Military Review

The tragedy of the unique "Ural"

52
For a number of reasons, the number of warships built in the Soviet Union with nuclear power plants (NPPs) left much to be desired. Moreover, the built ships, starting in the second half of the eighties, became victims of political, economic, etc. changes in the life of the country. As a result, now there is only one cruiser with a nuclear power plant in the combat structure of the Russian Navy, while the other three are in a sludge and are waiting for their fate. A few years ago, the fate of another domestic ship with a nuclear power plant was decided. In accordance with the decision of the naval command fleet and the Ministry of Defense, the dismantlement of the SSV-33 Ural large nuclear reconnaissance ship began. The fate of this unique ship has developed in the most unpleasant way. He managed to last a few months and just go camping once.




As you know, the key to successful interception of an enemy ballistic missile is the timely detection of the launch and transfer of information to the appropriate unit. To this end, the leading countries of the world built and continue to build radar warning of a missile attack and launch specialized spacecraft. Due to its geographical and military-political position, the Soviet Union was not able to place warning radars outside its territory. As a result, a large part of the planet remained what is called a white spot. The solution to this problem should have been new ships, equipped with appropriate radar equipment. Due to their mobility, they could be located in the right area of ​​the world’s ocean, and a radar station, radio intelligence systems and a computer system would allow such ships to detect and track targets, primarily ballistic missiles.

In 1977, all ideas about a large reconnaissance ship for patrolling far from bases and tracking missile launches of a potential enemy were reinforced by the relevant USSR Council of Ministers Decree, which required the creation of such a ship. The document also referred to the development of the Coral intelligence complex. According to the Decree, the Leningrad TsKB Iceberg was to be engaged in designing the ship itself, and about two hundred different organizations, led by TsNPO Vympel, were involved in the creation of the Coral. The project received a digital index "1941" and the code number "Titan".



According to some sources, in creating the 1941 project, the achievements obtained in the creation of civil courts were actively used. For example, it is often claimed that the basis for the body of the "Titan" was the design of a certain ore carrier. There is no evidence of this information, but it is worth considering that the design and construction of other ships with advanced radio-electronic equipment — the ships of the measuring complex used in the space program — was precisely this approach. Regardless of their “origin”, the ships of the 1941 project promised to become at least one of the largest domestic ships. Already in the early stages of design, the dimensions of the Titan were formed: the length of the hull in 265 meters, the width of 30 and the total height around 70. The estimated ship displacement was at the level of 34-35 thousand tons. Thus, the prospective reconnaissance ships were larger and heavier than the latest 1144 "Orlan" heavy nuclear-powered missile cruisers.



With such dimensions required the appropriate power plant. According to the results of brief reflections and discussions, shipbuilding officials, fleet commanders and designers chose a nuclear power plant. For reasons of economy, it was decided to use nuclear power plants previously used at Orlans, but at the same time to apply a number of developments obtained in the design of nuclear power plants for icebreakers. At its base were two bypass water-cooled reactors KN-3 (according to other data, CL-40) with a thermal power of 170 MW. The steam from the secondary circuit of the reactors was fed to the GTZA-688 turbo-gear units, which gave 23 ths. Horsepower. each. In addition, the heat generated by the reactors was supplied with electric power to the target equipment. As an additional power plant, the 1941 project received two VDRK-500 boilers. The latter were located in the bow and stern holds. As it turned out, with sufficiently large dimensions of the ship itself, it was very difficult to inscribe all the elements of the power plant.

The use of nuclear power plants gave the new ship good performance. Despite the considerable displacement and size, it could travel at speeds up to 20-22 knots, and the cruising range was limited solely to food supplies. At the same time, according to calculations, the crew of 923 people (of which 233 officer and 144 midshipman) could be away from the base for 180 days.

Above the ship's hull, a large three-tier superstructure was foreseen with living quarters, control stations and target equipment. On the roof of the superstructure were placed four masts with places for the installation of various antennas, as well as the antenna of the main radar under the spherical casing. A specially developed radio intelligence and radar system “Coral” was connected with several radio-electronic systems, such as the MR-750 Fregat-MA radar, MP-123 Vympel, MP-212 / 201 Vychegda-U, Neman-P And the Atoll. In addition, to monitor the launches there was an optical-electronic complex "Swan". According to some data, it was equipped with an optical system with a mirror diameter of about one and a half meters. With such parameters, the Swan could detect the launch of an intercontinental rocket from a distance of several hundred kilometers. In order to detect underwater objects, the 1941 project ships were to be equipped with the MGU-335M Argun and MG-747 Amulet hydroacoustic stations. According to the project, the special computing complex with two Elbrus-type computers and several EC-1046 should have been engaged in information processing. Probably, other systems were also envisaged on the ships, but the exact composition of the special equipment of the Titan project is still unknown.

The tragedy of the unique "Ural"
Antenna main radar without casing. Photo middle of the two thousandth's.


