Taking off the MiG-31 in every Perm engine builder evokes a sense of elation and pride. The power of the interceptor is amazing. Valery Menitsky, test pilot, Hero of the Soviet Union: “I can say with absolute certainty: neither the United States nor our European opponents have such an aircraft. This complex has enormous potential opportunities. ”
The supersonic MiG-30 interceptor fighter-interceptor that appeared more than 31 years ago in service of the Soviet Air Defense Forces is still the fastest and highest-altitude combat aircraft in the world. To a large extent, its unique characteristics are due to the capabilities of the power plant, which includes two engines D-30Ф6.
The engine for the MiG-31 was supposed to provide the following technical parameters: maximum speed MP = 2,83, maximum speed at ground 1500 km / h, flight range with outboard fuel tanks 3300 km, practical ceiling 20 600 m, thrust at maximum aftercompress mode 9500 kgf, traction in full forced 15 500 mode kgf, specific fuel consumption (unit fuel consumption per unit of thrust per hour at H = 0, M = 0): at maximum forced 1,9 mode kg / kgf / h, at maximum low speed 0,72 mode kg / kgf h .
Such stringent requirements for the engine were due to the need to create an interceptor fighter to combat new models of strategic and offensive weapons capable of detecting and destroying air targets flying at extremely small, medium and large (up to 30 km) altitudes and at speeds up to 4000 km / hour.
For such a unique aircraft, an equally powerful high-power engine with high efficiency was required. It was entrusted with the development of this engine to the Perm engine-building design bureau (ICD) under the direction of P. A. Solovyov (at present Aviadvigatel OJSC, general designer A. A. Inozemtsev).
Solovyov decided to make a two-circuit engine with an afterburner chamber with a mixture of external and internal engine circuits. At that time, there were quite a few opponents of such a scheme, since power plants had not yet been produced by a similar scheme.
The creation of the D-30F6 engine with specified characteristics in a unique range of flight conditions was a complex scientific and technical problem with many unknown and "white spots".
The history and methodology of creating and finishing the D-30Ф6 turbojet engine for the MiG-31 interceptor fighter goes into the distant 50 years of the 20th century and is worthy of deep and close study. From the very beginning of its creation in 1939, the Perm IBC has paid great attention to promising developments.
P. A. Soloviev after his death in 1953, A. D. Shvetsova became one of the youngest chief designers in the country. At the same time, he already had a great deal of experience in the design and development of engines, and most importantly, he had a very valuable quality - the gift of foresight, based on theoretical knowledge and intuition. This gift, supported by the calculations of ICD specialists, helped to timely determine the right direction in choosing a two-circuit engine scheme that is promising for many years.
Showing the ability to “show the goods face”, P. A. Solovyov argued with calculations that double-circuit engines have an outstanding set of economic and operational characteristics, allow for high compression ratios in the compressor and high gas temperatures in front of the turbine at low losses with the output rate of the stream discarded. The subsequent history of the development of the world engine building confirmed the correctness of the choice made then. P. A. Solovyov can rightly be considered a pioneer in the development of bypass engines in our country, and the Perm ICD as an advanced laboratory for their development. 1955 year. The first in this series, the D-20 engine (R = 6800 kgf) was a two-shaft two-circuit (m = 1,5) engine with an afterburner in the outer contour. The D-20 was designed and tested in 1955 – 1956, and its fine-tuning work yielded valuable data for creating engines of a similar circuit.
1956 year. An outstanding project for its time was the dual-engine D-21. The engine was designed according to a single-shaft scheme with a common afterburner chamber, with a high temperature in front of the turbine (TSA * = 1400 K) and is designed for a very high supersonic flight speed. At the same time, the ICD took over the development of an adjustable supersonic air intake, a complex and responsible unit that was traditionally designed and built by airplanes. Tests conducted at TsAGI, confirmed that the all-mode air intake, developed in the ICD according to the original axisymmetric scheme, significantly exceeded the existing samples in its parameters. The D-21 engine is well ahead of its time. A similar single-shaft TRDDF, but at a slightly lower flight speed, the French M-53 engine for the Mirage 2000 was created 20 years later. Unfortunately, work on the D-21 engine in 1960 was stopped due to the cessation of work on the aircraft.
1966 – 1967 years. The D-30F engine (product 38) was designed, manufactured and tested for thrust Rf = 11,5 tf, and in 1971, the engine No. 38-04 passed the test at the high-altitude engine center TsAM to test the afterburner at low engine air pressure.
