Military Review

Soviet designers of mine weapons completely outplayed the Germanic

45
Soviet designers of mine weapons completely outplayed the Germanic

Mines seriously hampered progress tank columns of the Wehrmacht



In the prewar period to the problem of creating a mine weapons Germany and the Soviet Union showed the greatest interest compared to other countries. You can also note Finland.

It should be emphasized that, despite the not quite adequate opinion about Germany’s technical advantage in various weapons, the technical level of mine development in the Soviet Union was at a higher level. This applies both to the originality and perfection of many technical solutions, which were later copied in Germany and other countries (even in the post-war period), as well as the developed type of mines.

An important advantage of the Soviet mine design school in the prewar period and especially during the war should also be recognized the high adaptation of the proposed technical solutions to the capabilities of the industry of that period and the availability of materials while ensuring high efficiency of defeating enemy targets.

GERMAN APPROACH

By the beginning of the Second World War, the Wehrmacht approached with one T.Mi.35 anti-tank mine (PTM) model (in two versions), one Sprengmine 35 anti-personnel mine (PPM) model (in two versions - pressure and tension action) and a special light PTM le .Pz.Mi. for landing troops. Although in August 1929, for the first time in the world in Germany, a mine development program was adopted: one type of river mine (Flussmine) with a fuse (Zunder), a fire bomb (Brandmine), a radio detonator mine (drahtlose Fernzundung für Minen), according to one anti-tank model (Panzermine) and anti-personnel (Shuetzenmine) mines and special mine laying machine (Minenleger). Their projects were based on fundamental principles: safety (in installation), reliability, economy, simplicity, non-recoverability and durability.

So, Tellermine 35 mine (T.Mi.35) was the most advanced mine weapon model during this period. She had a very reliable and safe to use fuse T.Mi.Z 35, which had two stages of protection, which allowed to carry and carry a mine, fully equipped and ready for use, and also to transfer the fuse from a combat position to a safe position without removing it from mines. With a mass of a bursting charge of 5,5 kg and a triggering force of the 90 – 180 kg fuse, effective destruction of all tanks known at that time was ensured.

Even more famous was the Sprengmine 35 (S.Mi.35) jumping fragmentation mine of a circular defeat (it was usually called either the "frog mine" or in the German style of "springman") by the Red Army. A mine buried in the ground was thrown to a height of up to 1,5 m in 4,5 seconds after the triggering of the fuse. When 365 exploded steel balls (shrapnel) and shell fragments hit targets at a range of 15 – 20 m. It weighed about 5 kg and had a bursting charge around 450 g. It could be used as a push action mine with S.Mi.Z.35 fuse or as mine tension action with two fuses ZZ 35 (later ZZ 42). This mine could also be used as a controlled one by twisting an electric detonator instead of a fuse.

Before the war, she received another push-action electric fuse ESMi.Z.40, which was not installed in a mine, but stuck into the ground at some distance from it and connected to the mine via a special adapter adapter. This adapter allowed the ESMi.Z.18 fuses to be connected to the mine to 40, which sharply increased the likelihood of triggering and allowed it to keep the surrounding terrain under control. Or vice versa - one fuse could trigger at the same time up to 18 min.

However, already at the beginning of 1942, the system deficiency of these high-performance mines (T.Mi.35 and S.Mi.35) was fully manifested - a large labor intensity in manufacturing, high price and the need for highly accurate equipment and skilled workforce in the manufacture of highly sophisticated and reliable fuses T.Mi.Z.35, S.Mi.Z.35, ZZ 35, ZuZZ 35. German industry did not have time to supply the Wehrmacht with such mines in necessary quantities.

The development of mines in Germany, as a powerful defensive means, especially in the fight against tanks, left its mark on the adoption of a blitzkrieg strategy, in which mines were assigned a supporting role (up to 1942 – 1943).

The success of German designers in creating the world's first is worthy of special mention in terms of the originality of technical solutions. aviation remote mining systems. By 87, the Spreng Dickenwend-1939 (SD-2) Schmetterling universal fragmentation mini-bomb was developed for the diving bombers of the Ju-2.

They were equipped with three types of fuses: a) providing an explosion of a bomb in the air or when touching the ground; b) slow motion (5 – 30 minutes); C) triggered by changing the position of the bomb lying on the ground.

These 2 bombs were weighed in kg and placed in drop cassettes - Mk-500 (6 pcs.), AB-23 (23 pcs.), AB-24t (24 pcs.), AB-250 (96 pcs.), AB-250 -2 (144 units). For the first time, the Germans successfully used bomb cassettes in the Polish campaign (September 1939 of the year), and then used them throughout the war. Discharged cassettes were used for bombing infantry columns and infantry positions, and the use of mini-bombs SD-2 in a mine variant aimed only at making it difficult for the enemy to use this terrain and the work of orderlies. Usually part of the bombs in the cassette had delayed-action fuses and shear-sensitive fuses, most of which were conventional fuses. However, the dumping cassettes were not used for staging minefields, since the tactics of remote mining did not exist at that time, and nobody guessed to develop it.

In addition, for conventional high-explosive aerial bombs (100, 250, 500 kg), the Germans developed time-delayed fuses with delays of up to two or three days. They actually turned aerial bombs into object mines of a remote installation, which excluded the possibility of rescue and recovery work at the site of the bombing.

In the Soviet Union, as early as 1924, military engineer Dmitry Karbyshev proposed the first sample of a fuse with an arcuate target sensor for a PTM. The mine itself represented a charge of explosives into which this fuse was put, incorporating an 200-gram trotyl piece as an intermediate detonator. It was adopted by the Red Army as the first model of the service PTM.

