All over the world we have only two faithful ally - our army and navy. All the rest at the first opportunity will turn on us. Our country, of course, needs a strong and well-organized army, standing at the height of the modern development of military affairs, but not for aggressive purposes, but solely to safeguard the integrity and state honor of Russia.
The unrestrained powerful wave of criticism, not just sweeping, but covering the domestic armored vehicles with their heads, forces the design engineers of the industry to hide their heads in the sand before the public and lie about the nature of their activities in a decent company. Moreover, when the glory of foreign samples is washed away the remnants of pride and absorbs young minds full of promising ideas.
Dozens of Internet portals wash their bones for days on end: some defend, others criticize, others observe, fourth laugh at already old-age BMPs, armored personnel carriers, BMDs and tanks. The tone of the conversation, with rare exceptions, smoothly flows from the scientific to the elevated. The “commentators” shirts burst at the seams in an effort to defend their point of view. Even war veterans are divided into those who curse the designers of tanks, armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles and infantry fighting vehicles for the "coffins" they created, the "mass graves of infantry", and those who gratefully kissed the armor of the above armored vehicles.
However, in the heat of the emotions you cannot find the truth, therefore the author, having his own experience of “live” communication with Russian armored vehicles, decided to dig in the library and draw some appropriate conclusions.
There are a great many literatures on this subject. You can even find, if you are not too lazy, a scientific and technical rationale for the excessive mobility of T-80 type tanks made by defenders of a competing type T-72 (T-90), namely, UVZ officers. Excessive speed, according to which, could lead to serious consequences in the event of a tank hitting at full speed, say a stump or a tree, and, therefore, there was no need for a tank to have such high speed characteristics. Laughing enough, the author shed a tear from the unconsciousness of some representatives of his "tribe" of engineers.
Having rejected pseudoscientific articles full of emotions, but deprived of meaning and sense, the author dived into the “fundamental” works in order to understand the subject of the conversation: what is BTR, BMP, BMD, tank in general? Why are they all in their diversity and splendor needed? Is it true that the armor protection of domestic armored personnel carriers is insufficient in the conditions of modern requirements for armored vehicles? What are its main disadvantages, and are there any solutions? “Who is to blame for this?”, That is, what is the reason for the inconsistency of the domestic armored personnel carrier with modern requirements. “What to do?”, That is, if there is a way to catch up and overtake the adversaries?
Now, deeper into the topic, focusing on the questions posed, first things first, openly and impartially.
According to the letter of the law ...
The questions are truly difficult, they will not be answered on the fly. In any case, any sphere has its own foundations and its own base, therefore, the initial introduction to the answers should start from the beginning. With apparent tediousness, the concepts below will be further claimed and will help to easily navigate the controversial points.
Term - this word or phrase, which is the name of a concept of some field of science, technology, art, and the like. The terms serve as specializing, restrictive designations characteristic of a particular sphere of objects, phenomena, their properties and relations. Unlike words of general vocabulary, which are often ambiguous and carry emotional coloring, terms within the scope of application are unambiguous and lack expression.
Definition - a logical procedure for giving a strictly fixed meaning to the terms. Displays the essential features, properties and characteristics of the object in order to form differences from other objects. That is, the definition is the “mother” of the term.
Why such a formality? Very simple. When the authors or commentators of the articles say the word “tank” or “mobility,” it seems that they are talking about quite understandable things. But has anyone wondered what a “tank” is? What is the difference between “mobility” and “transportability”? Unfortunately, for all its seeming simplicity, not all professionals will be able to explain what a “tank” is from a military point of view. They will even fight for who will give the definition of the term. Therefore, when it comes to the BMP, BMD, and BTR, they often forget that these are completely different cars and hide behind the same “modern requirements” taken from the ceiling. At first glance, everything is obvious: BMD - for the landing, BMP - for the infantry, what is there to understand? However, these are terms that have been defined, describing their differences, purpose, properties, and so on.
In order not to be unfounded and to confirm the validity of their judgments, in the future to avoid mistakes and false judgments, I will give several official definitions, as well as the thoughts of leading industry experts. So that the authors of the works do not hurt me, and the picky reader could get to know the subject in more depth, the author will cite the list of sources at the end of the article. So, first take a closer look at armored vehicles.
