Military Review

The history of the MiG-31 continues. For thirty years now, there have been no rivals to the unique D-30FXNNX engine.

The Military Industrial Courier weekly has repeatedly told about the unsurpassed Russian supersonic MiG-31 interceptor fighter. In particular, in No. 40, 41 for 2012 a year much attention was paid to testing the created long-range interception system. The current material is about the power plant, which has become a kind of model of successful innovation, cooperation of teams and the result of the valiant work of enterprises of the domestic aviation industry.

Taking off the MiG-31 in every Perm engine builder evokes a sense of elation and pride. The power of the interceptor is amazing. Valery Menitsky, test pilot, Hero of the Soviet Union: “I can say with absolute certainty: neither the United States nor our European opponents have such an aircraft. This complex has enormous potential opportunities. ”

The supersonic MiG-30 interceptor fighter-interceptor that appeared more than 31 years ago in service of the Soviet Air Defense Forces is still the fastest and highest-altitude combat aircraft in the world. To a large extent, its unique characteristics are due to the capabilities of the power plant, which includes two engines D-30Ф6.

Innovative solution

The engine for the MiG-31 was supposed to provide the following technical parameters: maximum speed MP = 2,83, maximum speed at ground 1500 km / h, flight range with outboard fuel tanks 3300 km, practical ceiling 20 600 m, thrust at maximum aftercompress mode 9500 kgf, traction in full forced 15 500 mode kgf, specific fuel consumption (unit fuel consumption per unit of thrust per hour at H = 0, M = 0): at maximum forced 1,9 mode kg / kgf / h, at maximum low speed 0,72 mode kg / kgf h .

Such stringent requirements for the engine were due to the need to create an interceptor fighter to combat new models of strategic and offensive weapons capable of detecting and destroying air targets flying at extremely small, medium and large (up to 30 km) altitudes and at speeds up to 4000 km / hour.

For such a unique aircraft, an equally powerful high-power engine with high efficiency was required. It was entrusted with the development of this engine to the Perm engine-building design bureau (ICD) under the direction of P. A. Solovyov (at present Aviadvigatel OJSC, general designer A. A. Inozemtsev).

Solovyov decided to make a two-circuit engine with an afterburner chamber with a mixture of external and internal engine circuits. At that time, there were quite a few opponents of such a scheme, since power plants had not yet been produced by a similar scheme.

The creation of the D-30F6 engine with specified characteristics in a unique range of flight conditions was a complex scientific and technical problem with many unknown and "white spots".

Milestones stories

The history and methodology of creating and finishing the D-30Ф6 turbojet engine for the MiG-31 interceptor fighter goes into the distant 50 years of the 20th century and is worthy of deep and close study. From the very beginning of its creation in 1939, the Perm IBC has paid great attention to promising developments.

The history of the MiG-31 continues. For thirty years now, there have been no rivals to the unique D-30FXNNX engine.P. A. Soloviev after his death in 1953, A. D. Shvetsova became one of the youngest chief designers in the country. At the same time, he already had a great deal of experience in the design and development of engines, and most importantly, he had a very valuable quality - the gift of foresight, based on theoretical knowledge and intuition. This gift, supported by the calculations of ICD specialists, helped to timely determine the right direction in choosing a two-circuit engine scheme that is promising for many years.

Showing the ability to “show the goods face”, P. A. Solovyov argued with calculations that double-circuit engines have an outstanding set of economic and operational characteristics, allow for high compression ratios in the compressor and high gas temperatures in front of the turbine at low losses with the output rate of the stream discarded. The subsequent history of the development of the world engine building confirmed the correctness of the choice made then. P. A. Solovyov can rightly be considered a pioneer in the development of bypass engines in our country, and the Perm ICD as an advanced laboratory for their development. 1955 year. The first in this series, the D-20 engine (R = 6800 kgf) was a two-shaft two-circuit (m = 1,5) engine with an afterburner in the outer contour. The D-20 was designed and tested in 1955 – 1956, and its fine-tuning work yielded valuable data for creating engines of a similar circuit.

1956 year. An outstanding project for its time was the dual-engine D-21. The engine was designed according to a single-shaft scheme with a common afterburner chamber, with a high temperature in front of the turbine (TSA * = 1400 K) and is designed for a very high supersonic flight speed. At the same time, the ICD took over the development of an adjustable supersonic air intake, a complex and responsible unit that was traditionally designed and built by airplanes. Tests conducted at TsAGI, confirmed that the all-mode air intake, developed in the ICD according to the original axisymmetric scheme, significantly exceeded the existing samples in its parameters. The D-21 engine is well ahead of its time. A similar single-shaft TRDDF, but at a slightly lower flight speed, the French M-53 engine for the Mirage 2000 was created 20 years later. Unfortunately, work on the D-21 engine in 1960 was stopped due to the cessation of work on the aircraft.