One of the first Soviet anti-tank trucks, which were supposed to be produced on an industrial scale, was the mine of T-1932 proposed in 4 year by Nikolai Simonov with a charge of 2,8 kg explosives. It was not possible to organize the mass production of these mines in the factories due to problems with production capacity, but a certain number of these mines were manufactured at military workshops.

Troop tests revealed a number of significant shortcomings of both the Karbyshevsky fuze and this mine. In 1935, it is removed from service and replaced with a metal PTM TM-35. The new mine had a steel rectangular case with a pressure cap and a multipurpose multi-purpose mine explosive hydrocarbon.

In 1932, a prototype of the subsequently widely known MUV fuse, a “simplified hydrocarbon fuse,” appears, which could be used both as a tension and pressure action fuse. For many years, this fuse will become the main mine fuse of the Red Army, and its modifications MUV-2, MUV-3 and MUV-4 are in service today. In 1942, the Germans copied it and released it under the symbol ZZ 42. After the war in Czechoslovakia, it will exist under the symbol RO-1. Under various names, it will be copied by China, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Poland, Israel and some more around 30 countries.

In 1932, the Red Army received a PM-2 dynamo-electric blasting machine, which could, with a total trunk length of up to 1 km, simultaneously detonate up to 25 series-connected electric detonators.

By 1936, the delayed-action fuse of the MZD-35 was adopted for arming the engineering units of the Red Army for completing object mines with a time delay from 12 hours to 35 days.

In 1933, a high-explosive anti-personnel mine, arr, is being developed and put into service. 1933 of the year. In 1934, the DP-1 road bomber, designed to destroy combat and transport vehicles on the roads. Actually, it was one of the first anti-vehicle mines.


In 1939, the TM-35 mine was upgraded and produced under the TM-35M index. Following it was developed and put into service an elongated metal anti-tank anti-track mine TM-39, its wooden version TMD-40, metal anti-tank anti-track mine PMZ-40, anti-tank mine EZ-1, which was activated using an electric lock.

Here we should note the priority of the Soviet design school in the development of a whole series of mines back in the pre-war period, which ensured a reduction in the required consumption of anti-personnel equipment in a minefield. Firstly, it is an elongated mine TM-39, reducing the required consumption in 1,5 times. The Germans came to the realization of this idea only in the 1943 year, having created the Riegelmine 43 mine (R.Mi.43). Secondly, the anti-bottom mine AKS, developed in the second half of 1930-s and entered service with the Red Army at the end of 1939 - the beginning of 1940. It reduced the consumption already twice and ideologically was copied by the Germans only in 1943, as part of the construction of the Tellermine Pilz 43 mine (T.-Mi. – Pilz 43). Third, the absolute priority in the creation of the first anti-aircraft mine in the pre-war period belongs to the Soviet designers. It is known under the name LMG and has reduced the consumption of mines almost 20 times.

However, the capabilities of the then Soviet industry and raw material base were very limited, especially with regard to the metal. Begin the search for alternative materials for mines, which leads to the appearance of two samples of mines from cellulose PTM TMB and PPM PMK-40.

With regard to anti-personnel planning, the Red Army command at first decided to limit the use of universal mine-type fuses (later - MUV), an HMF fuse, which could work as a tension fuse and as an oblique fuse. And the mines themselves were to be assembled in the army on the spot as needed from available means.

AFTER THE FINNISH WAR

During the Soviet-Finnish 1939 – 1940 war, the Red Army command faced the fact that Finnish rifle units on skis easily penetrate into the rear between the units, and it is impossible to close the entire front line with infantry. Immediately at the end of 1939, a wooden anti-ski mine was developed and introduced into production, and by the beginning of 1940, the Red Army received a metal anti-personnel high-explosive fragmentation mine, PMM-6, which was primarily intended against Finnish skiers and used a target metal sensor in its design. bows. Then, a powerful fragmentation jumping anti-personnel guided mine OZM-152 comes into service with the Red Army. By this time, the Red Army is already forming the division of mines into controlled and automatic ones. Mina OZM-152 belonged to managed mines. To control the explosions of such mines, by this time, the Red Army had switches LSI and KRAB-A, which allowed them to be connected to 12 mines. This allowed the creation of controlled minefields.

By the middle of 1940, the anti-personnel high-explosive push-action mine PMK-40, very successful in design, but completely unsatisfactory in terms of the material of the hull, was put into service. The Soviet designers will return to the idea of ​​this mine after the war in 1949, creating a PMN plastic mine, which will become as popular in the world as the Kalashnikov assault rifle.

By the spring of 1941, a wooden anti-personnel high-explosive mine of pressure action PMD-6 was developed, which became the main mine in the war years (by the way, also copied later by the Germans) and has been in service for many decades.

In the 1940, a very successful, reliable and extremely simple push fuse MB-5 was developed and put into service. It consisted of only five parts and could be made in any metalworking workshop. Although he did not have any safety devices at all, however, a rather large response force (10 – 30 kg) and an easy-to-use design practically excluded accidental operation. It is enough to say that this design was used in all Soviet PTM fuses up to the fuses to the post-war mines of the TM-62 series inclusive. Initially, it was used only in the TMB mine. But then, under this fuse, in 1941, the most perfect of all Soviet anti-tank guns of that time, the mine TM-41, is created. Mina was anti-tracked pressure, had a sealed body and was very easy to use. When installing it, all that was required was to unscrew the plug, insert the MB-5 fuse with the MD-2 fuse into the socket and screw the plug back into place.