Since the large nuclear reconnaissance ship of the 1941 project was an interesting target for the anti-ship weapons the enemy, they decided to equip it with a complex of defensive weapons. On the bow and stern of the project, it was proposed to install one AK-176M artillery unit with an automatic gun of the 76 caliber mm. To combat high-speed targets like missiles, the Titan ships were supposed to carry four AK-630 automatic cannon caliber 30 mm. The list of barrel armament of reconnaissance ships was completed by four installations of "Utes-M" with paired large-caliber machine guns NSV-12,7. Also on the ship it was proposed to transport and use man-portable air defense systems and light anti-sabotage weapons. At the stern of the ship, a hangar and take-off area for the helicopter, for example, Ka-32, was provided.

In the middle of 1981, the first ship of the 1941 project, named "Ural", was laid down at the Baltic Shipyard in Leningrad. In addition to the name of the new ship received the tail number CER-33. It is noteworthy that the letters “CER” in the issue spoke of the ship’s belonging to the communications vessels. However, in the USSR Navy there was no such class of ships, and all the existing "CER" actually were scouts. A little later, preparations began for the construction of the second ship of the Titan project, but it was never built. According to the materials of Popular Mechanics, received from the employees of the Iceberg Central Design Bureau, the second ship was laid. However, due to a number of problems, the construction of the second ship with the serial number "811" ended at the assembly stage of one of the hull sections. Soon work was stopped, and the assembled unit was cut into metal. The construction of the Ural itself took about two years, after which sea trials began. Combined power plant with nuclear reactors and boilers caused a lot of complaints. In addition, there were proposals to use the elements of the power plant alternately: the ship had to leave the base and return to it with the help of boilers, and at a certain distance from the coast switch to the NPP. Testing this idea also took some time.

It is worth noting that during the tests of the ship "Ural" a lot of defects and malfunctions were revealed. Some problems arose with the systems of nuclear power plants, but the most annoying permanent breakdowns of the computing complex. On board the new reconnaissance ship, there was too much of the latest electronic equipment to keep everything running smoothly. Correction of design flaws and identification of problems took a lot of time. As a result, the new ship CER-33 "Ural" became part of the Navy only at the very end of December 1988.



Immediately after the commissioning, the CER-33 made its first trip: from Leningrad to a base near the city of Fokino. The transition took a little less than two months. On the way to the Ural Pacific base, I went to the port of Cam Ranh for a few days, where the Soviet naval base was then located. It is said that while they were stationed in the Vietnamese port, the tortoise suffered from guard vigilance: they took her for a saboteur and fired at the Dozhd anti-amphibious complex. It was probably during the voyage across three oceans (Atlantic, Indian and Silent) that the unofficial one was added to the official deciphering of the CER index: “Special sleeper”, and also the ship acquired the nickname “Cabin-carrier”. Despite the large crew size, the size of the ship allowed the sailors to provide good living conditions. In addition to comfortable cabins and cabins at the "Ural" were a full-fledged medical unit, a smoking lounge, a gym, two saunas with showers, a swimming pool and even a cinema hall. Thus, the ship had everything in order to give the crew not only comfortable living conditions, but also to provide it with a “cultural program”.

At the same time, the large dimensions of the Ural played a cruel joke with him. Like several large cruisers of the Pacific Fleet, he spent most of his time not on the dock, but on barrels. However, even in such conditions, he was able to become the flagship of the 38-th brigade of reconnaissance ships of the Pacific Fleet. It is noteworthy that the CER-33 could perform some reconnaissance missions while in port or on drums. The potential of intelligence systems allowed to "see" all the necessary things and events within a radius of several hundred kilometers. There is evidence that, while in the Strelok Bay, the Ural intercepted negotiations between American and Japanese ships located in the northern part of the Pacific Ocean. However, the main task of the ship remained long hikes and tracking missile launches.

In the second half of the eighties in the Soviet Union began a transformation that eventually led to the disintegration of the country. They affected the state of the navy in general and the Urals in particular. The fleet could no longer afford the full maintenance and operation of a complex reconnaissance ship. It was proposed to divide the costs between the Navy and air defense / missile defense. However, all these proposals remained at the level of conversations. It was probably the lack of funding that eventually caused the ship’s first woes. Another prerequisite for the further sad fate of the "Ural" is sometimes called the decision to release former students from military service, because of which the crew lost a lot of young and competent specialists.


At the pier in the bay Abrek


In the middle of 1990, a fire occurred on the ship CER-33 “Ural”. Presumably, as a result of a short circuit, the cable routes caught fire. The fire spread to the aft engine room units. The fire was extinguished, but the stern was out of order. There was no money to repair it. After this incident, no long-distance campaigns were out of the question. A little more than a year later, another misfortune happened: the nasal engine room burned down, on which, after the previous fire, the entire burden of providing the ship with electricity was laid. Now Ural has lost the ability to perform any tasks. The reactors were shut off, and the power of vital systems came from emergency diesel generators.

In addition to fires on board, the Ural was exposed to other hazards. So, in 1990, the infamous fire of the main ammunition of the Pacific Fleet occurred. The CER-33 at that time was literally a couple of kilometers from the warehouses, but the crews of the ship and the tug came to the rescue could take it to a safe distance. In the fall of 1991, the Ural, a victim of a fire, left the barrel during a storm and began to drift. It was possible to return the immobilized ship to its place only after a few hours.