Projects of the 50-60s of the twentieth century (D-20, D-21 and D-30F) were ahead of their time, since for many years in supersonic aviation single-turbojet turbojets dominated, but the requirement of multi-mode (a combination of subsonic and supersonic flight speeds), better operational characteristics and a number of other advantages led to the fact that dual-circuit engines began to occupy a dominant position in supersonic aviation around the world in the 70s.
For the first time in the country
Preliminary work at ICD on the creation of the afterburner D-30F6 began in accordance with orders of the Ministry of Aviation Industry (MAP) from 27.01.1970 of the year and from 16.08.1971, and full-scale R & D works later on the basis of a decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the Council of Ministers from 12.05.1974 of the year and an order of the MAP from 01.07.1974 of the year . In a short time, using the experience gained in creating a demonstration engine (38 products), a new supersonic TRDDF D-30Ф6 project was developed.
The engine was designed using the aerodynamics of the compressors of the D-30 (Tu-134) and D-30KU / KP (Il-62 and Il-76) motors with the necessary design changes due to the new operating conditions.
The choice in 1955 of the dimension of the gas generator and its seven-stage high-pressure compressor (HPC) for the turbofan D-20 allowed, without changing the dimensions of the seven basic stages, to create a family of turbofan engines with a load from 5,5 to 16 TC.
From the memoirs of V. M. Chepkin (at that time the deputy chief designer at the Perm MKD, later the general designer of the Lyulka Design Bureau): “The revolutionary nature of the newly developed engine was that we used a two-circuit engine with 22 compression ratio which flies at a speed of 3000 km / h. We were all told that such a motor would not work, since we brought the gas temperature indicator in front of the turbine to 1640 K, when at that time everyone flew at 1400 K. Of course, such changes required a new cooling system, new materials for turbine blades and disks, ideology tweaking engine. There were a lot of problems, disputes were terrible, we received a huge number of negative opinions, including from the Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM). But we were able to convince everyone. ”
A number of new issues were resolved: the optimal engine parameters were chosen, in particular, the bypass ratio m = 0,5, which became classic for many subsequent engine projects of similar purpose in our country and abroad, the parameters and control programs of the three engine contours (main circuit, nozzles and a contour of regulation of fuel consumption of an afterburner), ensuring the maintenance of optimum traction-economic and operational characteristics of the engine.
In particular, a special program was developed to increase the temperature of the gas in front of the turbine with an increase in the aircraft’s flight speed. This ensured obtaining the required thrust at the second critical point: at an altitude of 20 km and at a flight speed of 2500 km / h. Later, scientists at CIAM called this "temperature promotion." Thus, a technique was developed for obtaining a steep speed characteristic of the engine, which later also became a classic for subsequent projects.
It is especially necessary to highlight the development of an automatic control system and fuel supply (ACS and TP), where for the first time in domestic practice EECM was designed and implemented as the main regulator of the turbofan operation modes (RED-3048). Works on this system were carried out at the Perm Aggregate Design Bureau (PACB) under the supervision of Chief Designer A. F. Polyansky, and then G. I. Gordeev.
Due to the low elemental reliability of the D-30F6 engine at that time, two control systems were installed: the main one - the digital RED-3048 and the duplicate - hydromechanical SAU.
The ideology, algorithms and refinement of the electronic-hydro-mechanical ACS and TP were carried out jointly by the ICD specialists P. A. Solovyov and PACB (now OJSC STAR).
For the first time in our country, a mathematical model was applied to analyze the unsteady thermal state of the fuel-oil system of a high-temperature engine, which made it possible not to send the engine to CIAM for testing at a high-altitude stand. The thermal state of the system under flight conditions was analyzed using a matmodel. The obtained data were linked with the results of the bench, and then the flight tests. This work was highly appreciated by the specialists of CIAM and later scored on state engine tests.
Great difficulty in the process of debugging was represented by the main combustion chamber (CS). In the domestic and foreign aircraft engine building, there were COPs operating at TC * 900 K, and for D-30F6 it was required to ensure reliable and efficient operation at TC * = 1024 K.
