Since we are mostly civilian people, we will go through civilian models, leaving service workers behind the battle, especially since it is still unknown what the export version of the gun will be like, as the customer himself will determine. On the whole, it is highly doubtful that the weapon will be fundamentally different in some way, most likely the changes affect the ammunition.
It all started back in the distant 1998 year, when an unknown and rather strange sample of weapons appeared, which was called PB-4. This model of the pistol was very different from the subsequent ones, but at the same time it was quite cheap in production, and almost anyone with straight arms could carry out repairs. This weapon marked the beginning of "electronic pistols" as they are sometimes called the inhabitants.
As in any other weapon, the main characteristics of the PB-4 pistol were set by ammunition, and the ammunition was rather unusual. A long aluminum sleeve hides a deep-set bullet consisting of a metal core and a rubber sheath. The bullet itself was not of the usual form and had a narrowing due to which the bullet had a clearly defined tail section. It was this part of the bullet that was clamped in the glass in which the powder charge was located. Thanks to this placement of the bullet, it was quite difficult, or rather, almost impossible to spoil the cartridge, to pull it out of the cartridge case to increase the weight of the powder. Much more interesting feature was that the cartridge 18x45 did not have a capsule as such, and it had an initiating composition, but the ignition was not due to the deformation of the capsule, but because of the ignition of a tungsten filament inside the sleeve during the passage of electric current. The gun itself was, in fact, nothing more than a source of electric current and a switching device between the cartridges and this same source of current, wrapped in a wrapper suitable for wearing and using. The “wrapper” was a pistol grip with a safety bracket and a release button and a cartridge tipped forward on the cartridge's 4. In other words, the appearance of the weapon was not much different from what is common now.
A distinctive feature of the first sample from the family of traumatic pistols "Wasp" was a small round window in the handle of the weapon, in which the numbers from one to four could be observed. As it is not difficult to guess, the figure in this window indicates which camera will be shot from when pressing the release key. But this is an external difference between weapons from subsequent models, the internal difference was more significant.
In modern pistols of the Osa family, an electronic circuit for switching cartridges and a source of electrical current is used, while it has the ability to test the operability and availability of ammunition before firing. This allows you to charge the cartridges in the first and third drum chamber. And the shots will still occur one by one, each time you press the shutter button. In the very first pistol of the Osa family, PB-4 electronics was at a minimum. Instead of an electronic control of the supply of electric current to the cartridges, a kind of switch was used, which each time the trigger button was pressed, gave current alternately to each of the chambers of the cartridge cassette. This system was simple and relatively reliable, but had its drawbacks. So, the main disadvantage was that the weapon was actually not protected from moisture and the switch contacts were easily oxidized. Under the condition of sliding movement of contacts, this deficiency was not immediately noticeable, but it was present. Actually this was the main reason for creating a more complex, but at the same time more reliable sample, but about it a little lower.
The source of electric current for the traumatic pistol PB-4 was a magnetic-pulse generator, which, when the trigger button was pressed, produced an electric current sufficient to ignite the tungsten filament and, accordingly, the powder charge. With this device it was also not so simple. The fact is that after a while the effectiveness of this part of the pistol fell, as the permanent magnets in the design elementally began to lose their properties. It happened not on the first and not on the second month of weapon exploitation, and not even in a year, but the fact that someday the gun could not have worked was a fact. However, they didn’t pay much attention to this then, and they tried to solve the problem very soon.
Despite the fact that it was the first traumatic pistol, its characteristics were very good, and the reliability of the weapon was quite sufficient while observing the rules of operation. The maintenance of the pistol consisted only in a periodic rubbing with an alcohol-containing solution of current-carrying parts to the cartridges, since an oxide could form on them due to which the pistol could refuse. In terms of accuracy, the weapon naturally did not reach full-fledged samples for live ammunition, but on condition that the gun was essentially tubeless (the barrel of the cartridge itself was the barrel of the weapon), and for self-defense the distance in 5-7 meters was limit, then the weapon fully satisfied all the requirements.