Throughout the nineties, the large atomic reconnaissance ship CER-33 "Ural" stood on the barrels, and then at the pier in the Bay of Arrows and waited for their fate. Due to financial problems and the lack of any prospects, the crew of the ship was constantly shrinking. Over time, the CER-33 was made a floating barracks. Such a "duty" unique reconnaissance ship performed for several years. The fate of the "Ural" was decided at the beginning of the two thousandth. According to the results of the design and equipment survey, as well as the analysis of the prospects, the command of the Navy decided not to restore the ship. Repair would cost too much, and the equipment of the end of the eighties already did not have high prospects. Therefore, tentatively in 2001, the ship CER-33 was laid up near the pier in Abrek Bay (Strelok Bay). Ironically, next to the "Ural" stood the heavy nuclear missile cruiser "Admiral Lazarev" (formerly "Frunze"), belonging to the 1144 "Orlan" project. Developments on this particular project were actively used to create a reconnaissance ship.





In 2008, a tender took place, after which the neighbors along the pier were “separated”. The cruiser remained at the place where it still stands, and the Ural was towed to the city of Bolshoy Kamen to the factory Zvezda. According to reports, ship recycling has not started so far or is proceeding at an extremely slow pace. Last summer, Rosatom executives spoke about the possible use of the CER-33 ship for repairing other ships with nuclear power plants. At that moment, Ural itself was waiting for the start of dismantling and cutting.

Finally, it should be said that a couple of years after the decision on the final write-off of the Ural - in December 2004 of the year - the first large reconnaissance ship of the 18280 project Yury Ivanov was laid at the Severnaya Verf plant. The laying of the second ship of this type is expected soon. Very little is known about this project, but it is hoped that the new ships, despite their smaller size compared to the 1941 project, can at least partially replace the decommissioned Ural.

"Ural" in the factory "Star" E, coordinates: 43 ° 7'6.61 "SSH 132 ° 20'6.43" VD


On the materials of the sites:
http://russian-ships.info/
http://anders.narod.ru/
http://warships.ru/
http://popmech.ru/
http://globalsecurity.org/
http://old.vladnews.ru/
http://ria.ru/

For help and important remarks to the article, the author expresses gratitude to the chairman of the Union of Veterans of the ships of the measuring complex named after Admiral Yu.I.Maksiuta A.M. Kurochkina
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  1. sergant89
    sergant89 April 2 2013 07: 55
    0
    Serdyukov will be interrogated in the case of illegal arms transfers
    BFM.RU29 minutes ago, 07: 20
    Policy
    Serdyukov will be interrogated in the case of illegal arms deliveries Photo: RIA Novosti

    The investigation is going to interrogate the former Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation Anatoly Serdyukov in yet another criminal case - the illegal transfer of weapons made in Kazakhstan across the Russian border, the Kommersant newspaper reported. The ex-head of the military will be a witness in this case.

    On April 1, it became known that Vladimir Fitsner, director general of the St. Petersburg NPO Bars, was detained. After being charged with illegal transport of weapons and military equipment across the customs border of the Russian Federation, the businessman was released on his own recognizance. Fitzner, according to investigators, was involved in the illegal movement of components for homing missiles across the Kazakh-Russian border. The investigation believes that the businessman got into the group thanks to the patronage of Advisor to the Minister of Defense Admiral Gennady Suchkov, who headed it, and the order to create the working group was signed by Serdyukov.

    “Thus, NPO Bars was able to conclude contracts for the purchase of components for missiles and supply them to the subsidiary of OJSC Oboronservis - OJSC Remvooruzhenie. According to sources close to the investigation, Admiral Suchkov was offered to leave his post at his own request, but he refused.
    Read on the website BFM.RU
  2. Professor
    Professor April 2 2013 08: 00
    0
    Moreover, according to calculations, a crew of 923 people (of which 233 officers and 144 midshipmen) could be away from the base for 180 days.

    The ship was necessary, but the nuclear power plant was superfluous. The speed of such a ship was still useless anyway - it had to hang out in a given region of the ocean, monitoring the space situation, and a crew of almost 1000 people still had to bring supplies.

    IMHO an excellent high-dimensional weakly protected target.
    1. avt
      avt April 2 2013 09: 28
      +4
      Quote: Professor
      excellent high dimensional weakly protected target

      request So on it is not a bayonet attack to go. And the rest is true, the sizes are obviously overkill. For such purposes it is much more beneficial to have four things, it will be much more efficient given modern equipment and contain cheaper.
    2. AlNikolaich
      AlNikolaich April 2 2013 18: 42
      +7
      Quote: Professor
      NPP was superfluous. The speed of such a ship was still useless