In winter, the 1940 / 41 of the year, the armament of the Red Army adopts an object mine exploded by radio using a coded radio signal. The range of reliable operation of the radio mine was up to 1200 km. In this regard, the USSR was ahead of Western countries by more than half a century.

By the time Germany attacked the USSR, the Red Army had the following types of mines:
PTM - anti-track TM-35, TM-39, PMZ-40, TMD-40, TM-41, TMB, anti-bottom line AKS;
PPM - PMM-6, PPM, DP-1, OZM-152, PMK-40, PMD-6;
radio-controlled object TOC (F-10).

In addition, there was a whole range of different types of explosives, including delayed-action fuses, push-and-pull fuses, blasting caps, electric detonators, igniter and detonating cords, which made it possible to improvise on-site mines of any purpose and power.

SIMPLE AND EFFICIENT

With the beginning of the war, the development of mine weapons in the USSR received an additional impetus, naturally, given the many restrictions that had developed in industry as a result of the course of hostilities (the loss of a significant part of enterprises in the territory seized by the Germans, the lack of many materials, the insufficiently high technological level of newly deployed industries almost complete lack of qualified personnel).

During the war, the RKKA was armed with a very simple, but very effective anti-personnel fragmentation mine POMZ-2 with a cast iron body. In the summer of 1942, versions of the PMD-6 anti-personnel high-explosive mine, which had been used since 1941, appeared:

a) PMD-BF, in which powdered explosive was placed in a glass vial;
b) PMD-6 in a metal case;
c) more powerful (400 g of TNT) PMD-57;
d) mines of lower power PMD-7 and PMD-7ц ​​(75 g of TNT).

The construction of these mines, with their high reliability, envisaged the possibility of mass production not only by industry, but also in any woodworking workshop, as well as directly in the army. The construction industry enterprises have also joined the production of mines of this type. In particular, the so-called slate mine, which had the appearance and construction of PMD-6, but made of slate, appeared.

In the field of PTM 1942, the year was characterized by the creation of two new wooden, or, as they said, “box” mines. Firstly, it is a mine of NM-5 in several modifications, differing from each other in size and some differences in the design of key elements. Secondly, a very successful mine design TM-42.

In the NM-5 mine, the experience of the 1941 mine control of the year was taken into account, in particular, the insufficient mass of explosive charge in the PTM of the pre-war construction. So, if in the base mine of NM-5 the charge was 2,7 – 3,1 kg, then in the mine of NM-5 it increased to 4,2 – 5 kg, and in the mine NM-5М - to 5,6 – 6,6 kg. Two mines of the YM-5 series (YM-5K and YM-Yu) had a particularly large charge, reaching up to 18 kg. In the mines of the YM-5 series, a truly universal HC fuze and its modifications (HC, MUV) were used. Although this is a tension action fuse, the ingenious design of the mine ensured that the combat checks were pulled out of the fuse when the tank hit the pressure bar of the mine cover.

Mina TM-42 was notable for different equipment variations and was produced in two sizes. In addition, it could have been manufactured either under a pressure fuse MB-5 or under a fuse of MD-4 (that is, there could be no fuse at all in a mine, and the mine went off during deformation of the fuse under the action of a tank caterpillar). In total, there were eight variants of the TMD-42 mine. This made it possible to produce them on the basis of available types of explosives and explosives. Due to the shortage of TNT in the year 1942, surrogate explosives (dynamo) or ammonium nitrate (ammonite, ammonal) were used to equip this mine. The charge of mines in all versions was 5 – 5,5 kg, which ensured reliable disabling of all types of tanks that were available to the Germans. Mina TMD-42 was produced for about a year, but it turned out to be the most successful of all the existing mine mines. Therefore, when the situation with explosives improved, production of its modification, TMD-B, began in 1943, which was replaced by TMD-1944 in 44.

TMD-44 before the beginning of the XXI century was listed in the list of Russian PTM as a fallback for a special period. Its production can be very easily organized in a matter of hours at any woodworking enterprise.

By the spring of the 1943, the Red Army adopted a new metal PTM - TM-43. The advantage of this mine over wooden ones consisted of a longer service life and a much smaller effect on the soil moisture of its combat effectiveness. The Red Army, up to the middle of 1944, used mainly wooden anti-tank and anti-personnel mines, making extensive use of the capabilities of the troops themselves and the population of the front line. Basically fabricated PTM type TMDM-B, variations of NM-5 mines (NM-5K, NM-5M, NM-5i, NM-10) and MRP PMD-6 (variation MIT bf, PMD-7, MIT 7ts, PMD-57). To a greater extent than the mines themselves, mine means of blasting were delivered to the troops - fuses MUV, MV-5, VPF. As the production of metal developed, more and more POMZ-2 fragmentation mines appeared on the front.

In 1944, the production of metal round PTM TM-41, which received the name TM-44 after modernization, was restored. At the same time, a modernized version of the TMD-B mine, called TMD-44, appeared.

The mine war on the Soviet-German front was not limited to anti-tank and anti-personnel mines. The third most common type of mines in the Red Army were anti-vehicle mines, primarily used on railways. The peculiarities of the theater of military operations on the territory of the USSR predetermined the wider use of rail transport than on other fronts, and the great length of German communications made strikes on rail tracks particularly sensitive.

Basically, specially targeted army sabotage groups and special groups of the NKVD were engaged in mining the railways in the occupied territory. The most widely used mines are PDM-1, ПМС, МЗД-4, МЗД-5, МЗД-10, МЗД-35, ДМ-3, ДМ-4, АС.