BTR - armored personnel carrier (armored transporter); armored combat vehicle designed to deliver personnel of motorized rifle subunits to the place of the combat mission. In exceptional cases, in the absence of anti-tank weapons, the BTR can support infantry with machine-gun fire.
Motorized rifle units in the offensive, depending on the degree of enemy repression, can act on armored personnel carriers or on foot. On the APC, they act when the enemy’s defenses, especially his anti-tank weapons, are reliably suppressed (nuclear weapons), as well as during the pursuit of retreating enemy groups.
Generally speaking, the BTR is not a means of struggle, but first of all a means of delivery, a vehicle, and no more. Armament is attached to it mostly for defense against enemy manpower. Thus, in fact, the BTR is a small-capacity truck with lightly armored sides and a roof (instead of a canvas awning) and a relatively hermetic body with equipment for protection against weapons of mass destruction. In other words, you do not want to go on an armored troop-carrier - get into the back of KAMAZ, ZIL or the Urals, which are also the army vehicles for delivering personnel to the place of accomplishment of the assigned combat mission.
Figure 1 - BTR-60
It is obvious that the transportation of personnel in the armored personnel carrier in a combat situation significantly increases the survivability of the infantry in comparison with trucks, especially in the case of the use of weapons of mass destruction by the enemy. However, in exceptional cases, BTR can also be used as a means of control. A similar trick performed by military trucks would never have occurred to anyone.
Conclusion: BTR is the best land vehicle for motorized rifle units.
The closest class armored vehicles are BMP and BMD.
BMP - Infantry fighting vehicle; armored combat vehicle designed to deliver personnel of motorized rifle subunits to the place of accomplishment of a combat mission, increasing its mobility, armament and security on the battlefield under the conditions of use of nuclear weapons and joint operations with tanks in battle (according to maintenance and IE on BMP-1 1972 year such a task was not assigned to the car). In this case, BMPs are assigned tasks such as the destruction of enemy personnel, the defeat of lightly armored vehicles, the fight against low-flying air targets and, if necessary, with enemy tanks. In addition, the units on the BMP are used to perform the final actions in battle - they destroy the remnants of the enemy troops and seize the territory. The combination of the actions of tanks and infantry fighting vehicles significantly expands the combat capabilities of the combined-arms formations.
Figure 2 - BMP-1 Column on the march
That is, the BMP, sorry for the expression, it is "nedotank-bust." The BMP will go into the fray before (instead of) the BTR, but only behind the tanks (more on this later). That is why BMPs, as a rule, have a tracked course in order to be mobility on a par with tanks. The BMP is designed for attacking actions and is maximally protected in the frontal projection where the MTO is located, which serves as additional protection. The freedom of action of the BMP is given only in the rear of the enemy, where there are no minefields and no anti-tank weapons deployed. The objectives for the BMP are secondary for the purpose of the tank, which, above all, fighting with the enemy tanks. The need to fight tanks at the BMP may arise if the tank wave "chokes."
Conclusion: The BMP is a ground-based type of transport and a means of struggle for motorized infantry, designed to counter its own kind (enemy armored vehicles of a similar class) so that tanks do not get distracted by combat in them.
Figure 3 - BMP-1 exercises support tanks
BMD - Airborne combat vehicle; armored vehicle of the airborne troops, intended for the movement of personnel and combat; combat armored tracked amphibious assault vehicle, parachuted, parachute jet or landing method. The BMD boosts the maneuverability, firepower and security of the airborne units from the fire of conventional weapons, allows them to fight without dismounting the paratroopers, ensuring close interaction with other combat vehicles of the airborne forces. The actions of dismounted parachute units BMD support fire their guns and machine guns.
Figure 4 - BMD-1 enters Kosovo
That is, the BMD is nothing more than the "workhorse" of the paratroopers, an analogue of the army UAZ or the same trucks. Why create a specialized hybrid BTR and BMP?