      Greetings to the Professor. I have a strong suspicion that the nuclear power plant was considered not so much for high-speed qualities, as for providing energy to the equipment. With the elemental base of the then used electronics, energy consumption was high ..
      1. Professor
        Professor April 2 2013 21: 33
        +2
        Then I can imagine how everything was warming and radiating there.
      2. keksus
        keksus 31 March 2014 19: 40
        -1
        I don’t remember the exact number of power plants of the roofing felts 11 roofing felts 12 but if you put the URAL at the wall in Vladivostok then the city of Vladivostok and the entire coastal region can be provided with electric energy! after all, for URAL, energy is needed for equipment and not for running on boilers by the way by 1,5 the node speed is higher than in YAZU.YAZU produced 32-34 atmospheres and KVG-2 38 atmospheres (personally tested. even up to 42 atmospheres, though the boiler plant began to vibrate so they were hesitant to raise higher, although I think in emergency mode it would be possible to 45-47 )
  3. Krasnoyarsk
    Krasnoyarsk April 2 2013 08: 22
    +1
    Another unnecessary titan of the dying empire, I hope to at least restore the "Eagles"
    1. Samaritan
      Samaritan April 2 2013 20: 31
      +2
      Finally, it should be said that a couple of years after the decision on the final write-off of the Ural - in December 2004 of the year - the first large reconnaissance ship of the 18280 project Yury Ivanov was laid at the Severnaya Verf plant. The laying of the second ship of this type is expected soon. Very little is known about this project, but it is hoped that the new ships, despite their smaller size compared to the 1941 project, can at least partially replace the decommissioned Ural.

      Big reconnaissance ship "Yuri Ivanov"
      Project 18280. The main purpose is the communications ship. Start of construction - 2004. Expected launching in 2013. It will tentatively enter the Pacific Fleet in 2013. Serial number 787.
    2. Oberon
      Oberon April 2 2013 20: 31
      0
      You got excited, Sir!
      1. Samaritan
        Samaritan April 2 2013 20: 48
        0
        "The plans for the anniversary included the launching of the communications vessel Yuri Ivanov [the main order of project 18280, which has been under construction at the plant since December 2004, but once again our counterparties let us down - the Kaluga Engine Plant disrupted the delivery time of the main engines, so the launch will be held in 2013, "said Alexander Ushakov. He should be trusted !!!!
        Recall that OJSC "Kolomensky Zavod" is also a supplier of diesel-diesel units (DDA-12000) for project 20380 corvettes that have already been built and are still under construction at the Northern Shipyard. As one of the naval servicemen told TsVMP earlier, this power plant has a number of flaws. not eliminated by the manufacturer, namely, increased smoke generation in transient modes, insufficient reliability and efficiency. In connection with the shortcomings of the power plant, noted during the operation of the head corvette "Guarding" of the project 20380, the command of the Navy and the Almaz Central Design Bureau (design bureau) decided to install the main engines of the German engineering company MAN on the next subgroup of corvettes planned for construction at Severnaya Verf ... The head corvette of the second sub-series - project 20385 - "Thundering" has been under construction at Severnaya Verf since 2011.
  4. mark1
    mark1 April 2 2013 08: 47
    0
    The Urals were expensive and complex even for the USSR (not to mention the fact that it appeared at the wrong time). But now, why not follow the American path - to create DRLO and RTR complexes based on drilling platforms. There is a certain mobility, and you can create a layered barrier in threatened areas.
  5. Shveik
    Shveik April 2 2013 09: 25
    0
    Corvette goes to heaven
    It's so magical and dangerous here
    In a dream but from another dream
    In a dream at a crazy fairy tale

    r / g Agatha Christie
  6. Per se.
    Per se. April 2 2013 09: 33
    +8
    The hull of a ship with a nuclear installation could be used for conversion into a light aircraft carrier-helicopter carrier, it would be useful for our Navy, for the safety net "Kuzi". It would be a desire, everything is better than waiting for a new aircraft carrier for a hundred years.
    1. Zmey_2Garin
      Zmey_2Garin April 2 2013 17: 01
      17
      As a specialist shipbuilder (hull), I can definitely say that a vessel that has stood without proper care and maintenance for so many years is easier to blow up, drown (etc., of your choice) than to convert it into something worthwhile. You look at the photo - it is rusty on the outside, and what is happening inside ... There, in all hard-to-reach places (tanks, cofferdams, double bottoms, etc.), 30-40 percent of the construction thickness of the metal remains at best! And change all these deck-bulkhead-platforms ... Yes, it's easier to build a new ship !!! Yes, and docking-cooking a new sheet of metal with the old one is still a pleasure! So somehow I see a proposal to re-equip this ship.
      1. Per se.
        Per se. April 2 2013 18: 59
        +4
        Quote: Zmey_2Garin
        it’s easier to blow up, drown (etc. - of your choice) than to convert into something worthwhile.
        Dear Zmey_2Garin, I will say right away, I am not a specialist shipbuilder, but I agree with you here only on one thing - of course, breaking, blowing up or drowning is the easiest way! You probably know that after the Civil War in the USSR there was such an EPRON, what it was doing and why. So, thanks to EPRON's specialists, many sunken ships were raised, and, even, some were returned to service after repairs. For example, the destroyer "Kaliakria" (after the repair "Felix Dzerzhinsky", returned to service at the end of 1925), the British submarine L55 (after lifting and repair, in our fleet, as L-55 since 1932). You are talking about the "Ural", which was not lying at the bottom, but entered service at the end of 1988. Of course, you first need to inspect the ship, but, as they say, do not judge the watermelon by the crust, but the hull of the ship by the rust in the photo, especially since breaking it now is fast with us, but, here, the cost of ships of similar tonnage is fast unlikely to succeed. We have already reached out with our fleet, that's enough.
      2. Eugene
        Eugene April 2 2013 21: 52
        +1
        I dealt with ship repair. Everything is correct. Outside painted, put on, get off. A interior ... Yes, without care and regular repairs .. Kroshevo. Fittings, joints, tracks. Rights of a friend. We ruined such a product! But didn’t it ruin a lot?
      3. Alexander Petrovich
        Alexander Petrovich April 2 2013 22: 10
        +1
        So, does Kirov expect the same fate?
  7. Russian
    Russian April 2 2013 09: 46
    17
    Some strange fires, one after another. I don’t believe in chance ...
    1. Old_kapitan
      Old_kapitan April 2 2013 10: 31
      +1
      Some strange fires, one after another. I don’t believe in chance ...