The next model of the traumatic pistol from the Osa family was named PB-4М. Outwardly, this pistol differed from its predecessor only a little; only the window disappeared, which indicated the number of the camera from which the shot would be fired, but significant changes took place inside the weapon. Instead of a mechanical switch, it was decided to use electronics that would significantly increase the reliability of the gun. The main feature in this case was that the weapon checks the cartridge before firing for serviceability. Suppose there is a defective cartridge in the first chamber of the ammunition cassette, of which the owner of the weapon, of course, does not know. If self-defense is necessary, pressing the trigger key PB-4 will not fire and you will need to press it again, which is not very convenient and may even be dangerous to the life and health of the defender, because the enemy will not stand and wait. In such a situation, the traumatic gun PB-4М behaves “smarter”, and before applying electric current to the cartridge, first test it for low-voltage and current, which is not enough to ignite the powder charge. If it turns out that the cartridge is not working or the cassette's chamber is empty, then the second chamber will be checked, if it is empty, then the third one and so on until the weapon is found working ammunition ready to be fired. That is, the shot will occur when you first press the shutter-release button, even if the first three rounds turned out to be inoperative. Checking ammunition takes a fraction of a second, because the shooter practically does not feel the delay before the shot.
Such a decision caused controversial reactions in people. On the one hand, it seems to have become more sophisticated as a weapon, but for some reason there was no confidence in electronics, although there is no reason to doubt it.
Together with the new pistol, new ammunition also appeared, however, they were no longer intended for self-defense. These were signal and lighting cartridges.
The next weapon model, which appeared on the market after PB-4М, became PB-4-1. Actually with this gun and went widespread "Os" among the masses.
This traumatic pistol also differed from its predecessor, but this time the differences affected the power source of the weapon. So all previous models of the gun were powered by a magnetic-pulse generator, while in the model of the Osa pistol PB-4-1 the power source is a regular battery. This innovation had both its positive aspects and negative ones.
The positive qualities of this traumatic gun can be attributed to the fact that now the owner of the weapon could have replaced the power source. At the same time, the chemical source of electrical current in the self-defense device reduced the reliability of the weapon. First of all, it was necessary to constantly monitor the battery charge and change it in a timely manner. In addition, we should not forget that such a source of electric current is influenced by low temperatures, and our summer is far from year round. Although in order for the weapon to fail due to the low temperature, you must really try.
Besides the fact that the gun received a new power source, a laser designator was also installed in it. Disputes about whether LCC needs such weapons do not subside until now. Some say that with the LCC the owner of the weapon relies only on him and may fall into a stupor if the laser designator fails. Others provide evidence of the need for LCC that the open-type sights of the traumatic gun are not suitable for aiming in low light conditions, and so on. In my opinion, LCC in weapons, if there is one, does not increase the size and does not make it difficult to carry or remove, a useful thing. First of all, the laser target designator is necessary during training, as it can be seen from the deviations of the pistol from the aiming point while pressing the sufficiently tight shutter button. In addition, a laser target designator is useful for practicing the so-called intuitive firing, and with sufficiently long training sessions at self-defense distances, a person will no longer need either open aiming devices or LCC. So if the manufacturer equipped his weapon with such an addition, then obviously it is not necessary to pick it with a screwdriver, trying to spoil it so that it “does not interfere”. It feeds the laser pointer from the same battery as the gun.
By the time the traumatic pistol PB-4-1 appeared on the market, one more type of 18x45 cartridges appeared, so-called light-sound ammunition. When fired by such a patron, a sufficiently bright flash of light and a loud bang occur, capable of disorienting opponents for some time and enabling the defender to retreat proudly under the pressure of superior enemy forces. This ammunition is also useful when attacking animals, as this cartridge is much more likely to stop the dog in comparison with the traumatic ammunition. In addition, you should not miss such a moment that you don’t really need to aim when using this ammunition, which is useful when attacking a dog. There is, of course, a light and sound cartridge and cons, so it can not be used in confined spaces, as the shooter himself can feel the full impact of the shot.
Since not everyone was happy with the fact that the weapon was battery powered, in the next model with the name PB-4-1ML this situation was corrected. The weapon was again returned to the magnetic-pulse generator, and the LCC was already powered from its power source in the form of the same battery. Most of this weapon is no different from the previous model.