Classically, the actions of the Airborne Forces involve the landing from the air in the enemy's rear or in geographically remote areas, the seizure and retention of a bridgehead until the main forces arrive. In the rear of the enemy, paratroopers need high mobility and sufficiently powerful support tools, including armored vehicles. Since the enemy’s armored vehicles were considered the most dangerous for the landing after landing, it needed to have more powerful weapons than the small and light tanks of that time.
Figure 5 - Two BMD-2 are preparing for loading on the Mi-26
On the other hand, back in the 1960-x airborne forces have become a permanent element of the operational construction of front-line associations. The depth of landing increased, the requirements for the speed of disembarkation and the duration of independent actions increased. In conditions when the enemy had tank, mechanized and airborne units, various reconnaissance means and accurate missile and artillery weapons, equipping the landing with armored transport and combat vehicles, providing protection against small arms and the ability to fight with various armored means of the enemy, seemed a natural solution. also have good mobility on rough terrain.
The task, the solution of which was to be ensured by the airborne assault vehicle, was formulated by the commander of the Airborne Forces Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel General (later Army General) VF Margelov: “To fulfill our role in a modern operation, our units and units must be highly maneuverable, covered with armor, had sufficient fire efficiency, well-managed, able to parachute at any time of the day and quickly move to active hostilities after landing. "
When creating and choosing airborne vehicles, the capabilities of military transport aircraft were decisive aviation and landing systems. This determined the requirements for weight, dimensions, fastening, speed of loading on the plane, as well as unloading or landing. The BMP-1 adopted by the Soviet Army did not fit into these requirements. Firstly, its combat weight of 13 tons allowed the transport by An-12 plane (the main military transport aircraft of that time) of only one BMP (with a limited number of aircraft carrying airborne assault forces, this did not allow the transfer of a sufficient number of military vehicles with crews ) Secondly, at that time there were no landing systems suitable for BMP-1.
Figure 6 - Trophy BMD-1
Thus, for the BMD operating in the rear of the enemy, there is nothing for mine defense. In other words, BMD is, exaggeratedly speaking, the domestic Hummer. Yes, it is longer in length by 800 mm, in width by 530 mm and 170 in height (on the roof of the tower); the total mass of the Hummer 4700 kg, BMD - 7200 kg. But add to Hammer armor, a gun with a tower and put it on the tracks, teach not to fall apart after landing from the air and you will understand why BMD is respected in NATO. Also, speaking of conducting combat using BMD, it is necessary to note its modifications such as 2C9 "Nona-S" and 2C25 "Sprut-SD". Two of these monsters can fight any enemy armored vehicles that they will deploy to destroy the landing force.
Figure 7 a) - SAU 2C9 "Nona-S"
Figure 7 b) - SAU 2C9 "Nona-S"
Figure 8 - SAU 2C25 "Sprut-SD"
Figure 9 - BMD-4
Thus, the difference between the three types of machines lies in the tasks that were assigned to them. BTR was mainly developed as an infantry vehicle, while the BMP and BMD were additionally assigned the task of supporting infantry with guns and machine guns in the offensive and defense.
Although many armored personnel carriers are equipped with sufficiently powerful large-caliber machine guns, the armament of these machines, as a rule, is not stabilized and has simplified sights, which limits its use mainly for self-defense purposes. To perform serious fire missions on the basis of the BTR, BMP and BMD, specialized armored vehicles were created (s): SAU, MLRS, SMK, ATGM, ZSU and so on.
The BMP and BMD differ from the BTR with higher protection and firepower. The armored personnel carrier, having a wheel course, considerably surpasses them in mobility under the conditions of a developed road infrastructure in order to transport infantry to the English Channel faster via motorways of the incinerated Europe.
All machines have anti-bullet armor, and its higher protective qualities are achieved by greater angles of inclination of the armor plates. Obviously, during the Cold War years, a bet was placed on light armored vehicles. Due to the geographical distance from each other, potential opponents relied on the landing. If the United States put on the Marine Corps, then in the USSR it was relied on the Airborne Forces. As a result, both in the one and in the other country, the obligatory requirement for the armored personnel carrier was its ability to overcome water obstacles, which it was easiest to provide with anti-bullet reservation. In fairness it should be noted that the opponents remained the same, their weapons of mass destruction did not evaporate anywhere, the continents did not get any closer, and teleporters were not invented.