      Nothing strange. Pay attention to when this emergency leapfrog began - after the new "General Conscription Law" was passed in 1989, according to which former students were exempt from military service and most of the well-trained junior naval specialists were transferred to the reserve.
      1. Russian
        Russian April 2 2013 14: 27
        +5
        Do you associate this with negligence and carelessness? As for me, these fires were "helped", and after them it was already very expensive to modernize and repair the ship. Thus, disguising everything as randomness, they deprived us of an excellent ship, because it did not even have time to reveal its potential.
        1. komendor
          komendor April 2 2013 17: 54
          +4
          About negligence and sloppiness on the ships at that time I do not believe. I saw this colossus in Kronstadt when we were standing, at the factory, under repair. This handsome man moored near us. Even we, a trained crew with open mouths, watched how skillfully the sailors from the Urals worked. And what discipline and order were there, better than ours. We noticed that there were a lot of civilians on the ship. Around a lot of protection, even on the water. I do not believe in negligence. But if there was welding repair work, it is easy not to notice the coals somewhere under the heater. They themselves burned like this, but nothing happened.
          1. Eugene
            Eugene April 2 2013 21: 55
            0
            I only saw "Kirov" and "Nedelin" in Kronstadt. As for the protection of "Nedelenia" I am generally silent ... It seems that they cut him recently.
  8. viruskvartirus
    viruskvartirus April 2 2013 10: 12
    +4
    This project is called the biggest failure of Soviet industry ... and yes, I agree with the Russian, some strange series of fateful events pursued this ship. And to the author, in my opinion a cool topic for the article http://www.militaryparitet.com/ttp/data/ic_ttp/5709/. MS-520 and MS-521 are unique machines, it is not for nothing that the amers insisted on their destruction.
    1. keksus
      keksus 31 March 2014 19: 33
      +2
      and I’ll tell you so, this is not a random sequence of events, but just an error in commanding in the L / C control (I mean sailors of military service), well, judge for yourself the guys who drove this colossus to the ends of the world from Kronstadt and who served for 3 years, they suddenly say well, let's go one more transition to a demobilization, well, first we salted the tank with boiler water (distilled water) and then the tank with turbine oil in the bow, I don’t remember the specific number, but it was in the autumn of 1991 and there were more fires than the article says at least one when the KVG-2 boiler burned out in the same bow car, and the rear admirals from Moscow investigated that fire! They personally came and interrogated everyone
  9. Vovka levka
    Vovka levka April 2 2013 12: 17
    -6
    The main uniqueness of this "electronic miracle" is the amount of gold and rare metals that were used for the electronic filling. According to its technical characteristics, it is just rubbish.
    But when they bombed him, the guys took full advantage of them.
  10. Dwarfik
    Dwarfik April 2 2013 12: 38
    +2
    Kind! Well, why the amers fought for their destruction is understandable, for them what is made with the help of the deepest engineering idea and unique in itself - it freezes them! They didn’t have such opportunities, and yes, the ship is really big and it’s not a problem to become a target, say a submarine!
    1. keksus
      keksus 31 March 2014 19: 21
      0
      problem! in the Urals G / acoustic cutting also exists (or rather was)
      and anti-torpedo systems are also welcome!
  11. gavko
    gavko April 2 2013 12: 56
    +5
    There is a version that the basis of the ship of the project 1941 ("Titan") was taken by the hull of the ore carrier. The sources of this opinion probably stem from the fact that, as a rule, telemetry control vessels (for example, “Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin”) were indeed built on this principle.
    Also, according to most sources, Ural is identical to the TAKR of Project 1144 Orlan by its power plant (from which the erroneous conclusion is often made that the Urals belong to Project 1144).
    In addition to the nuclear power plant, the ship was supplied with energy by two KVG-2 boilers operating on fuel oil - in the bow and stern engine rooms. The backup power plant was intended for use in ports, since the reactors were supposed to be shut down before entering the country's territorial waters in order to eliminate possible troubles.
    Being a warship, the Urals carried armaments - one 76-mm AK-176M artillery mount in the bow and stern, four six-barreled 30-mm AK-630 gun mounts and four 12,7-mm Utes-M machine-guns . The ammunition should have been enough for at least 20 minutes of battle. The ship was also equipped with PPDO means - 4 installations of the Dozhd complex for firing special depth charges against underwater saboteurs. In addition, the ship had a hangar, which housed the Ka-27 helicopter.
    In a massive three-tier superstructure and in spacious masts, numerous military laboratory posts were located.
    In total, the ship’s crew consisted of 890 people, of whom at least 400 were officers and midshipmen. The intelligence personnel were divided into 6 special services.
    The basis of the ship’s electronic equipment was the Coral reconnaissance complex, including two Elbrus computers and several EC-1046 computers.


