strategy depends on the goal facing the state as a whole, and on its capabilities.
          In the case of the USSR Air Force, it was quite reasonable and justified to have a long-range interceptor "in the North" (MiG-31), and a close fighter for World War III (MiG-3), and a maneuverable interceptor for the DVB (Su-29), and a "reserve fighter "(MiG-27)
          In the case of the Russian Air Force .... I don’t know, the question is complicated. Again, it all depends on what tasks the state sets for itself.
          PS The Indian Air Force set a ridiculous world record in this regard. Not being a global power, they managed to create an Air Force with 7 types of fighters and fighter-bombers. Why is such a zoo completely incomprehensible to them.
          1. seos
            seos 4 January 2016 18: 35
            They collect technology, take the best of the 7 best fighters ...
      2. vjhbc
        vjhbc April 2 2013 20: 04
        yeah very versatile like f 35
        Quote: Odyssey
        Now the technology has advanced and we can really talk about the creation of universal aircraft.
        1. Odysseus
          Odysseus April 3 2013 14: 26
          Quote: vjhbc

          yeah very versatile like f 35

          Well, I wrote, you can speak about the creation of universal aircraft. smile
          Seriously, all modern fighters can work on the ground (except for the F-22 it is being finalized in this regard), but creating a completely universal aircraft is still difficult.
    2. cesar65
      cesar65 April 4 2013 22: 11
      In the Soviet Army, the MiG-29 was called a fighter of gaining air supremacy.
  6. awerkiev
    awerkiev April 2 2013 11: 20
    Hopelessly outdated trash ... Despite the legendary past ... Alas and ah! everything comes to an end...
    1. Zerstorer
      Zerstorer April 2 2013 11: 35
      I agree 9-12 and 9-13 it is time to write off or upgrade to the level of 9-20 for a long time.
    2. Odysseus
      Odysseus April 2 2013 12: 18
      Quote: awerkiev
      Hopelessly outdated trash ...

      If you are talking about 9-12,9-13, then this is rude, but true. But the same can be said about the Su-27P, S, SM and the clean MiG-31. Time does not stand still.
    3. tomket
      tomket April 2 2013 18: 26
      and f-16 is the last word of technology in your opinion?
  7. cyberandr
    cyberandr April 2 2013 11: 37
    I wonder what price the MiG 35 will have, or they said = Su 35. In general, an inexpensive multifunctional, a la Su 30 would be very necessary, for example, for Belarus
  8. Zerstorer
    Zerstorer April 2 2013 11: 39
    I feel that again the whole debate will be reduced to the fact that at the moment we have accumulated a backlog from Europeans and Americans.
    1. cyberandr
      cyberandr April 2 2013 11: 52
      Well, just the same lag. Compare with Raphael. It is better in many (but not in all!) Indicators, but also 2 or more times more expensive (from configuration) By wiki 45 million against 85 ~ 120 million.
  9. Simple_Nick
    Simple_Nick April 2 2013 15: 23
    I looked at the climb - 19800 meters per minute, there is no mistake?
  10. Hius-124
    Hius-124 April 2 2013 15: 46
    Quote: Alligator
    But this is true. The lag of 20 years is for sure. But this is not scary, it has always been under the USSR.

    Incorrect comparison. Other things being equal, Serbia (and not Yugoslavia) is not an indicator; - everything is said above. And given what kind of crap it was (so far apparently) RSK (MAPO) MiG was counting on the MiG-29 (M1, M2, M3, etc.), it was not necessary to count. If you change your cooks every day and don’t pay money, how soon will you make friends with the toilet ??? fool And the MiG-29 has potential, we can still see modernization if the privatizers do not take over the DGCs. yes
  11. Hius-124
    Hius-124 April 2 2013 16: 15
    Quote: Just_Nick
    I looked at the climb - 19800 meters per minute, there is no mistake?

    There are of course, but I like it more! lol
  12. Argon
    Argon April 2 2013 22: 49
    Well, in general, the SM is not news, and the SMT is even in the troops, there are about 15 units in the regiment near St. Petersburg and near Kursk [partly the same Algerian contract]. The issue of purchasing the 35th was generally resolved positively. India has overshadowed the situation by choosing Rafale. In general, the situation is that the price for the 35th becomes acceptable for the Air Force in the event of two foreign contracts being implemented. The first is a deck boat for India, the second instead of the Indian MMI was offered to the Kazakhs MiG-29M2. A number of old cars will be upgraded to the SMT level. As for the competition with the Su-35, in principle, it should not be, the cost of the life cycle of a biscuit is much higher. It is worth noting at least the fact that the bulk of closed shelter sites in the European part of Russia were built for MiG-23, Su-17aSu-35 they just won't fit.
    1. Odysseus
      Odysseus April 3 2013 16: 21
      Quote: Argon
      Well, actually already SM is not news, but there are SMT even in the troops, there are about 15 units in the regiment near St. Petersburg and near Kursk [partially the same Algerian contract]

      24 SMT in Kursk. Where from Peter?
      Quote: Argon
      India has clouded the situation by choosing "Rafal

      Yes, there it was initially clear that Rafal would win. Although the radars for this contract were finalized, that’s good.
      Quote: Argon
      A certain number of old cars will be upgraded to the level of SMT

      It is doubtful. Where did the glider resource come from?
  13. djon3volta
    djon3volta April 3 2013 03: 29
    why komenty clean up? who benefits?
    1. Alexander Romanov
      Alexander Romanov April 3 2013 03: 51
      Quote: djon3volta

      why komenty clean up? who benefits?

      Nobody cleans anything, problems on the site.
  14. fantast
    fantast April 3 2013 08: 17
    test test test test test test test test
  15. greenx
    greenx April 3 2013 10: 48
    comment check