1966 – 1967 years. The D-30F engine (product 38) was designed, manufactured and tested for thrust Rf = 11,5 tf, and in 1971, the engine No. 38-04 passed the test at the high-altitude engine center TsAM to test the afterburner at low engine air pressure.

Projects of the 50-60s of the twentieth century (D-20, D-21 and D-30F) were ahead of their time, since for many years in supersonic aviation single-turbojet turbojets dominated, but the requirement of multi-mode (a combination of subsonic and supersonic flight speeds), better operational characteristics and a number of other advantages led to the fact that dual-circuit engines began to occupy a dominant position in supersonic aviation around the world in the 70s.

For the first time in the country

Preliminary work at ICD on the creation of the afterburner D-30F6 began in accordance with orders of the Ministry of Aviation Industry (MAP) from 27.01.1970 of the year and from 16.08.1971, and full-scale R & D works later on the basis of a decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the Council of Ministers from 12.05.1974 of the year and an order of the MAP from 01.07.1974 of the year . In a short time, using the experience gained in creating a demonstration engine (38 products), a new supersonic TRDDF D-30Ф6 project was developed.

The engine was designed using the aerodynamics of the compressors of the D-30 (Tu-134) and D-30KU / KP (Il-62 and Il-76) motors with the necessary design changes due to the new operating conditions.

The choice in 1955 of the dimension of the gas generator and its seven-stage high-pressure compressor (HPC) for the turbofan D-20 allowed, without changing the dimensions of the seven basic stages, to create a family of turbofan engines with a load from 5,5 to 16 TC.

From the memoirs of V. M. Chepkin (at that time the deputy chief designer at the Perm MKD, later the general designer of the Lyulka Design Bureau): “The revolutionary nature of the newly developed engine was that we used a two-circuit engine with 22 compression ratio which flies at a speed of 3000 km / h. We were all told that such a motor would not work, since we brought the gas temperature indicator in front of the turbine to 1640 K, when at that time everyone flew at 1400 K. Of course, such changes required a new cooling system, new materials for turbine blades and disks, ideology tweaking engine. There were a lot of problems, disputes were terrible, we received a huge number of negative opinions, including from the Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM). But we were able to convince everyone. ”

A number of new issues were resolved: the optimal engine parameters were chosen, in particular, the bypass ratio m = 0,5, which became classic for many subsequent engine projects of similar purpose in our country and abroad, the parameters and control programs of the three engine contours (main circuit, nozzles and a contour of regulation of fuel consumption of an afterburner), ensuring the maintenance of optimum traction-economic and operational characteristics of the engine.

In particular, a special program was developed to increase the temperature of the gas in front of the turbine with an increase in the aircraft’s flight speed. This ensured obtaining the required thrust at the second critical point: at an altitude of 20 km and at a flight speed of 2500 km / h. Later, scientists at CIAM called this "temperature promotion." Thus, a technique was developed for obtaining a steep speed characteristic of the engine, which later also became a classic for subsequent projects.

It is especially necessary to highlight the development of an automatic control system and fuel supply (ACS and TP), where for the first time in domestic practice EECM was designed and implemented as the main regulator of the turbofan operation modes (RED-3048). Works on this system were carried out at the Perm Aggregate Design Bureau (PACB) under the supervision of Chief Designer A. F. Polyansky, and then G. I. Gordeev.

Due to the low elemental reliability of the D-30F6 engine at that time, two control systems were installed: the main one - the digital RED-3048 and the duplicate - hydromechanical SAU.

The ideology, algorithms and refinement of the electronic-hydro-mechanical ACS and TP were carried out jointly by the ICD specialists P. A. Solovyov and PACB (now OJSC STAR).

For the first time in our country, a mathematical model was applied to analyze the unsteady thermal state of the fuel-oil system of a high-temperature engine, which made it possible not to send the engine to CIAM for testing at a high-altitude stand. The thermal state of the system under flight conditions was analyzed using a matmodel. The obtained data were linked with the results of the bench, and then the flight tests. This work was highly appreciated by the specialists of CIAM and later scored on state engine tests.

Engine debugging

Great difficulty in the process of debugging was represented by the main combustion chamber (CS). In the domestic and foreign aircraft engine building, there were COPs operating at TC * 900 K, and for D-30F6 it was required to ensure reliable and efficient operation at TC * = 1024 K.

As a result of intensive research, computational and experimental work, together with CIAM, exclusive solutions were found: to exclude fuel combustion along the walls of the flame tubes, cooling air was supplied through corrugated rings between the flame tube sections; to form a uniform temperature field at the turbine inlet, redistribution air supply with the help of special holes in the mixing zone of the flame tube, the initial collapsible design of the nozzle did not provide tightness at TK *> 950 K, and only the development and implementation of a welded nozzle design using electron beam welding ensured its complete tightness.