    Breastplate SSV-33 "Ural"
  12. mark1
    mark1 April 2 2013 14: 38
    +2
    "The development of the KIK project with a nuclear power plant was done at the insistence of the main customer of the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces, who dreamed of having a reconnaissance ship with almost year-round autonomy. The design of this ship, numbered pr.1941, was carried out at the Iceberg Central Design Bureau. trajectory and telemetric measurements, installed on it practically did not differ much from the project 1914, although some of its elements were more advanced.Air armament consisted of one K-27 helicopter.Like the project 1914, the ship was equipped with PP, RTR and GAR In contrast to the project in 1914, this ship immediately placed standard defensive weapons: 2 76 mm AK-176 artillery mounts and 4 30-mm AK-630 assault rifles, Igla MANPADS and 4 12,7 mm machine guns.
    The ship's displacement reached 35 tons (it was the largest "non-aeronautical" nuclear-powered surface ship in the world), full speed exceeding 000 knots, twin-shaft nuclear power plant, autonomy up to 21 days.
    The GRU stubbornly demanded the construction of a second such ship. The Navy objected, since the construction of pr. 1941 interfered with the already sluggish construction of nuclear RKR pr 1144.
    In the opinion of many experts, the creation of this CFC was already an excessive "pleasure". For this reason, the further construction of such ships, despite the desperate resistance of the representatives of the General Staff, was stopped. In this struggle, the leadership of the Navy used a standard technique - as if not rejecting in principle the expediency of building such ships, suggested doing this either instead of the RRC pr 1144, or instead of the program of building nuclear-powered icebreakers of the "Siberia" type. The outcome of the struggle "under the carpet" of the General Staff and the Navy determined the collapse of the USSR: the second ship, pr 1941, was never laid, but the fifth RRC, pr. 1144, was cut on the slipway. "
  13. Takashi
    Takashi April 2 2013 14: 40
    +3
    what a nonsense: "The backup power plant was intended for use in ports, since the reactors were supposed to be shut down before entering the territorial waters of the country in order to eliminate possible troubles." \ ????
    The backup power supply was created just in case the primary one failed.
    Reactors are jammed only in 3 cases: change of fuel rods, replacement \ repair, emergency. Once the reactor is turned off, it’s back just because the car’s engine does not start: either repair. either in a container and in an ostoynik.
    1. Old_kapitan
      Old_kapitan April 2 2013 16: 56
      +1
      What nonsense:
      Reactors are muffled only in 3 cases: change of fuel rods, replacement \ repair, emergency.