In the development of mine weapons in the USSR in the prewar period and in the war years, the Military Engineering Test Site (settlement of Nakhabino, Moscow Region), created in 1919, played a special role. Under him, special laboratories were organized, the tasks of which were to conduct experimental work with explosives and explosives, develop new and modernize old mine-explosive means. This was the beginning of the planned work on the development of mine weapons for the Red Army. In the pre-war period, a large number of samples of anti-tank and anti-train mines, fuses and contactors, means and accessories for blasting were tested and tested. The Red Army took E3 and TM-35 mines, П-8 and П-12 fuses, PM-1 and ПМ-2 demolition machines, self-produced metering devices LV, OK-27 and DS-34. A large role in the development and creation of these funds belongs to I.Volkov, N.P.Ivanov, P.G.Radevich, D.V. Chernyshov, I.A.Shipilov and B.A. Epov.

The sharply increased need for mine-explosives in the initial period of the war and the need to manufacture them in non-specialized enterprises (except for explosives and blasting caps) necessitated the urgent creation of new types of anti-tank and anti-personnel mines. It required mines of high combat effectiveness, simplified structures, precluding the use of scarce materials. The development of many mines in the team of the Military Engineering Landfill was headed by Nikolai Ivanov and Pavel Radevich. In 1946, they were awarded the Stalin (State) Prize for their many years of fruitful work in the creation and improvement of mine-explosives.

In total, during the period of the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army installed more than 70 million mines, which exploded up to 10 thousands of tanks and other enemy vehicles.
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  1. Prapor Afonya
    Prapor Afonya 30 March 2013 10: 13 New
    +9
    With regards to this article, it would be nice to remember Ilya Starinov, a deep ideologist of mine warfare, which he considered as the most applicable for use by small units and maximum destruction of enemy aircraft and any military equipment, he describes his work on the use of explosives and explosives in the book " Saboteur's Notes ".
    1. Mikhado
      Mikhado 30 March 2013 14: 09 New
      +3
      Quote: Prapor Afonya
      With regards to this article, it would be nice to remember Ilya Starinov, a deep ideologist of mine warfare, which he considered as the most applicable for use by small units and maximum destruction of enemy aircraft and any military equipment, he describes his work on the use of explosives and explosives in the book " Saboteur's Notes ".

      Mine weapons, by definition, are an equalizer of chances for defenders against a more powerful enemy. In the difficult 1941 we slowed down the blitzkrieg machine not only with living people, as many "historians" write, but also with asymmetric actions, such as mining, both at the front and behind enemy lines, and the main thing was not even inflicting damage, but SLOWING the pace of the offensive - then it was strategically the most important moment.
      Of course. not everything was smooth right away, but studied quickly. And most importantly, we, unlike the proud Aryans, did not hesitate to use any cheap and affordable substitutes for mines and explosives in mine weapons, saving metal and tol for other weapons.
      1. Basilevs
        Basilevs 30 March 2013 22: 12 New
        0
        Quote: Mikhado
        And most importantly, we, unlike proud Aryans, did not hesitate to use any cheap and affordable substitutes for mines and explosives in mine weapons, saving metal and tol for other weapons.

        Back in school, at one time, I was surprised to learn from an NVP-shnik that sometimes air bombs equipped with a lack of explosives equipped them with dried sphagnum moss before flying, and poured liquid oxygen. Maybe the bullshit? I have not tried it myself ...
        1. igordok
          igordok 31 March 2013 09: 10 New
          0
          Oksilikvity - oxygen-filled explosives.
          For war are problematic:
          - obtaining liquid oxygen energy-intensive
          - explosives have a short time of using 1-4 hours (liquid oxygen evaporates)

          It seems that they used it near Moscow, there were no scientific institutes there
          1. anomalocaris
            anomalocaris 31 March 2013 10: 57 New
            +1
            Used both near Moscow and near Leningrad.
    2. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 30 March 2013 16: 47 New
      +1
      Quote: Prapor Afonya
      It would be nice to remember Ilya Starinov, a deep ideologist of mine warfare, which he considered as the most applicable for use by small units and maximum destruction of enemy aircraft and any military equipment, he describes his work on the use of explosives and weapons in the book "Notes of a Saboteur".

      Here are slightly different concepts of "mining", the article tells about the types, types and use of industrial stationary and passive mines. Starinov uses for mining mainly explosives and explosives of an active type, with variable characteristics of the demolitionist.
  2. Sasha 19871987
    Sasha 19871987 30 March 2013 10: 16 New
    +4
    we surpassed them with grenades — while they used a gravel fuse, we first had Dyakonov’s grenade, which exploded in any weather, in a swamp, in water, and even where, and then, in 1942, we invented a unified grenade fuse ... then the Germans completely took a shit ....
    1. brelok
      brelok 30 March 2013 14: 09 New
      +2
      even after 50 years, they are effective. in 95 fell into the hands of a German aviation mine. saved the accident and combat experience of my commander. In Belarus, these gifts are still poked.
      1. Mikhado
        Mikhado 30 March 2013 18: 28 New
        0
        Quote: brelok
        even after 50 years, they are effective. in 95 fell into the hands of a German aviation mine. saved the accident and combat experience of my commander. In Belarus, these gifts are still poked.