High pressure turbine. To ensure the performance and the required resource at TCA * = 1640 K, first of all the blades, designs of nozzle and working blades 1 and 2 of the th stages with convective film and convective cooling were worked out, for which it was necessary to increase the cooling resource of the air taken for cooling turbines.

For this purpose, for the first time in the industry, an air-to-air heat exchanger was developed and applied in the outer channel of the engine. A decrease in the cooling air temperature by 20 – 40 percent made it possible to raise the temperature of the gas in front of the turbine by 90 – 180 K, which proved the feasibility and effectiveness of this measure.

Afterburner (FC). When fine-tuning the engine, there was an acute problem of studying vibration vibration in FC, which manifested itself in conditions different from those of the earth. The study of this issue required expensive, time-consuming tests on the CIAM high-altitude stand or in flight. On the instructions of the general designer, studies were carried out with the help of an adequate “linkage” to the mathematical model of the engine, which showed the possibility of simulating the operating conditions of the FK on its own stands. To do this, the ICD created two special stands with simulated flight conditions for temperature to test the engine under conditions close to the flight. This made it possible to significantly reduce the time needed for finishing the FC and save significant funds. The problem was solved by conducting tests on the stands of the enterprise in an equivalent mode. For the first time in domestic practice, a fuel injection and fuel ignition system was introduced into the engine in FC using the “fire path” method.

An interesting story is the creation and refinement of a multimode adjustable nozzle. Initially, the nozzle was developed and then until the flight tests supplied TMKB "Soyuz", which won the IBC in the competition, because, unlike the Perm design bureau, it had experience in developing adjustable nozzles. It was a beautiful, professionally designed construction. The first tests revealed flaws: increased leakage, insufficient rigidity - because of which the critical section of the nozzle was “inflated”, weight excess and others. Colleagues corrected rigidity, but they failed to cope with leaks and masses.

Long unsuccessful correspondence, negotiations. The moment came when the general designer made the decision: “Make the nozzle by ourselves”. ICD had no experience in developing such nodes, but they set to work ardently and with passion, having studied the mountains of technical literature and using the work of their Moscow colleagues. Of course, in our own design defects and defects appeared, but they were eliminated both faster and more efficiently.

To ensure the flight characteristics of the MiG-31, it was necessary to control the operation of the nozzle in an extremely wide range, namely: at maximum flight speed MP = 2,83, the degree of decrease in gas pressure in the engine nozzle changes almost 20 times, while the degree of expansion of the nozzle (ratio of output section to the critical section area) - more than three times.

Under such conditions, there was a loss of gas-dynamic stability, shaking the nozzle (the so-called bu bulation). This problem was solved by organizing bypassing atmospheric air to the flow part of the engine on unstable operation modes without degrading the nozzle characteristics on the main modes using special valves on the nozzle flaps, the design of which was patented.

An unexpected problem for the nozzle arose during the flight tests: when flying at high speeds and at low altitudes, the aircraft’s handling was worsened, and the pilot needed tremendous efforts to fly it. As a result of a large amount of experimental work, including filming, it was found that in these flight modes, due to the non-rigid design, nozzle elements are synchronized, a spontaneous change in the position of the nozzle’s critical section and, accordingly, a change in the thrust vector of the engine occurs. The problem was solved by changing the kinematic parameters of the sash control system, ensuring the gas-dynamic synchronization of the nozzle flaps and, most importantly, the stability and stability of the engine thrust vector.

In the final form, the D-30F6, of course, was very different from the original draft.

First of all, it concerned materials: the engine was made from new titanium, nickel alloys and high-strength steels developed by VIAM (heads of the institute: A.T. Tumanov before 1976, after R.N.XXX after 1976, with 1996- Go to the present - Academician of RAS E. N. Kablov). And the geometrical dimensions of the engine, which were then also defined in the 60s, did not change. In the process of development and refinement in the design of the engine D-30F6 52 technical solutions were implemented that are inventions and are protected by copyright certificates.

D-30Ф6 in service

The first flight of the MiG-31 with unique engines D-30F6 made 16 September 1975 of the year. State tests, including troop tests, D-30F6 successfully passed in 1979. The development of the engine at the earliest stages in the serial production of the Perm production association “Motorostroitel” named after M. Gorkiy was crucial for the state tests of the D-30F6 at a given time. Ya. M. Sverdlov (now JSC "PMP").

High engine parameters allow the MiG-31 to provide high maneuverability, long range, unique rate of climb, long loitering time (up to six hours with refueling) and significant air superiority. At the beginning of the 90-ies of the twentieth century, the production of the MiG-31 and D-30F6 was curtailed. At the same time, the fighter-interceptor still carries combat service in the air regiments throughout Russia, guarding our borders.