      In addition to the above cases, most often the reactor is shut down AFTER ARRIVING INTO THE BASE! And before the trip they start again. Yes, not "Zhiguli" - "had to start half a day before the release. Nevertheless. Believe me as serving on the nuclear submarine.
      A:
      Once the reactor is turned off, it’s back just because the car’s engine does not start: either repair. either in a container and in an ostoynik.
      applies only to liquid metal cooled reactors (such as the nuclear submarine of Project 705 "Lira").
  14. Fuzeler
    Fuzeler April 2 2013 15: 55
    +7
    I remember this ship. My parents and I lived in the village of Danube (my father was a submarine officer), in the Primorsky Territory (Shkotovo-22), the windows of our house on the street. Marine, went just to the sea, and once I saw, instead of an aircraft-carrying cruiser of the "Novorossiysk" class (ships of this project were frequent guests in those places). This ship seemed to me so HUGE (despite the fact that the distance to it was decent, but the AKP like Novorossiysk seemed much smaller compared to the Ural).
    My father asked: "What is this ship with rounds and poles?"
    “This is the Ural, our scout, and these 'rounds and' poles' are locators and antennas,” he answered me. Of course, the word "scout" did not impress me then (I was more fond of something that would SO bang, such as the aged diesel-electric submarines of project 629, or an aircraft-carrying cruiser).
    But I was most struck when I saw him at close range, when we had to go on business to the island of Fr. Putyatin. The ship went at a slight distance from the ship .... The dimensions, of course, were amazing. The height of the side is such that I, then a 5-year-old kid, even at the distance that our motor ship miom of this giant passed, had to lift his head up high to better see it. Exhhh, there was a time))
    1. keksus
      keksus 31 March 2014 19: 52
      +1
      I, too, when we were brought to the Urals at night on the R / B, at night it all seemed to us that we were going to the shore on which we stood at home and soft warm light was pouring from all the windows, but when we got closer .... it was indescribable ecstasy!
  15. MAG
    MAG April 2 2013 16: 51
    +2
    The technology for building large ships seems to be there, but they told us that there isn’t or they are backward, I mean the Mistral! The length of the aircraft carrier Mistral did not lie nearby
  16. komTMG
    komTMG April 2 2013 17: 50
    +1
    In addition, there were proposals to use the elements of the power plant alternately: to leave the base and return to it, the ship should have been using boilers, and at a certain distance from the coast, switch to a nuclear power plant. Testing this idea also took some time.
    As far as I remember, there is a ban on calling ships (vessels) with an operating nuclear reactor at the ports of the Gulf of Finland. In this way they circumvented and bypass this prohibition on the KB.
  17. saturn.mmm
    saturn.mmm April 2 2013 18: 15
    +2
    Dimensions - 265 meters, width 30 and total height of about 70, total displacement of 36500 tons
    And it was built at the "Baltic plant" in Leningrad. This is for those who claim that there is nowhere to build destroyers with a displacement of 15000 tons.
  18. xomaNN
    xomaNN April 2 2013 19: 42
    +1
    Another minor material about the fate of the really strong by the 80th year of the Navy of the USSR. By 2020, at least half of that power will be achieved?
  19. bddrus
    bddrus April 2 2013 20: 07
    +1
    sort of like different ships in the photo then
    1. Samaritan
      Samaritan April 2 2013 21: 12
      +1
      Do not know, in the third photo, what a handsome man?
      1. Per se.
        Per se. April 2 2013 22: 49
        +2
        Quote: Samaritan
        Do not know, in the third photo, what a handsome man?
        This is the ship of the measuring complex of the Russian Navy "Marshal Krylov" (project 1914.1)
  20. MY THOUGHT
    MY THOUGHT April 2 2013 20: 48
    +3
    Sleep peacefully child of a deceased country
  21. Trevis
    Trevis April 2 2013 22: 32
    0
    Oh, such projects ruined! negative
  22. washi
    washi April 2 2013 23: 53
    +1
    The article is not true.
    The permanent position of the "Ural" was planned near the island of Guam. In his work, he had to interact with the Krasnoyarsk RRS of early warning. Gorbachev lost the construction of the RRS. Then the ship's reactor was disabled. (According to one version - sailors).
    As usual, the most stupid ones were written off to the new ship.
    Regular politics - not needed either for promotion or to the academy
    1. keksus
      keksus April 2 2014 03: 01
      +1
      but you’re wrong, dear)) it all started in the aft engine room, the inner wall of the boiler’s combustion chamber burned out and how much it couldn’t be welded, after which the bow boiler (and also not the fault of the sailors) burned out, then there was a shortage of personnel (the ship and was not staffed with specialists) and conscripts from the Union republics were no longer our allies
      for this reason there were very few young fighters from Russia and there was no one to transfer our experience
  23. Grits
    Grits April 3 2013 13: 28
    +4
    But I was lucky to work on this unique ship. It was in the spring and summer of 1991. The ship then stood on a roadstead in Strelok Bay near the island of Putyatin. Between the main base of the fleet near Fokino and the ship, a boat constantly transported civilian specialists, sailors and ship officers. Incidentally, I did not find a special control regime. To get to the ship from the boat, it was enough to show the corresponding pass at the entrance. True, in the general turmoil of the crowd that was constantly arriving, they did not always look at him intently.
    We lived right there in the cabin. They really were very comfortable and convenient. We were engaged in tuning, commissioning and repair of electronic equipment. By the way, his there was apparently invisible. And everything worked pretty poorly. Forever something broke or was broken. In general, the hassle was above the roof. But meanwhile, there were rumors about a possible campaign, or about the fact that the ship would not go anywhere at all. then we did not know the exact information about the condition of the ship. And the ship was really impressive.
  24. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee April 4 2013 07: 49
    +7
    At the time of construction, it was needed and in demand, BUT ... You see the result yourself fool
  25. Conepatus
    Conepatus April 4 2013 15: 46
    -1
    It would be useful even now. The power reserve is unlimited. You can swim under the nose of the adversary and press on your nerves, and any physical provocation, respond with cruise missiles on the infrastructure of the military base and that these are civilian objects. Such a ship can be adapted to the coast of Syria , or Iran, and let him do his work. And explain to all possible friends that any hostile actions will receive more than an adequate answer. And all, nobody goes anywhere.
  26. jayich
    jayich April 8 2013 13: 17
    +1
    This ship absolutely did not need to approach anyone's shores, it alone covered half of the globe to cover the second half of the globe, a second ship of the series was planned request
    1. bvava
      bvava 7 November 2013 01: 29
      0
      There should have been a series of several small ships not with atomic engines
  27. haarte
    haarte 1 May 2013 19: 25
    0
    The fires started because everything was stolen there and it was necessary to hide it. I know what I'm talking about, many on this ship made fortunes on this ship.
    1. bvava
      bvava 7 November 2013 01: 38
      +1
      This is your guess. The ship was very functional. I did it. I taught the operators. I’ll tell you two about fixing and processing, and spying the second and killed it in politics .... For those times Problems - Elbrus2 ban on the use of imported components
    2. keksus
      keksus April 2 2014 03: 11
      +1
      nothing was stolen there, you think of it, I served there for almost 5 years and the only thing that was stolen was chocolate from a food warehouse and we found those guys! many were already in stock and they all returned to the ship and gave real terms (sailors were conscripted at one time they picked up the keys and falsified the seals, but the officers later discovered that one sailor boasted that he still ate state-owned chocolate while he was at his place and got out with whom he ate and in what quantity)
  28. Die-hard
    Die-hard 1 May 2013 19: 27
    +1
    The ship is certainly interesting, yes, but that's why it is needed - so no one could explain it. I went camping and canned food.
  29. keksus
    keksus 31 March 2014 19: 13
    +1
    Quote: avt
    Quote: Professor
    excellent high dimensional weakly protected target

    request So on it is not a bayonet attack to go. And the rest is true, the sizes are obviously overkill. For such purposes it is much more beneficial to have four things, it will be much more efficient given modern equipment and contain cheaper.