        The teenager’s grandfather’s brother was blown up, it seems, in this rubbish, it was in the Pskov region during the war, the partisans fought so much, creatures.
        1. smile
          smile 30 March 2013 19: 21 New
          0
          Mikhado
          In the Kaliningrad region, there are still places where it is strongly discouraged to make bonfires - people are still being blown up ... but mines are not so dangerous, since the fuses have now mostly fallen into disrepair, and the unexploded ordnance that the earth literally pushes out to the surface ...
  3. family tree
    family tree 30 March 2013 10: 35 New
    10
    Mellenthin on the Citadel
    The Russians strengthened their anti-tank missile nodes with minefields and anti-tank obstacles, as well as mines randomly scattered between the mine belts. The speed with which the Russians set mines was truly amazing. Two or three days was enough for the Russians to install more than 30 thousand mines. Often we had to neutralize 40 thousand mines per day in the offensive zone of the corps. During the Kursk offensive, even after delving into the Russian defenses for 12 miles, we often found ourselves surrounded by minefields. In this regard, we should once again mention the art of disguise, characteristic of our opponent. It was not possible to detect either minefields or anti-tank areas until the first tank exploded on the mines or the first Russian anti-tank gun opened fire.
    They even managed to spread the "buns" in the line of sight of the enemy in a tank-hazardous direction! There were people!
  4. Seaman
    Seaman 30 March 2013 11: 21 New
    +3
    And the "rail war"? How many forces of the Wehrmacht were pulled from the front and did not reach there
  5. shpuntik
    shpuntik 30 March 2013 11: 34 New
    +6
    The author shows the miner :-) He described everything in detail, he knows the topic.
    1. Alex
      Alex 3 October 2013 23: 32 New
      +2
      The author shows the miner :-) He described everything in detail, he knows the topic.

      I would say even tasteful! Thanks for the article and a good "+"!
  6. Genady1976
    Genady1976 30 March 2013 11: 39 New
    +7
    Our mines are the most mine mines.
    1. Kortik
      Kortik 30 March 2013 13: 35 New
      11
      Of course we are the first in the mine business. Everyone will remember their childhood years. Then everyone knew at least a dozen recipes for the preparation of all sorts of explosives with sulfur, saltpeter, gunpowder, potassium permanganate, etc. Everyone invented and constantly tested new types of "APU". My dad, when I was about 15 years old, as he told me what bombs they made, I just went nuts, it was possible to make such "tactical warheads" from scrap materials.
      1. Stas57
        Stas57 30 March 2013 15: 05 New
        +3
        Everyone invented and constantly tested new types of "APU".


        You say the truth, only from such experiments, my pugach exploded, his eyes burned, a classmate was left without a finger, to pieces to the next school 2 ... echo of war
  7. povkonavt
    povkonavt 30 March 2013 11: 45 New
    +2
    Quote: shpuntik
    The author is visible miner :-)

    And where does the miner - not the miner? For "blacks" everything is clear. Only ++++++++++++
    1. shpuntik
      shpuntik April 1 2013 23: 21 New
      +1

      Yes, this is such a compliment to a professional, an overlooked plus in your opinion. It can be seen when the author is in the subject. For those who are in the tank :-) By the way, "negros" is who, in your opinion?
  8. igordok
    igordok 30 March 2013 13: 17 New
    0
    Thank you for the article. Only here the lack of illustrations reduces the pleasure of reading.
    1. vladimirZ
      vladimirZ 30 March 2013 17: 05 New
      +3
      It is impossible to distribute "illustrations" of mines, because some designs of mines are so simple that they are easily replicated in handicraft-garage production. And in our country there are enough psychos who are ready to embark on a "mine war" simply "out of interest in technology."
      1. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris 31 March 2013 11: 02 New
        0
        Yeah. We still need to ban kitchen knives - all the same, the most common murder weapon ... There are enough psychos everywhere, and to create IEDs, minimal knowledge of chemistry and the presence of more or less straight arms are enough.
        1. vladimirZ
          vladimirZ 31 March 2013 14: 29 New
          +1
          No one will forbid kitchen knives, but combat knives are prohibited, hunting according to special documents.
          So you don’t have to jerk if you don’t understand the potential danger of being too informed about special combat weapons with a great damaging effect, like mines. They recalled at least Belarusian metro fuses - young loafers, one of whom was sentenced to death, who blew up a homemade mine in Minsk.
          1. anomalocaris
            anomalocaris 31 March 2013 14: 54 New
            0
            And where is the jerking? If some people don’t get the simple idea that it’s not things that are dangerous and not even information, but people that are dangerous, then it’s not my fault.
            I don’t know how old you are, but my happy childhood and adolescence fell on the 80s. So, I knew how to get ammonium iodide, lead tetrazide, dinitronaphthalene and many more interesting things at a rather snotty age. Only something more serious than a cracker to depict and never occurred to me ... By the way, the cannon and implosive scheme of the loaf kernels was given in the physics textbook for the 10th grade, and by the way, the principle of their action was also described there, and so what?
            1. igordok
              igordok 31 March 2013 19: 26 New
              0
              anomalocaris
              I look at you with chemistry. good
              I completely agree with you. Information on IEDs in RuNet is unmeasured, and the image of a fuse that you can’t do at home will not provoke the manufacture of a hellish machine. And the illustrations in the article would show the shortcomings and advantages of WWII mines.
              Yes, ammonium iodide, etc. at one time they could be made from very affordable products.
              1. anomalocaris
                anomalocaris April 1 2013 10: 22 New
                0
                The funniest thing is that a fuse can be made, but here's a detonator capsule ... It's for suicides. Although now getting a CD is not a problem.
            2. Alex
              Alex 3 October 2013 23: 43 New
              +2
              Quote: anomalocaris (2)
              how to get ammonium iodide, lead tetrazide,

              To get ammonium iodide is not a problem, but why - it does not explode and is generally useless for military affairs. Unlike iodine nitride!