Trying to keep up with their colleagues in NATO and the ATS, the Allied countries were guided when developing their armored vehicles on samples of "older brothers." It was only thanks to their own combat experience of these countries and the experience of local conflicts that new models of armored vehicles began to appear, such as heavy armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles that meet the “modern requirements” imposed on armored vehicles. But about them a little later.
Now it is worthwhile to briefly characterize the reference type of armored vehicles in terms of protection and power of weapons - MBT or simply “tank”.
Tank - mobile high-defensive melee fire weapon with powerful armament, realizing the principle “see - shoot”, being under the influence of almost all fire and other means of destruction available to the enemy. Designed to destroy tanks and other armored vehicles, anti-tank weapons, artillery, manpower and other targets in various climatic and weather conditions at any time of the day.
The tank is a means of fighting the enemy, which plays the dominant role of the first echelon of combat order in the offensive, making up the main strike force of the ground forces. At the same time, he shoots direct fire, that is, his element is open space. In the case of hostilities in the forest and in the populated area, tanks are poorly protected (meaning defense of the sides, stern and roof from special anti-tank weapons), since for these purposes the main means of combat is the motorized rifle platoon. In any case, the best means of fighting a tank is another tank.
Figure 10 - 279 Object
Generally speaking, a tank is a powerful specialized type of armored vehicle capable of effectively performing virtually any assigned combat mission, the most sophisticated ground weapon in terms of security and power of weapons. Otherwise, no one would ever develop, let alone buy the whole wide range of aviation, artillery and engineering ammunition for fighting tanks. Indeed, for example, people are afraid and do not like mosquitoes terribly, but mosquito complexes are far from being realized. Another thing is the tank, frightening and demoralizing the enemy before the clash.
Figure 11 - MBT T-84 "Hold"
At this nomenclature of special armored vehicles does not end there. Here are the most relevant and interesting representatives of a separate class of engineering equipment for this article.
MTU - tank bridge laying; armored engineering vehicle on the basis of a tank chassis, which is intended for transportation, as well as installation and removal through the built-in mechanisms of the bridge structure in a combat situation in order to ensure the advancement of tanks and other combat vehicles. All working operations are performed by the machine remotely, without the need to leave the crew.
For example, MTU-90. It leads one aluminum single-span (assault) bridge with a tonnage of 50 tons over obstacles up to 24 meters wide.
Figure 12 - MTU-90
BREM - Armored repair and recovery vehicle; tracked or wheeled vehicle of high cross, designed to evacuate damaged equipment from the battlefield, including from the enemy's fire, its repair and maintenance in the field, as well as for clearing debris, earth-moving, lifting and other work.
Figure 13 - BREM-1
Figure 14 - BREM-1M sets the track mine sweep on the BMR-3М
Figure 15 - BREM-80U
BMR - combat vehicle clearance; a special engineering vehicle designed to accompany military convoys and ensure their movement through mined areas, clearance of roads, column paths and making passages in mine-blast obstacles. The design of the armor felling, the internal layout of units, elements and control systems ensure the protection of the crew and the calculation, units and assemblies of the machine from the effects of anti-tank mine explosions under the chassis and bottom and from rifle-and-machine-gun fire;
In the fighting compartment of the vehicle, 3-4 places are provided for attached sappers. Anti-mine protection is made in the form of multi-layer structural barriers of special steel with filling, which are located inside and outside the bottom of the entire area of the habitable compartment, frame and struts between the sides, bottom and roof of the cabin.
Figure 16 - BIS-3M
MTU, BREM and WRI, as a rule, are fundamentally different in the generations used by the type of chassis, the corresponding chassis of the MBT, BMP, BTR in order to unify the fleet of vehicles. Obviously, this technique should be in the first echelon with tanks.
MT-LB fell out of this review, which also deserves attention as an example of army armored vehicles, but rather within a whole separate article. It is worth noting another interesting product, which gives the carrier increased security and about which unfairly forgotten - KMT.