    well you think so! well-protected target two powerful electromagnetic circuits around the hull made the ship invisible to instruments this time plus the AK-630 cut any flying target in half and along the fezulage and this is just what I know inside the antenna ball of such power that microwave radiation kills everything is alive within a radius of one kilometer, so when these antennas were working it was forbidden for personnel to go to the upper deck, I served there, I know, and generally, but this is in another koment
  30. keksus
    keksus April 2 2014 03: 37
    +1
    So I don’t understand something, but that there were no more people serving on the CER-33 or no one read this article?
    By the way, the author didn’t describe in technical specifications and didn’t specify one detail when the storm was 7 points from the barrels on the outer roadstead and the ship didn’t just carry ashore, or rather, it carried it at first, but then they remembered in time that the ship had such a device as steering and steering devices working from electricity! that’s what they were going to, and by the way, the Urals, thanks to these devices, could deploy 360 * in place without leaving the circle (imagined of course)
    Well, and yes, if it will be interesting to anyone, I can write about the fire of the nasal machine, then my secrecy is over =)
    and by the way, there was never a so-called movie booth in the Urals =)) but there was only a TV signal amplifier, and the sailors had monitors in the cubicles and as soon as the amplifier was turned on, they showed the same channel, and the midshipmen and officers had a monitor in the cabin companies, in the cabins there were no galleys; there were two one sailor in the stern next to the sailor-je dining room and the other in the bow next to the bakery + 2 company cabins one officer (dining room) and the other midshipman’s
    1. shon1863
      shon1863 16 May 2014 01: 49
      0
      I apologize, but it would be nice to still know the history of the fire :)
      And, as to the original source, the information about the computer complex would be very interesting, since I myself am a computer technician, I imagine how much fuss was with these EU computers and their primitive, labor-intensive languages ​​- did the military personnel deal with this? Or did the civilians serve them?
      1. keksus
        keksus 17 August 2014 03: 12
        +2
        in relation to the fire, this was the case when I entered the shift at 15.00 (local time), I don’t remember litter
        raised the steam to 5 kg, blew it into the hold, went out to 15 kg, blew overboard (blowing is called short-term steam pressure relief) and entered the operating mode (steam pressure 32 kg per cm square), after a while I stood on the water level columns that shouted little water at the WG console (the WG-regulator of combustion, it stands two meters lower than the column) for the watchman to add water supply, well, he added, but the level was still boiling (when bubbles bubble in the level) which means that there is little water
        contacted the PEZH post (energy and survivability post) on internal communications, the duty officer gave an order to hold on for another half an hour and then turn off the boiler (at that time they wanted to pump water from the feed machine, but there was only a dead supply in the tanks, i.e. the water supply which cannot pump out) the watchman on the RG decided to extinguish the combustion on his own and turn off the KVG, after which they started the diesel generator after half an hour they reported that the boiler was shut off and started repairing (he stuck one of the valves he soaked in diesel fuel) after replacing the damaged valve the temperature in the engine room, as it were, it didn’t fall, but on the contrary it increased even more, but no one attached any importance to this and everyone went to sleep somewhere at about 2 in the night we were raised by a fire alarm, and then it started =) there is a turbine above the boiler (which pumps air into boiler and draws off exhaust gases) having removed the casing from the turbine, we saw that the collectors have become burgundy (the thickness of the asbestos coating is 25-30 cm) and on almost all steam pipelines they are so thin smoldering strips went to extinguish them with a wet rag, for three days they could only open the hatch into the combustion chamber of the boiler, and as soon as they brought the carriage they gasped! all the heat-resistant tubes inside the chamber melted and stick out like stalactites and stalagmites, respectively, the opening was carried out under the admirals from Moscow who interrogated us, and then they began to repair all this already workers from the shipyard in Nakhodka
        I helped them in the restoration (the navy excellent student received for this) restored in the best possible way!
        about computers, I will say so myself I personally saw only discs with a diameter of about 500 mm, and officers served them (they didn’t let civilians in, there was a lot of secrecy) and the room where the computer was located was tall, like a two-story house, about all kinds of lamp and wiring devices There were computers, but the lamps as in old b / w televisions were there, and in the monitors that were in the cubicles there were nebylo-pure semiconductor monitors (color)
  31. ccsr
    ccsr 26 December 2017 14: 25
    0
    Quote: Inflexible
    The ship is certainly interesting, yes, but that's why it is needed - so no one could explain it. I went camping and canned food.

    It was a floating "Lourdes" - we could not control the western coast of the United States, which is why the GRU came up with the idea of ​​creating a naval base for a center for electronic intelligence, capable of carrying out long combat duty in the ocean.
    Due to the fact that this ship belonged to the strategic link of intelligence, the naval authorities treated it like a stepson, which is why the fate of this unique ship, which overtook its time, is so tragic. Now he would be very useful after having left Cuba and we have nothing in the Western Hemisphere.