Currently, specialists of Aviadvigatel OJSC, PMZ OJSC, STAR OJSC, and the 13 th State Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation carry out systematic work to gradually increase the resources and service life of the D-30F6 engine, which allows to preserve the fleet without reducing the reliability level and ensures necessary combat readiness of the MO units operating these planes. This became possible due to the reliability reserves laid during the design and production of the D-30F6 engine, as well as a rational maintenance system, the methodology of which was developed by specialists of Aviadvigatel OJSC and PMZ OJSC together with specialists from the Research Institute of Industry and Moscow Region.

Basic Modifications

Many options were created on the basis of the MiG-31: MiG-31B, MiG-31BS, MiG-31BM, MiG-31DZ, MiG-31LL and others, and the D-30Ф6 engine more than 30 years satisfies all the requirements of unsurpassed, it is not enough, it’s not out of the ordinary, it’s not out-of-the- interceptors. The upgraded D-30F6 engines were installed on an experimental, forward-looking fifth-generation Su-47 Berkut aircraft with a backward swept wing.

Another famous car with these engines (the unformed version) was the reconnaissance aircraft of the Design Bureau named after V.Myasishchev. It appeared on the order of the USSR Ministry of Defense, but the era of conversion forced developers to look for a new application for their brainchild. So the M-55 “Geophysics” aircraft appeared - a unique machine, which is still the same in the world.

Having made its first flight in 1988, M-55 set sixteen world records. "Geophysics" can perform a long (up to six hours) flight at an altitude above 20 km. The machine has a greater margin of safety and carrying capacity compared with Western counterparts. This allows our "tall man" to take off and land not only in calm weather, but also in strong winds, as well as lift into the air up to one and a half tons of scientific equipment. For ten years, within the framework of international programs, flights were made in the sky over Europe, the Arctic, Antarctica, Australia, the Indian Ocean, Latin America and the equator. In such harsh conditions have not yet been a single domestic aircraft. All world aviation equipment is designed to work in the temperature range from -60 to + 60 degrees Celsius. Perm engines were in conditions of extreme temperatures and proved themselves worthy.

Labor glory

The creation, serial production and the start of operation of the fourth-generation D-30F6 dual-engine in our country for a supersonic MiG-31 fighter aircraft in an unprecedentedly short period of time is a great achievement of the aviation industry, the MAP institutes and the Air Force.

According to the commander of the Perm aviation regiment Valery Grigoriev in 90-ies, “MiG-31 is one of the best aircraft of all times and peoples, an unsurpassed masterpiece of aircraft industry. He and in Soviet times, and now has not exhausted its potential. By and large, this plane can be used for decades, if the machine is constantly upgraded. There is no other serial aircraft in the world that flies at a speed of 3000 km / h and is capable of detecting air targets at such a long range. ”

Dozens of scientific institutes of the industry and Moscow Region, hundreds of labor collectives and thousands of workers of the country took part in the creation of the D-30F6 engine. It was a state program headed by the Perm ICD under the leadership of Pavel Aleksandrovich Solovyov, General Designer, our Teacher.

The team of Aviadvigatel OJSC is proud of its offspring - D-30F6 and recalls with gratitude the cooperation with all participating organizations. In this regard, it is necessary to emphasize once again the cooperation of the Perm ICD and the serial plant, which demonstrated the deep integration of the design, technological and production potential of the two teams.

At present Aviadvigatel OJSC, using the experience and methodology of creating previous engines (D-20P, D-30, D-30KU / KP, D-30Ф6, PS-90А and their modifications), as well as a whole range of gas turbine power plants and gas pumping units, in cooperation with the institutes and enterprises of the aviation industry, are developing a new promising PD-14 engine for the MS-21 mainline aircraft family.

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  1. Civil
    Civil 30 March 2013 09: 56
    For new tasks, a new engine is needed .. apparently already for PAK YES ... I will not tire of repeating, the USSR was strong)
    1. I think so
      I think so 31 March 2013 20: 42
      "New tasks", "new engine" ... idle chatter ... For this PAK FA, the current talkers have long threatened to make a "new engine" ... and where is it? There are not many masters to chat about the "new engine", but there are no masters to do so ... and all because the "old engine" is made at the limit of physical capabilities and it is just a very difficult task to catch up with it, let alone surpass it ... and especially she's hard for chatters ...
  2. svp67
    svp67 30 March 2013 10: 24
    If there will be good new engines, then there will be new planes. So, good luck to all Aviadvigatel OJSC. We believe in YOU !!!
    1. Quiet
      Quiet 30 March 2013 21: 34
      There will be new good engines, so there will be new aircraft