KMT - trackline mine trawl; it is intended for reconnaissance and overcoming of mine-explosive obstacles and is an individual hook-on means of protecting all modern types of tanks and infantry fighting vehicles and their modifications. By type is divided into boikovy, katkovy, knife and combined. Provides reliable trawling of anti-tracked and anti-bottom mines with a probability greater than 90% in various ground conditions and in snow. Provided for use with EMT electromagnetic prefix for mines trawling with proximity magnetic fuses and with additional sections from pin anti-bottom mines.
Figure 17 - KMT-10 Knife Track Barrier for BMP
Thus, we have a fleet of specialized armored vehicles for various purposes, capable of performing a wide range of combat missions, the combined use of which makes it possible to operate effectively in an all-arms battle, including in overcoming engineering obstacles and water obstacles.
Stop! And what is a general combat battle?
The battle - the main active form of actions of military units (subunits, units, formations) on a tactical scale, organized armed clashes, limited on the ground and in time. It is a set of strikes, fire and maneuver of troops coordinated by target, place and time. Can be defensive or offensive. Types of combat: general military; air; anti-air; nautical.
General combat - a battle involving subunits, units and formations of various types of troops of the Ground Forces and other types of Armed Forces, whose efforts are united by a single plan and plan and agreed upon by purpose, time and place. Can be offensive and defensive. Combined combat is usually part of the operation (battle) and only occasionally carried out to achieve a private goal outside it.
Figure 18 - All-Arms Fight, Exercise
The main factors determining the development of the battle are changes in weapons and equipment and army personnel. In addition, the nature of operations and the war as a whole, the requirements of operational art and tactical strategy, also influence the development of combat; organizational structure of the troops; the enemy - his weapons and equipment, the organization of troops, methods of action; the level of development of military theory, the degree of military and political training of troops, military traditions and national characteristics of the army.
Thus, when it comes to the fact that a combat vehicle must perform certain tasks in a combined arms battle, it means that it must either meet the requirements of all possible types of combat, its goals, time and place, or these requirements are formed under its characteristics .
Battle order - building (location) of a compound, unit, subunit with their reinforcement means for conducting combat. Must meet the plan and meet the goals of the upcoming battle, to ensure its successful conduct with the use of all types of weapons and the decisive defeat of the enemy to the full depth of the combat mission. It is closely interconnected with the combat missions assigned to the troops and the conditions of the situation. It includes the first echelon, the second echelon or (and) the general reserve: a missile unit, an artillery unit, an air defense unit and various purpose reserves, for example, RCBZ units, anti-tank and engineering units, special detachments, airborne assault forces (assault landing units).
Figure 19 - Motorized rifle unit on the march, exercises
In the attack at the forefront of the first echelon of combat order, tanks operate. Behind them, motorized rifle units (that is, BMP and BTR).
Offensive battle - a breakthrough of the enemy’s defense (defender), which is characterized by a strong blow to the entire depth of the enemy’s battle formation, a continuous fire attack of all its elements, a wide maneuver by the troops, and a constant build-up of combat efforts.
Meeting engagement - a type of offensive combat in which both sides seek to accomplish the task set by an offensive. The troops in a head-on battle have the goal of defeating the advancing enemy in a short time, seizing the initiative and creating favorable conditions for further actions.
Defensive fight - a battle, the main task of which is to repel the attack (strike) of the superior enemy forces, to inflict significant losses on it with available forces and means and to retain a certain point or area of the terrain by taking defensive positions by the defending troops.
Full-scale fighting - military operations carried out by the armed forces of two or more parties (states).
Military operation - a form of military operations by armed forces, a set of coordinated and interrelated on purpose, tasks, location, time of battles, battles, strikes and maneuvers of diverse troops, which are conducted simultaneously and sequentially in accordance with a single concept and plan for solving problems in a particular theater of operations in a set period of time.
Operations differ in the number of troops participating in them (depending on the scale of the operation, they are strategic, front-line, army, as well as composition (combined-arms, all-fleet, joint); spatial scale, duration, and offensive operations - by depth and rate of advance.