As a result of intensive research, computational and experimental work, together with CIAM, exclusive solutions were found: to exclude fuel combustion along the walls of the flame tubes, cooling air was supplied through corrugated rings between the flame tube sections; to form a uniform temperature field at the turbine inlet, redistribution air supply with the help of special holes in the mixing zone of the flame tube, the initial collapsible design of the nozzle did not provide tightness at TK *> 950 K, and only the development and implementation of a welded nozzle design using electron beam welding ensured its complete tightness.
High pressure turbine. To ensure the performance and the required resource at TCA * = 1640 K, first of all the blades, designs of nozzle and working blades 1 and 2 of the th stages with convective film and convective cooling were worked out, for which it was necessary to increase the cooling resource of the air taken for cooling turbines.
For this purpose, for the first time in the industry, an air-to-air heat exchanger was developed and applied in the outer channel of the engine. A decrease in the cooling air temperature by 20 – 40 percent made it possible to raise the temperature of the gas in front of the turbine by 90 – 180 K, which proved the feasibility and effectiveness of this measure.
Afterburner (FC). When fine-tuning the engine, there was an acute problem of studying vibration vibration in FC, which manifested itself in conditions different from those of the earth. The study of this issue required expensive, time-consuming tests on the CIAM high-altitude stand or in flight. On the instructions of the general designer, studies were carried out with the help of an adequate “linkage” to the mathematical model of the engine, which showed the possibility of simulating the operating conditions of the FK on its own stands. To do this, the ICD created two special stands with simulated flight conditions for temperature to test the engine under conditions close to the flight. This made it possible to significantly reduce the time needed for finishing the FC and save significant funds. The problem was solved by conducting tests on the stands of the enterprise in an equivalent mode. For the first time in domestic practice, a fuel injection and fuel ignition system was introduced into the engine in FC using the “fire path” method.
An interesting story is the creation and refinement of a multimode adjustable nozzle. Initially, the nozzle was developed and then until the flight tests supplied TMKB "Soyuz", which won the IBC in the competition, because, unlike the Perm design bureau, it had experience in developing adjustable nozzles. It was a beautiful, professionally designed construction. The first tests revealed flaws: increased leakage, insufficient rigidity - because of which the critical section of the nozzle was “inflated”, weight excess and others. Colleagues corrected rigidity, but they failed to cope with leaks and masses.
Long unsuccessful correspondence, negotiations. The moment came when the general designer made the decision: “Make the nozzle by ourselves”. ICD had no experience in developing such nodes, but they set to work ardently and with passion, having studied the mountains of technical literature and using the work of their Moscow colleagues. Of course, in our own design defects and defects appeared, but they were eliminated both faster and more efficiently.
To ensure the flight characteristics of the MiG-31, it was necessary to control the operation of the nozzle in an extremely wide range, namely: at maximum flight speed MP = 2,83, the degree of decrease in gas pressure in the engine nozzle changes almost 20 times, while the degree of expansion of the nozzle (ratio of output section to the critical section area) - more than three times.
Under such conditions, there was a loss of gas-dynamic stability, shaking the nozzle (the so-called bu bulation). This problem was solved by organizing bypassing atmospheric air to the flow part of the engine on unstable operation modes without degrading the nozzle characteristics on the main modes using special valves on the nozzle flaps, the design of which was patented.
An unexpected problem for the nozzle arose during the flight tests: when flying at high speeds and at low altitudes, the aircraft’s handling was worsened, and the pilot needed tremendous efforts to fly it. As a result of a large amount of experimental work, including filming, it was found that in these flight modes, due to the non-rigid design, nozzle elements are synchronized, a spontaneous change in the position of the nozzle’s critical section and, accordingly, a change in the thrust vector of the engine occurs. The problem was solved by changing the kinematic parameters of the sash control system, ensuring the gas-dynamic synchronization of the nozzle flaps and, most importantly, the stability and stability of the engine thrust vector.
In the final form, the D-30F6, of course, was very different from the original draft.
First of all, it concerned materials: the engine was made from new titanium, nickel alloys and high-strength steels developed by VIAM (heads of the institute: A.T. Tumanov before 1976, after R.N.XXX after 1976, with 1996- Go to the present - Academician of RAS E. N. Kablov). And the geometrical dimensions of the engine, which were then also defined in the 60s, did not change. In the process of development and refinement in the design of the engine D-30F6 52 technical solutions were implemented that are inventions and are protected by copyright certificates.