      With a good engine, even the gate will not only take off, but the whole fence will be pulled into the sky behind it !!!! good belay lol
  3. vadson
    vadson 30 March 2013 10: 29
    were able to do the best things in the ussr
  4. barbiturate
    barbiturate 30 March 2013 10: 44
    what bragging? An excellent engine turned out in the 70 years, now you can and do better. Amer, for example, made a much better engine, why boast? We made a very good engine, the parameters are superior to many (snekma sucks), but you have to be realistic or have a sip of blood while catching up with the amers (something better, but a lot worse so far). I’ll send grandmas - we’ll make a good engine
    1. ytqnhfk
      ytqnhfk 30 March 2013 11: 48
      Where is the bragging? Migi to this day the best !!! This is a recognized fact! Until now, this aircraft is the best in many respects!
    2. Sirocco
      Sirocco 30 March 2013 13: 08
      And why not brag when there is something.? Here is another reason for pride, and boasting, this is the RD-180 engine from Energomash, which the United States buys from us, for its missiles ..
      1. I think so
        I think so 31 March 2013 20: 47
        Dear Sirocco, you should not pay attention to talkers such as barbiturates ... he has read the brochures of pin.dosovskih airplanes and here he crows ... and the reality is radically different from advertising ...
  5. C77
    C77 30 March 2013 10: 46
    Yes! There were people in our time, not that the current tribe ...
  6. Tartary
    Tartary 30 March 2013 11: 03
    Almost 30 years have passed, but in my life I will not forget when, before the "wooden" demobilization, I got on a business trip to Spassk-Dalny ...
    Then there were MiG-23s ... And a new town was built for the flight crew - a new training building, barracks, a canteen ... And at the entrance of the checkpoint they installed a stela with an airplane (two years ago, passing by, you could see it) ...
    Military pilots are a special people. It was noticeably different from our officers, which struck us very much as cadets-graduates of the artillery regiment from Lalichi.
    And I was lucky to eavesdrop on their "get-together" on the top floor of the educational building, by the stairs, on a smoke break ...
    One said that a new aircraft appeared in the troops that was recently tested in the Middle East ...
    Like, the general who controlled the plane was pressed by two planes (as I understand it today, Israel), who tried to force him to land ...
    The general, losing consciousness from overloads, pressed the autopilot (or whatever?), And after half an hour, he regained consciousness in the sky over the Urals (probably over Perm), and the nose fairing and some parts of the wings were pretty melted.
    I understand from the conversation that in the autopilot, the coordinates of the place of registration (main base) were entered ...
    The flyers delightedly discussed the fact of the fucking speed capabilities of the aircraft and the strength of the structure ...
    And they seemed to say that it was MiG-31, maybe 35 ...
    Today it is just remembered, and then from what I heard, I experienced an exciting shock and indescribable pride for the Motherland - the USSR.

    Today, the ARZ in Khabarovsk resumed aircraft repairs, often helicopters fly (new ones based on the Mi-8, Mi-26, including at night, but bench tests of jet engines at the ARZ are for some reason not heard as before in the USSR - every single day, when a dvigun (!) is blown on the afterburner - in the district, for 5 km.
    1. Navuxonastupil
      Navuxonastupil 30 March 2013 13: 05
      Khe! Dvigun will be blown up at the afterburner! I beg you, do not tell funny to a resident of Perm! The plant producing the above engines is located almost in the city. Until the end of the 60s of the last century, the test base was there and we fell asleep under the howl of motors, and woke up with the same! The workshops themselves were underground, but the exhaust pipes are still visible from the road, or rather from Kuybyshev Street. Before driving past them, the flow of hot air was clearly visible even in the summer! Then the tests were transferred to the enormous suburban enclave of the plant and it became relatively quiet in the city , not to mention the mind published by 31 MiGs, starting and landing again almost in the city limits! Here is such a nice city of Perm! I still didn’t mention Motovilikhinsky factories with their nice habit of hobbing again from the city line with solid calibers through Kama. We experience the trunks!
      1. Tartary
        Tartary 30 March 2013 13: 43
        Thirty years ago, on this engine, the temperature in KS 1024 was achieved instead of 960, this is probably the limit to go further absolutely new materials are needed. For the fifth generation of PAK-FA, the temperature in the KS should be an order of magnitude higher and not on afterburner

        "By the order" means ten times ...
        There are no materials that can withstand 10.000 degrees.
        1. ATATA
          ATATA 31 March 2013 12: 58
          Quote: Tartary
          There are no materials that can withstand 10.000 degrees.