Special operation - limited in scale, time, admission of secrecy, the number of units involved for the execution and the means of their reinforcement military offensive operation, characterized by a set of specific features of an individual character with clearly defined goals and objectives.
Ambush - an advance and carefully camouflaged location of the military or partisan units on the most likely paths of the enemy’s movement in order to defeat him with a sudden blow.
Figure 20 - Ambush on a column of Georgian troops during the Five Day War
This means that an ambush is an offensive special operation, the beginning of which the enemy becomes aware of immediately at the moment of his attack, and in fact at the moment of starting the first loss (damage). We conclude that it is impossible to avoid ambush, and that in any case there will be losses (in manpower or machinery). If the ambush was known in advance, or the enemy's plan was cracked up to attack, there will be either defensive or counter-fight.
What awaits armored vehicles when used as intended is now clear. How and for what purposes it should also be clear. The only question is: "Where?"
Fighting on a flat terrain - characterized by small relative elevations and a relatively small steepness of slopes with high maneuverability (if the terrain is not swamped and not crossed), low protection (meaning from OMP), good conditions for orientation, observation and firing, hampered by disguise. Plain terrain is usually more favorable for the organization and conduct of an offensive and less favorable for defense.
Figure 21 - Offensive on flat terrain, exercises
Fighting in a wooded area - characterized by obstructed maneuverability, good security, poor conditions for orientation, observation and firing, but good masking.
Fighting in settlements - have good permeability, high-protected, the sufficient conditions for orientation, observation and firing, a good disguise.
Fighting in the highlands - characterized by a large number of formidable natural barriers, the limited number of roads, peculiar weather conditions. Successful operations in the mountains require special training of personnel. When building a combat order of motorized rifle and tank units, special importance is attached to ensuring their tactical independence. Battalions and companies are amplified more than the usual amount of artillery, zenith and engineering tools. Motorized rifle units are attached to tanks, tank units - motorized rifle units. Artillery is distributed between the companies.
Figure 22 - Column of Soviet troops in the mountains of Afghanistan
Having dealt with the types of armored vehicles and its tasks, the theaters of hostilities turn to means of dealing with armored vehicles, because in order to deal with the degree of protection that meets the "modern requirements", you need to know the typical modern threats.
The most common means of dealing with armored vehicles is RPG. RPG - Hand-held anti-tank grenade launcher; designed for firing active-reactive grenades to fight tanks, self-propelled artillery installations and other enemy armored vehicles, can be used to destroy enemy manpower in shelters, as well as to combat low-flying air targets.
Figure 23 - Fighter with RPG-7 in ambush
To begin with, that the RPG still "anti-tank" and is designed to break through the thick armor of a tank. The fact that the BMP, BMD, and BTR make their way through them is not surprising - tanks also have hard times.
However, in fairness it should be noted that the task of the grenade thrower is also not easy. It is a dangerous anti-tank tool and is subject to priority destruction. The aim of the grenade launcher is to hit from the first shot, as those animated targets that were fired from an RPG are usually very sad, take it too critically and not friendly, as a serious insult, a threat to health, and at the same time extremely vindictive and prone to instantaneous manifestation of excessive aggressiveness and cruelty in their response actions.
Figure 24 - Shooting from LNG-9 in Lebanon from the roof of a house
RPG armor penetration from 150 to 750 mm homogeneous steel (the values in the sources do not match). The effective (not to be confused with the sighting) range of various RPG samples from 100 to 300 m. In disposables - no more than 100 m. And this is for fixed targets in the absence of wind by experienced test arrows at the range.
Conclusion: the fight against tanks using RPGs is more of a partisan character (ambush), since any armed lightly armored target has a significant priority in effective firing range. Since during the preparation of the ambush the enemy knows the approximate composition of the column and the characteristics of the armored vehicles entering it, the RPG calculations are placed on the most advantageous positions for themselves - from the side projections of targets whose area is larger and where the booking is weaker. In the case of a successful hit, the probability of causing losses to the enemy is very high.