              How did you manage to get lead tetrazide, which is unstable and decomposes almost at the time of receipt - I can’t imagine. The stabilization of this extremely unstable compound is possible due to the preparation of trialkyl (or aryl) derivatives, which are actually structural analogues of ordinary lead azide. By the way, the synthesis of lead azide is an easy task only if you have ready-made sodium azide, which is very problematic. If you don’t have it, then synthesizing it at home is impossible, no need to fantasize.
  9. Moccal
    Moccal 30 March 2013 14: 07 New
    +2
    Good article. The author has a huge respect.
  10. Shesternyack
    Shesternyack 30 March 2013 14: 15 New
    0
    Mines from cellulose or wood - to which only Russian savvy will not reach in conditions of lack of material))) hi
    1. APASUS
      APASUS 30 March 2013 16: 17 New
      0
      Quote: Shesternyack
      Mines from cellulose or wood - to which only Russian savvy will not reach

      Not only that, air bombs and entire ship hulls from CONCRETE were also produced!
      1. Basilevs
        Basilevs 30 March 2013 22: 17 New
        +1
        I read in the memoirs of Albert Speer how Goering quite seriously suggested that he build steam locomotives out of concrete. But I hear about the concrete hulls of ships for the first time. It would be interesting to know where it is written about it. It sounds unrealistic.
        1. APASUS
          APASUS 31 March 2013 00: 11 New
          0
          Quote: Basilevs
          concrete hulls of ships I hear for the first time. It would be interesting to know where it is written about it. It sounds unrealistic.

          Such ships were quite common in the war. I don’t remember exactly where I read it all, but read here http://copypast.ru/2008/01/30/korabl_iz_betona_8_foto.html
          And here a little http: //japanrussia.ru/russko-aponskaa-voina-istoria-korablestroeni

          ai-voorugenii-betonnie-korpusa-.html
      2. Ghenxnumx
        Ghenxnumx 31 March 2013 00: 06 New
        +2
        Quote: APASUS
        Not only, air bombs and whole ship hulls from CONCRETE!

        I confirm. In Rostov-on-Don, on the Green Island, there is one such barge, half flooded
      3. APASUS
        APASUS 31 March 2013 11: 49 New
        0
        that's what the ram put me minus ?? ...........
      4. APASUS
        APASUS 31 March 2013 11: 52 New
        0
        Quote: APASUS
        Not only that, air bombs and entire ship hulls from CONCRETE were also produced!

        that's what the ram put me minus ??.
    2. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 31 March 2013 11: 04 New
      +1
      The Germans themselves made mines from cardboard, glass, concrete ... Mines in general are such a thing that can be depicted from any material at hand.
  11. valiant
    valiant 30 March 2013 14: 30 New
    +4
    But I would like to hear about the mine weapons of the Navy, since there is very little information about this, as far as I know, the Germans were ahead of everyone in the development of sea mines (especially non-contact and multiple mines). Remember our excellent film on this topic - "Allegro with Fire".
  12. Prapor Afonya
    Prapor Afonya 30 March 2013 17: 08 New
    +3
    Quote: Mikhado
    Quote: Prapor Afonya
    With regards to this article, it would be nice to remember Ilya Starinov, a deep ideologist of mine warfare, which he considered as the most applicable for use by small units and maximum destruction of enemy aircraft and any military equipment, he describes his work on the use of explosives and explosives in the book " Saboteur's Notes ".

    Mine weapons, by definition, are an equalizer of chances for defenders against a more powerful enemy. In the difficult 1941 we slowed down the blitzkrieg machine not only with living people, as many "historians" write, but also with asymmetric actions, such as mining, both at the front and behind enemy lines, and the main thing was not even inflicting damage, but SLOWING the pace of the offensive - then it was strategically the most important moment.
    Of course. not everything was smooth right away, but studied quickly. And most importantly, we, unlike the proud Aryans, did not hesitate to use any cheap and affordable substitutes for mines and explosives in mine weapons, saving metal and tol for other weapons.

    The GRU special forces sabotage groups use mine-disruptive measures as an attack, not a defense, and on the other hand, why not save people's lives at the expense of mines?
  13. George
    George 30 March 2013 18: 35 New
    +2
    Hello all.
    I remember watching a program about ten years ago, and in it the highly respected Ilya Starinov told how they “met” some high-ranking German. A 150 kg land mine was installed in the basement of the building where the German was supposed to settle. While examining the building, the Germans found and defused a land mine, reported a "clean" house. The German has moved in, SHARAKH! German kaput. It turns out that another mine was laid under this mine, twice as large in mass. That's how they shod the nemchuru.
  14. zennon
    zennon 30 March 2013 20: 15 New
    0
    ... the echo of war [/ quote]
    His captive brother. lol
  15. Rriv
    Rriv 30 March 2013 20: 27 New
    0
    Quote: GEORGE
    It turns out that under this land mine another one was laid, twice as much in mass. So shod nemchuru

    This other was a radio-controlled landmine.
  16. REZMovec
    REZMovec 30 March 2013 20: 48 New
    +1
    Anti-personnel POMZ-2 and POMZ-2M were in service with us back in the 80s of the last century. I had to face.
  17. valiant
    valiant 30 March 2013 22: 44 New
    +2
    Quote: Basilevs
    invited him to build steam locomotives out of concrete

    Well, at least the Germans made concrete armored vehicles:
    Borgward ii

    And ours also tried to put concrete protection on the T-34 ...
    1. igordok
      igordok 31 March 2013 09: 15 New
      +2
      Quote: valiant
      Well, at least the Germans made concrete armored vehicles:


      Then not armored vehicles, but "concrete equipment" soldier

      Only mines and bombs were created from concrete (and even that, only small-caliber ones). And armored vehicles, ships, etc. created from reinforced concrete.
  18. Raul
    Raul 31 March 2013 05: 15 New
    0
    Sprengmine 35 (S.Mi.35), a jumping round fragmentation round-bomb, became even more famous (the Red Army men usually called it either a “frog mine” or, in the German way, “springmin”). Buried in the ground mines were thrown to a height of 1,5 m after 4,5 seconds after the fuse. During the explosion, 365 steel balls (shrapnel) and fragments of the body hit targets at a distance of 15–20 m. It weighed about 5 kg and had a bursting charge of about 450 g.