          Well, I’ll tell you that it’s not possible in the atmosphere to fly from the Middle East to the Urals in 30 minutes. hi
    2. Alan
      Alan 30 March 2013 15: 17
      Already not in the first article about aviation I meet this bike wink
      1. Tartary
        Tartary 30 March 2013 15: 41
        Are you about what I wrote? Specify ...
        1. Alan
          Alan 30 March 2013 21: 41
          Somewhere here on the "topvar" there was already a similar story, Wash in the "branch" just about 31; I don’t remember more, sorry hi
    3. 73petia
      73petia 30 March 2013 17: 57
      Thirty years ago this is in the eighties. At that time, there were no military aircraft in the Middle East. But in the mid-seventies there were our planes in Egypt. This means our planes with our pilots. In 1974, in Egypt there was a case similar to the one described. I don’t remember it before the Cyprus events or after. Then in 1974 Turkey captured part of the island's territory. In short, Israeli planes (not two, but six, although I myself did not fly and the information from the retelling) were in search of our plane, led us to land at their airfield. But he (our pilot) managed to deceive them (Israeli pilots) and use his speed advantage to fly away. Not to the Urals, of course, but to the airfield or airbase (I don't know what to call it correctly) Cairo-West. I saw this plane. His "nose cone" was not melted. For the simple reason that it was made of fiberglass. Under it (fairing) was a radar. The wings did not melt either. But the knives of the stabilizer deformed from temperature. The engines (both) were replaced and then this plane successfully flew. Until September 1975 (they stopped flying earlier, took care of the rubber, the Egyptians did not let spare parts from the union) when they kicked us out of Egypt. The plane was a MiG-25 RB. The pilot is not a general, but then Lieutenant Colonel Vorobyov.
      1. Tartary
        Tartary 30 March 2013 18: 17
        Quote: 73petia
        Thirty years ago this is in the eighties

        Spring 1985
        Quote: 73petia
        Of course, not to the Urals, but to the airdrome or air base (I don’t know what to call it right) Cairo-West. I saw this plane.

        And I saw only the MiG-21 close - now they fly overhead every day ...
        MiG - 23 at point blank range, and a little at a distance - Su-27 (like that) were in the suburbs of Khabarovsk - a serious base was ...
        Drugan served in Terney on the radar, said that the flight time of the couple on duty was within 10 minutes. after the report.
        Now everyone has been transferred to Komsomolsk / on / Amur, apparently even the Pereyaslovskys ...

        As for this post, I wrote what I personally heard ...
        Quote: Alan
        Already not in the first article about aviation I meet this bike

        Otherwise, why should I retell other people's stories or fairy tales - I have plenty of mine ... wink
      2. servant
        servant 31 March 2013 09: 05
        It was clamped and landed for landing by 2 Mig-25 phantoms. He left due to the difference in landing speeds (the MiG-25 had less) of the unique climb rate and pilot experience !! Due to thermal heating at the Mig-25, when the permissible speeds were exceeded, the glider skin was compressed into a corrugation, during testing, the flashlight melted, but there was never a failure of the engines !!
        1. 73petia
          73petia 31 March 2013 17: 57
          The number of Israeli aircraft that "clamped" the MiG-25 (and their type) I do not know for certain. I served urgently, and Vorobyov was the commander of the detachment and naturally did not report anything to me. All information from conversations between "conscripts", officers from IAS, AO, VO, SD, PDS, etc. Yes, and I forgot the details, much time has passed. Although the case was discussed for a long time. In my opinion outwardly the airplane's glider looked normal. And the stabilizer looked fine although they said it was damaged. No "corrugation" and permanent deformation of the skin. And before my very eyes, the engines were removed and replaced with new ones. The plane then flew without restrictions.
    4. gregor6549
      gregor6549 31 March 2013 05: 40
      Another myth. Never a single MIG31, much less MIG35, has appeared in the Middle East. At different times, MIG21, MIG23 and MIG25 were used there. Of these, MIG25 was used to carry out reconnaissance flights over Israel since its height and speed made the MIG25 invulnerable to the fighter and ground defense systems that Israel had at that time. The most widely used fighter owl in the Middle East was the MIG21, but its use there is hardly successful. MIG23 was more successful since had better air than medium MIG21 missiles, medium-range air, solid cannon weapons and a good radar at the time. However, the MIG23 was not very suitable for maneuverable combat, as was heavy with. In general, the workmanship of the MIG23, especially its first serial samples, delivered a lot of headache to those military units in which it was operated. It got to the point that the aircraft were delivered to the military unit in disassembled form, and already on the spot after careful adjustment of the components and systems of the aircraft by industry representatives and technicians of the military unit, it was about to run in and got the right to become on the wing. He himself witnessed a similar process in some military units of the Belarusian military district. In general, given the generally good level of development of such aircraft (taking into account the components that the designers had, the quality of their manufacture was always a problem. In addition, serial plants did their best to simplify the manufacturing process and this inevitably affected the quality of the finished product for the worse
  7. 30 March 2013 12: 59
    Thirty years ago, on this engine, the temperature in KS 1024 was achieved instead of 960, this is probably the limit to go further absolutely new materials are needed. For the fifth generation of PAK-FA, the temperature in the KS should be an order of magnitude higher and not on afterburner
  8. Gari
    Gari 30 March 2013 13: 20
    There are still no analogues of the fourth-generation Russian fighter-interceptor MiG-31 in the world, so it cannot be considered obsolete, according to the commander of the aviation group (Khotilovo, Tver region) of the Guards air base, pilot-sniper, Colonel Valery Knysh.
    Well, if the plane is outdated, there must be an analogue that would replace it, "Knysh said on the air of the Ekho Moskvy radio station on Saturday.
    According to the sniper pilot, the first version of the MiG-31 aircraft, which was released at the turn of the 1970s and 1980s, can be considered obsolete. However, since then, the fighter-interceptor has undergone a number of updates, its new modifications have been released.
    The upgraded fighter is equipped with a new weapon control system, which has increased the target detection range to 320 kilometers and the destruction range to 280 kilometers. At the same time, the MiG-31BM is capable of simultaneously tracking up to ten air targets, six of which can be fired at the same time. The main purpose of the MiG-31 fighter-interceptor is the destruction of aircraft and cruise missiles in the border and internal regions of the country.
    20120114 / 539082381.html # ixzz2P0rvlsVd
  9. shpuntik
    shpuntik 30 March 2013 13: 24
    The production of the engine and aircraft has been stopped. Only modernization is in progress. An unfortunate fact, in fact. State atheism ruined everything. For a long time already everything has been said: "Unless the Lord builds the house, working in vain for those who build. Unless the Lord preserves the city, in vain is the striving."
    Psalm 126. IMHO.
    1. GG2012
      GG2012 30 March 2013 14: 48
      Quote: shpuntik
      State atheism has ruined everything.