As a private, more expensive and developed version of the RPG, you can consider the ATGM. The firing range of the ATGM at the expense of the SLA is much higher, armor penetration is also higher, but the weight and size characteristics are naturally worse than that of the RPG. The cost of one modern RPG shot on average from 2000 US dollars. The cost of one similar ATGM is at least an order of magnitude higher. For comparison - the cost of the BTR-80 (although now buy) - from 100 000 US dollars (and with mileage from conservation - half the amount).
With all that, (according to reviews of colleagues who have been carrying out practical and training shots from RPGs and ATGMs at test sites of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation for years), not all cases of reliable operation are observed. After each firing Battalion landfill "smooth out" sappers and always with a "catch".
PTM - anti-tank mines; designed for mining areas in order to destroy tanks and other armored vehicles. Anti-tank mines are triggered when tanks, self-propelled guns, armored personnel carriers, other combat vehicles or vehicles are exposed to them and disable them.
Figure 25 - Wrecked Trophy Mine Warehouse in Afghanistan
Anti-tank mines are classified:
- by type of action on: protivogusenichnye, protivodnischevye, protivobortovye, protivokryshevye;
- by type of warhead: high-explosive and cumulative;
- by type of fuse on: contact and non-contact;
- production by type into: industrially manufactured and homemade (VCA - IEDs) or handicraft production.
Anti-tracked mines explode when hitting them with a track (wheel) and ensure the destruction of tracks (wheels) and running gear elements. Counter-bottom mines can be undermined anywhere on the bottom of a tank or other mobile equipment and provide penetration of the bottom, defeat of the crew, damage to components and assemblies of the target or destruction of the undercarriage elements. Anti-aircraft (anti-slip) mines explode when tanks and other mobile equipment enter the area of the mine’s detonation and ensure penetration of the onboard armor (roof), destruction of the crew, damage to components and aggregates of the target.
It should be noted that MMT again "anti" and are designed to fight tanks with enhanced protection. In order to protect the BTR, BMP, BMD from the action of mines, it is necessary accordingly not only to increase the thickness of the tracks, the bottom, sides and roof, but also the rigidity of the whole hull.
Currently, the most popular remote-controlled mines. Their use allows you to get rid of some of the shortcomings of RPGs. In the case of a successful ambush attack, it is easy to build on success; otherwise, it’s easy to hide completely unnoticed.
A very important element of the mine is the type of explosives in the warhead. So, the combat units of the VCA are often made from industrial "semi-finished products" - TNT briquettes, PVV briquettes, and so on. Industry seeks to squeeze the maximum out of a mine, for which high explosives and alloys based on them are used.
Incendiary mixtures - cheap in the production of special sticky high-temperature incendiary compositions, easily prepared in both industrial and artisanal conditions. Effectively used by partisans in the fight against armored vehicles. The presence of termites poses a serious threat to any armored vehicles. Application limited to urban conditions due to the requirement of finding close to the target (the throw distance not exceeding 30 m).
Incendiary mixtures can flow into the deflectors of the air intakes of engines and life support systems, disabling the power plant and strangling the crew, leading to the fire of MTO; reduce the visibility of tank optical devices to zero; melt outdoor equipment; burn through armor.
From the point of view of the author, the most curious means was and is a small arms (more later). DShK, NSV or Cord, (CPV) - machine gun with tape feed chambered for 12,7 × 108 mm (14,5 × 114 mm); designed to combat lightly armed targets, fire weapons and manpower of the enemy, located behind light shelters at distances up to 1500 - 2000 m and defeat air targets at inclined distances to 1500 m. The penetration capability of an armor-piercing bullet when firing CPV - 30- 35 mm / 500 m / 0o RHA steel armor according to the NATO standard); NSV (BS bullets with a tungsten core) - 20 mm steel from a distance 750 m.
Figure 26 - Installing CPV on a homemade machine
The presence of powerful armor-piercing bullets speaks for itself about the high goal set for this type of weapon - the fight against light armored vehicles.
Thus, we are now reliably aware of the assignment of armored vehicles, how they should be exploited, what tanks were invented to combat armored vehicles, and that most of these funds are directed primarily to combat tanks.