    High-explosive shrapnel (anti-personnel fragmentation leaping round mine) of Staff Captain Karasev, Port Arthur 1904-1905.

    The idea of ​​Karasev was to ensure the maximum damaging effect of a land mine due to its detonation above the ground. The charge of gunpowder located in the bottom part when it detonated a landmine ejected it from the pit, while the exhaust igniter worked (the lower part of the landmine remained in the ground, and an exhaust cord was attached to it). The explosion of the warhead occurred at a certain height (optimally 0,7-1,5 m.), Which achieved the maximum efficiency of the use of damaging elements. It was possible to circularly defeat the enemy, regardless of his position (standing, lying, behind small folds of terrain) in the radius of expansion of the striking elements.


  19. Takashi
    Takashi 31 March 2013 06: 52 New
    0
    70 mines vs 000 cars. ????

    What about "manpower" there are statistics?
  20. valiant
    valiant 31 March 2013 10: 33 New
    0
    Quote: igordok
    Only mines and bombs were created from concrete (and even that, only small-caliber ones). And armored vehicles, ships, etc. created from reinforced concrete

    Naturally, reinforced concrete, there are many moving parts, to which all this was attached to the same thing. But the bombs were 5-ton:

    Concrete bombs and slate mines were “used” by Soviet troops in the battle for the Caucasus. From the materials of the former head of the military department of Glavcement Narcompromstroimaterialov S. D. MAKASHEV: a production line was created at the Proletary plant for the production of cement bombs of air bombs - the so-called TsABs. In total, about 20 thousand of them left the “proletarian” conveyor ... all cement plants switched to the production of similar products, releasing them from November 1941 to August 1942, when the Germans came close to Novorossiysk. Local craftsmen “molded” reinforced concrete shells from Novorossiysk cement even for unique five-ton bombs. Where and for what local weapons are required, depended only on its filling. Explosives and chemicals could be placed in a concrete case. The latter were used in lighting bombs. They were dropped on a specific target, but they did not explode, and from the ground they illuminated the places of bombardment to pilots. Most likely, the shells of the shells were sent to arsenals, and there the military already filled them with tol or trotyl.
    1. APASUS
      APASUS 31 March 2013 11: 13 New
      0
      Quote: valiant
      Local craftsmen "molded" reinforced concrete shells from Novorossiysk cement even for unique five-ton bombs.

      I read memoirs and it was said there that pouring such an explosive bomb was considered a deadly trick, but ours learned how to do it without any problems.
      The fact is that the mixer for explosives had a maximum capacity of about 100 kg and had to be fired such a shell several times.
      1. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris 31 March 2013 14: 01 New
        0
        It is doubtful. TNT and explosives based on it are quite stable explosives. Cast TNT may not even detonate from KD # 8 ...
        1. APASUS
          APASUS 31 March 2013 15: 39 New
          0
          Quote: anomalocaris
          It is doubtful. TNT and explosives based on it are quite stable explosives. Cast TNT may not even detonate from KD # 8 ...

          The problem is that all shells, mines, bombs must be loaded with explosives in one go.
          1. anomalocaris
            anomalocaris 31 March 2013 15: 48 New
            +1
            I know that, but what is deadly about it?
            1. APASUS
              APASUS 31 March 2013 16: 40 New
              0
              Quote: anomalocaris
              I know that, but what is deadly about it?

              In some types of ammunition, nitroester-based explosives are used, so it’s not recommended to clap your hands in workshops!
              1. anomalocaris
                anomalocaris 31 March 2013 16: 48 New
                0
                But these bombs were equipped specifically with ammotol. And then nitroesters?
                1. anomalocaris
                  anomalocaris 31 March 2013 17: 10 New
                  0
                  I beg your pardon.
                  FAB-5000NG was equipped with a mixture of TGA. But this explosive does not have excessive sensitivity.
                2. APASUS
                  APASUS 31 March 2013 18: 59 New
                  0
                  Quote: anomalocaris
                  But these bombs were equipped specifically with ammotol. And then nitroesters?

                  In wartime conditions, these bombs were filled with everything that was currently available
                  1. anomalocaris
                    anomalocaris 31 March 2013 19: 08 New
                    0
                    That's exactly THIS bomb "all in a row" can not be filled. And not too many of them were used.
  21. mox
    mox 31 March 2013 19: 00 New
    +2
    All this is good. But it was necessary to fight with anything especially in 1941.
    Here is from the recollection of a veteran of the battles near Moscow (October 1941, cadets of an engineering school receive mines at a factory for engineering barriers on the Luga River):
    I stayed in the factory. The military representative took me to his desk and showed me samples of anti-tank mines produced by a cardboard factory.

    “B-5, five-kilogram paper,” he said, handing me a round cardboard box soaked in a waterproof resinous mixture.

    The inside of the box, reminiscent of a much larger pharmacy cachet, was flooded with fused tol.