      And than here (in this particular case) state atheism.
      Saying ... neither to the village ... nor to the city.
      Or because rockets now began to sanctify (pop with a censer and Jewish prayer), they began to fly better and did not fall?

      What is the connection between Jewish mythology and the armament of the USSR / RF?
      1. shpuntik
        shpuntik 31 March 2013 19: 17
        GG2012 (
        Here we are talking about the mystical. Missiles can fly well, but if traitors are in the manual, then they will not fly where. He also had in mind the entire 20th century, the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks and the entire communist idea, along with the idol Lenin. That's why they took a sip, and here not only the 2nd World War, civil, but also the Japanese from the 1st World War. The betrayal of national interests was already before the revolution of 1905, they had been preparing for it since the Decembrist uprising. And all this was in the capital, the rest of Russia worked quietly, and rested calmly. Nicholas II was removed and betrayed, and then killed. And so on. Look at the problem more broadly.
        1. GG2012
          GG2012 31 March 2013 21: 32
          Quote: shpuntik
          Look at the problem more broadly.

          Fine! Let's look at the problem wider.
          Quote: shpuntik
          Nicholas II was suspended and betrayed

          And let's see who betrayed Nicholas II (soft-bodied) ??? !!!
          - firstly, these are Judas - Christian (in your opinion "Orthodox") Generals who could not protect the Tsar and the Empire, and then also persuaded the Tsar to abdicate;
          - secondly, this is the Judeo-Christian church (according to your ROC), which, even before the tsar’s abdication, had already agreed with the Provisional Government on its privileges and benefits.
          Let me remind you, the Tsar abdicated on the night of March 2 to March 3, 1917. And the Judeo-Christian church already on the afternoon of March 2 (i.e. 10 hours) held a meeting of members of the Synod and the church hierarchy, among them were Metropolitan of Kiev Vladimir, Metropolitan of Moscow Makarii and other far from last persons of the church. At this meeting, the metropolitan clergy and synodals from the regions decided that an urgent need to establish communication with the Executive Committee of the State Duma - the future Provisional Government.
          Based on the results of this meeting, the Synod issued a document:
          1. Determination of the Holy Synod No. 1207 "On the promulgation of the acts of March 2 and 3, 1917 in Orthodox churches." of March 6, 1917

          "The aforementioned acts [the sovereign's abdication] should be taken into account and executed and announced in all Orthodox churches, in city ones - on the first day after receiving the text of these acts, and in rural ones - on the first Sunday or holiday, after the Divine Liturgy, with a prayer to the Lord To God about calming passions, with the proclamation of the many years of the God-protected Russian State and the Blessed Interim Government of her".

          And on March 7, the Judeo-Christian church betrayed the king again.
          Decision of the Holy Synod No. 1226 "On changes in church services in connection with the termination of the commemoration of the reigning house" dated March 7, 1917.