D-30Ф6 in service
The first flight of the MiG-31 with unique engines D-30F6 made 16 September 1975 of the year. State tests, including troop tests, D-30F6 successfully passed in 1979. The development of the engine at the earliest stages in the serial production of the Perm production association “Motorostroitel” named after M. Gorkiy was crucial for the state tests of the D-30F6 at a given time. Ya. M. Sverdlov (now JSC "PMP").
High engine parameters allow the MiG-31 to provide high maneuverability, long range, unique rate of climb, long loitering time (up to six hours with refueling) and significant air superiority. At the beginning of the 90-ies of the twentieth century, the production of the MiG-31 and D-30F6 was curtailed. At the same time, the fighter-interceptor still carries combat service in the air regiments throughout Russia, guarding our borders.
Currently, specialists of Aviadvigatel OJSC, PMZ OJSC, STAR OJSC, and the 13 th State Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation carry out systematic work to gradually increase the resources and service life of the D-30F6 engine, which allows to preserve the fleet without reducing the reliability level and ensures necessary combat readiness of the MO units operating these planes. This became possible due to the reliability reserves laid during the design and production of the D-30F6 engine, as well as a rational maintenance system, the methodology of which was developed by specialists of Aviadvigatel OJSC and PMZ OJSC together with specialists from the Research Institute of Industry and Moscow Region.
Many options were created on the basis of the MiG-31: MiG-31B, MiG-31BS, MiG-31BM, MiG-31DZ, MiG-31LL and others, and the D-30Ф6 engine more than 30 years satisfies all the requirements of unsurpassed, it is not enough, it’s not out of the ordinary, it’s not out-of-the- interceptors. The upgraded D-30F6 engines were installed on an experimental, forward-looking fifth-generation Su-47 Berkut aircraft with a backward swept wing.
Another famous car with these engines (the unformed version) was the reconnaissance aircraft of the Design Bureau named after V.Myasishchev. It appeared on the order of the USSR Ministry of Defense, but the era of conversion forced developers to look for a new application for their brainchild. So the M-55 “Geophysics” aircraft appeared - a unique machine, which is still the same in the world.
Having made its first flight in 1988, M-55 set sixteen world records. "Geophysics" can perform a long (up to six hours) flight at an altitude above 20 km. The machine has a greater margin of safety and carrying capacity compared with Western counterparts. This allows our "tall man" to take off and land not only in calm weather, but also in strong winds, as well as lift into the air up to one and a half tons of scientific equipment. For ten years, within the framework of international programs, flights were made in the sky over Europe, the Arctic, Antarctica, Australia, the Indian Ocean, Latin America and the equator. In such harsh conditions have not yet been a single domestic aircraft. All world aviation equipment is designed to work in the temperature range from -60 to + 60 degrees Celsius. Perm engines were in conditions of extreme temperatures and proved themselves worthy.
The creation, serial production and the start of operation of the fourth-generation D-30F6 dual-engine in our country for a supersonic MiG-31 fighter aircraft in an unprecedentedly short period of time is a great achievement of the aviation industry, the MAP institutes and the Air Force.
According to the commander of the Perm aviation regiment Valery Grigoriev in 90-ies, “MiG-31 is one of the best aircraft of all times and peoples, an unsurpassed masterpiece of aircraft industry. He and in Soviet times, and now has not exhausted its potential. By and large, this plane can be used for decades, if the machine is constantly upgraded. There is no other serial aircraft in the world that flies at a speed of 3000 km / h and is capable of detecting air targets at such a long range. ”
Dozens of scientific institutes of the industry and Moscow Region, hundreds of labor collectives and thousands of workers of the country took part in the creation of the D-30F6 engine. It was a state program headed by the Perm ICD under the leadership of Pavel Aleksandrovich Solovyov, General Designer, our Teacher.
The team of Aviadvigatel OJSC is proud of its offspring - D-30F6 and recalls with gratitude the cooperation with all participating organizations. In this regard, it is necessary to emphasize once again the cooperation of the Perm ICD and the serial plant, which demonstrated the deep integration of the design, technological and production potential of the two teams.
At present Aviadvigatel OJSC, using the experience and methodology of creating previous engines (D-20P, D-30, D-30KU / KP, D-30Ф6, PS-90А and their modifications), as well as a whole range of gas turbine power plants and gas pumping units, in cooperation with the institutes and enterprises of the aviation industry, are developing a new promising PD-14 engine for the MS-21 mainline aircraft family.