    The military representative was observant. I immediately noticed that the B-5 mine did not impress me.

    - I do not like?

    - Bulky, comrade military engineer. Sometimes you have to, you know, mine under fire, especially there is no time to dig. I peeled off a layer of sod, put a mine under it and then - the mine should be flat. You don’t suddenly slip such a B-5, but slip it in - a hill will remain, you can see from afar that it’s a mine. No disguise, stealth. Uncomfortable to carry, no handles, carry around. The capsule hole is one, the second — the secret capsule cannot be inserted — the German creeps up, clears it in two counts. Forgive me, comrade military engineer, maybe I have no right to criticize such a thing?

    - No, you're done! - the military representative laughed. - You know the thing. I love that. Have you seen German TV? Flat, with handles, insert at least three capsules - on top, in the rib and from the bottom. Is it good Well, why are you pulling your lips, admit it!

    - It’s very heavy ... The capsule is such a sissy copper ... No use!

    “And I will say ... good!” - Revived the military representative. - There are drawbacks. But still a mine is like a mine. Not our handicraft! Take a look at this freak. CM, the so-called "cylindrical mine."

    Holding up my palm, I took a stump of a cast-iron pipe sealed at the ends and also filled with fused explosive. The history of the cylindrical mine was curious: one of the Moscow plants discovered a large stock of pipes prepared for water supply and sewage. They put the pipes into action - a new type of mine was born. The cylindrical mine was ineffective and extremely inconvenient to use.

    “As for action, wherever it goes,” said the military representative. - It is important that the cylindrical mine will be released until the pipes run out at the plant. The pipes will run out, another random material will fall, they will begin to sculpt another type of mine. At the front, sappers are confused. Cadets do not count - people are literate, quickly get comfortable with a new mine. And an ordinary sapper? Handicraft will cost us dearly.

    The engineering forces of the Red Army at the beginning of the war were wretchedly armed. Compared to us, the Germans were rich. For example, they had standard sets of field fortifications. As soon as the tanks made a breach and the infantry seized the position, firing point frames were thrown, ready stakes for wire fences, mostly iron, even factory-made plates were attached: “Forzicht - mine”, “Caution - mines”. German mines were not made from random material, were intricate, sometimes excessive, and had great destructive force and a wide range of action. Shrapnel infantry threw a metal glass filled with shrapnel from the ground, which burst in the air at chest level, shrapnel wounded fighters at a considerable distance; this mine mine capsules had three grades - pressure, tension and grater action. Each German had a small shoulder blade, which, if necessary, could be used as a hoe; she wore in a black case of magnificent leather, and in our army ... No ready-made kits for field fortification. Lack of small shovels - the soldiers died from the fact that there was nothing to dig into the battlefield. Demos needed trivia like crimps. The mines of TsM and B-5 were symbols of our squalor.
    1. Hudo
      Hudo 31 March 2013 23: 10 New
      -2
      Quote: mox
      All this is good. But it was necessary to fight with anything especially in 1941.


      By 1944, the situation turned around, exactly the opposite.
      "In addition to the antipersonnel mines already in use, the high-explosive push action glass mine Glasmine 44 (Glas.Mi. 43) began to arrive at the front in April 43. The mine belonged to the category Behelfsminen, ie auxiliary mines, was developed at the end of 1943. as an addition to the mines of the Heeresminen category, i.e. the service mines of the Wehrmacht.

      This mine was a glass jar with a diameter of 15 cm and a height of 8 cm, inside which a 200-gram TNT or melinite checker Sprengkoerper 28 (less often a paper box with powdered TNT or melinite) was placed. Above the checker in the middle of the height of the case, a metal membrane was placed with a hole in the center in which a pressure fuse was installed. A thin glass disk was mounted on top, and a glass pressure cover was placed on it.

      Initially, a metal push lever fuse min-wermaxt-d-2.jpg (8650 bytes) Hebelzuender 44 was used in the mine, in subsequent series of mines the chemical fuses Glaszuender SF-14 (CZB), Topfminezuender SF-1 and the Druckzunder SF-6 fuse were used.

      The corps of these mines in 1944-45. over 11 ml were produced. pieces (of which 1ml. 125 thousand in 45g.), but at the time of the end of the war 9.7ml. buildings remained to be in warehouses, because The practice of using these mines has shown that they are inconvenient to use because of the fragility of the hulls, and also, because the mine had to be collected practically at the mining site, it is dangerous because of the inconvenience of installing a fuse.
      Finally, by January 1945, mines began to be made just from concrete. One or two 200-gram checkers or a bag with piston-shaped explosives were poured into a concrete cube, adding granite crushed stone, broken glass, and metal trash to the concrete. In a word, everything that, according to the manufacturers, could cause injury to enemy soldiers. Such mines did not have a single design, dimensions. they united under the name Betonmine. "
  22. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign April 1 2013 09: 42 New
    0
    The article is good! Full ... Specific ... Put a plus.
    Request to the author: indicate the sources in more detail. Since in terms of the depth of the topic and the detailing it is very similar, it was not without Yu.G. Veremeyev "Attention! Mines!", One of the best modern specialists in engineering, sapper and mine work.
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris April 1 2013 10: 19 New
      -1
      And his site is magnificent. I advise everyone http://www.saper.etel.ru/
      Except vladimirZ, since there are very scary pictures revealing the terrible and hidden essence of nightmare fuses ... request And the most terrible of them is the MUV
      1. anomalocaris
        anomalocaris April 2 2013 12: 06 New
        0
        As expected ... Not a very smart individual was noted.