          "... ORDERED: On the basis of former considerations, the Holy Synod determines: in all cases during divine services instead of commemoration of the reigning house, offer prayer "About the God-Protected Russian Power and its Blessed Provisional Government"; in particular (a list of rewritten prayers follows) "
          More details:
    2. urganov
      urganov April 2 2013 16: 57
      Under "State Atheism", as you have deigned to express it all and was built, for your information. And as soon as the authorities "christened" their heads and began to work as "candlesticks" in the churches and kiss the priests' hands, everything fell apart. fool
      1. shpuntik
        shpuntik April 3 2013 19: 07
        Gorbachev "christened"? :-) I will not argue, time will judge. So to say: whoever lives, he will see ...
  10. gavko
    gavko 30 March 2013 18: 15
    The MiG-31 is designed to intercept and destroy air targets at extremely small, small, medium and high altitudes, day and night, in simple and difficult weather conditions, when the enemy uses active and passive radar interference, as well as false thermal targets. A group of four MiG-31 aircraft is capable of controlling airspace with a front length of 800–900 km. Originally intended to intercept cruise missiles in the entire range of heights and speeds, as well as low-flying satellites. The MiG-31 regiments for several years had the status of special forces (Special Forces) as part of the Air Force and Air Defense.
  11. Nightcrawler
    Nightcrawler 30 March 2013 22: 10
    It seems like the MiG-31 could accelerate to 3,5M (short-term), or am I confusing something?
    1. Alikovo
      Alikovo 31 March 2013 00: 14
      more precisely Mach 3.1
      1. servant
        servant 31 March 2013 08: 40
        Tyu where you brought! Let's overclock to 4M! Do not write nonsense! MIG-25 according to the unconfirmed data of Israeli radars accelerated to 3.5M! The official speed record for the SR-71 is 3529km / h! Mig-31 maximum flight speed of 3000 km / h (2.83M)! Although the troops at such speeds they do not fly when!
        1. I think so
          I think so 31 March 2013 21: 16
          "Although in the troops they never fly at such speeds!"

          So what if the troops NEVER fly? If the plane can in principle accelerate, it is not necessary to "fly with the troops" at such speeds. The catapult is also not always used, but only in exceptional cases ... and then, when it feels like it and you need to fly, Mach 3.1 will fly ... and you say "NEVER fly" ...
          1. servant
            servant April 1 2013 05: 21
            In principle, it can accelerate, but it will already be flying to the ground in parts most likely ... Such and the Cossack, in principle, if it counts down to 250 km / h, it will accelerate ... But why? !!
            1. Tuzik
              Tuzik April 1 2013 13: 30
              Quote: Servant
              Mig-31 maximum flight speed of 3000 km / h (2.83M)

              this operational limitation, like on many Soviet aircraft, was introduced for safe operation, and the troops flew at such a speed and higher, it all depends on the state of the air, density, temperature, for a moment 25x when accelerating in a high tropopause, pilots often jumped 3 Maha.
  12. Zomanus
    Zomanus 31 March 2013 03: 21
    Yes, people knew how to work. Because they understood that they work for themselves and for themselves. And now everyone works for an uncle and the country does not receive from this for the sum of nichrome. The engine is good, the plane is generally super. I hope that it will serve until the advent of the T-50 armada, covering the sky ...
  13. andrey903
    andrey903 31 March 2013 09: 33
    Our engines eat 2 times more fuel, and have a very small resource
  14. Nightcrawler
    Nightcrawler 31 March 2013 10: 16
    MIG-25 according to the unconfirmed data of Israeli radars accelerated to 3.5M
    So MIG-31 whose successor is it? It can and can accelerate, but no one will do it .. The plane is too hot.
    1. servant
      servant 31 March 2013 12: 07
      Alas! Can not! Although the design and aerodynamics are similar to the Mig-25 (before the Mig-31 pilots, the initial training took place on the Mig-25 twin), but the point is precisely in the engines. R-15 was originally created for high-altitude high-altitude flight, the Mig-25 records in speed, climb rate and flight altitude of the Mig-31 have never been broken !!! These are two completely different planes !! Although similar ...
  15. WS
    WS 31 March 2013 17: 22
    A friend from the factory told me that he saw paper a year ago in 2006:
    Due to the large expenditure of funds for the conservation, inspection and storage of equipment for the manufacture of D-30F6, please send this equipment to the AIR. (who knows the topic). According to rumors, then they did not send it all up.

    He lived in the Perm region in a small town, an air corridor west-east passed over the city, at night he woke up from a terrible cotton, the glass shook very much. This "phenomenon" was observed during the day, the father explained it by the transition of the aircraft to supersonic. Since the beginning of the 90s I have never heard such a sound, with the exception of the video recording of the Chelyabinsk Meteorite.
  16. washi
    washi April 2 2013 13: 53
    The Perm plant partially sold in the 90s. Now amers use our technology. The remaining plants Pogosyanivtsi and Manturovtsy chmyr
  17. Bad_gr
    Bad_gr April 12 2013 20: 08
    Article +.
    I would like a similar article on the engines of the MiG-25th (they say a lot of interesting things ....)