After the appearance of this pistol in 2010, a new type of traumatic ammunition 18x45 appeared, with the mark RSH. These cartridges are equipped with a rubber ball of a sufficiently large diameter, which is weighted with metal chips. As a result, it becomes more difficult for the enemy to inflict serious wounds on the enemy with such a missile, which is a serious plus with our legislation. According to the effectiveness of the application, despite the lower chance of open wounds, this ammunition is not bad enough and can easily stop an aggressive-minded person.
At the same time, a new traumatic pistol "Wasp" PB-4-2. Its appearance is due to the fact that the traumatic pistols of the “Wasp” family found a lot of competitors, based on the cartridge 18х45, and the weapon needed updating. It was decided to update the ammunition, making it, according to manufacturers, more efficient and accurate. Fundamentally, the cartridge and the pistol are no different from the previous PB-4-1ML model, but the cartridge itself slightly “grew”, respectively, and the dimensions of the weapon itself increased. The length of ammunition is now 55 millimeters instead of 45, the diameter of the sleeve is equal to 18,5 millimeters, which is done, it seems to me, only to prevent the possibility of using ammunition in the gun chambered for 18х45. It is difficult to say how effective such a model is, it all depends on the individual application conditions, such as distance to the attacker and his clothes, as well as 18x45 and 18,5x55 stay on the very edge of the state-allowed traumatic cartridge characteristics.
In addition to these pistols, there is another one that stands out from the general number - this is the traumatic pistol Osa-Aegis. Since the traumatic pistols of the “Wasp” family are rather large in thickness, which can make it difficult to carry them in some cases, and there are more subtle options on the market, it was decided to create a truly compact sample for 18x45 cartridges. This model was the Osa-Aegida dual-charge pistol, which is usually positioned as a female weapon, which is caused by the appearance of the weapon. The pistol is not fundamentally different from other models of the Osa family of weapons and it contains all the same principles of operation, despite the fact that the appearance of the weapon is completely different. Cartridges with ammunition in this gun are quick-detachable, not reclining, which allows the designers to quickly recharge, thereby compensating for the double charge. I personally would not hope for this, after all, stress and low light conditions clearly do not have to quickly replace the cartridge with cartridges, but we will not make controversy on this topic. Another interesting feature is the folding trigger of the weapon, which is a means of protection from an accidental shot. In other models, this is done by a tight-running trigger key. In terms of effectiveness, the weapon is no different from its “relatives” as it uses all the same ammunition, however, the gun is lighter and more compact, which can be important when worn daily, especially in the warm season.
Well, and lastly, you need to mention the cartridges 18x45 produced by the company A + A, it also produces traumatic pistols of the "Cordon" family. These munitions have proven to be a better option than the original 18x45 cartridges in an aluminum sleeve. First of all, it should be noted that the sleeve of these ammunition is plastic, which affects their price. In addition, the bullet of these cartridges is different from the bullets of 18x45 cartridges in an aluminum sleeve. So, the bullet of cartridges of the company A + A does not have a pronounced tail section, the bullet simply has a narrowing, and this narrowing is clamped in the “pseudo-cuts” in the sleeve. Thus, the mass of the bullet is shifted forward, and in addition it also receives some kind of rotational movement when fired, which has a positive effect on accuracy, as well as ensures that the bullet head hits the target and not sideways. These cartridges held their leading positions for quite a long time and only with the advent of the 18x45РШ, some people switched to ammunition with a rubber ball.
Summing up the above, it is impossible not to notice that the traumatic pistols "Wasp" and the cartridges for them are constantly evolving and at a fairly rapid pace. With a combination of sufficiently good characteristics for non-lethal weapons, the design of the gun is relatively compact and flexible, so that it can be adapted to any requirements of a foreign customer. A small amount of ammunition at the same time loaded into the gun is compensated by the effectiveness of the hit, and even a few traumatic models with a greater capacity that use similar ammunition in their characteristics. Of the domestic models can only be called Cordon-5, designed for 5 cartridges 18x45. In general, there is nothing surprising in the fact that they are interested in weapons outside of Russia, as it’s relatively effective weapons that can stop an attacker and not kill him not so much, but what easily fits in your pocket is a unique case.