Military Review

Childhood of Ivan the Terrible. 3 part

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Childhood of Ivan the Terrible. 3 part Shuiskys, having eliminated Belsky, returned to their former policy. Its essence was simple. In domestic politics - wholesale theft and predation. In foreign policy - concessions, “reconciliation” with neighbors. Campaign to Kazan was canceled. Kazan Tatars renewed their raids.


True, Ivan Vasilyevich Shuisky did not manage to use the fruits of the victory. Ill and soon died. Andrei and Ivan Mikhailovich Shuisky, Fyodor Skopin-Shuysky advanced to the first places. They became so omnipotent temporary workers that foreigners called them "princes of blood," that is, they were considered people who were entitled to claim the throne.

Pskov did not receive the promised benefits. The issuance of the vice governor’s letters ceased - they stipulated the rights and duties of the governor. The letters determined the level of income that the governor could receive from the governorship. Now it was possible to “feed” without restrictions. There was a massive land grab. Service people who did not belong to the camp of the winners, offended. Forced to sell property at a base price, or simply expelled. Captured and state land. They seized or lured other peasants, driving them to their possessions. Black-nosed, free peasants were enslaved. They issued a lot of Tarkhan letters, which were exempt from duties and taxes. It is clear that led to the dissatisfaction of the part of the service people, who were left out of this "celebration of life." The number of runaway peasants and unrest in the cities being robbed also grew. The number of “thieves” on the roads has increased.

Around this time, Alexey Fedorovich Adashev appeared among the Grand Duke. He became a close friend of the young sovereign. Adashev's father was close Shuisky and with them with his son carried out a diplomatic mission in Turkey. Perhaps Alexey Adashev was the eyes and ears of Shuisky under Ivan Vasilyevich. It is doubtful that the Shuisky would have missed a stranger surrounded by the Grand Duke.

In particular, when Ivan Vasilyevich tried to enter the entourage of Ivan Vasilyevich and like him Fyodor Vorontsov, temporary workers reacted immediately. They offered him to interrupt contacts with the sovereign. But Vorontsov did not understand the hints. Ivan Vasilyevich ordered free access to him, "loved and cherished" Vorontsov. Then 9 of September 1543 of the year right at the meeting of the Boyar Duma Shuisky with their supporters Kubensky, Paletsky, Kurlyatev, Pronsky, Basmanov attacked Vorontsov. Not embarrassed by the presence of the sovereign and the metropolitan, Vorontsov was dragged into the next room, beaten and wanted to be killed. The Grand Duke cried in fear and asked the metropolitan to save Vorontsov. Macarius and the boyars Morozov went to save Vorontsov, in the name of the Grand Duke trying to reassure the Shuisky. The "princes of blood" relented, promised not to kill and dragged Vorontsov to prison. Ivan Vasilyevich again sent the head of the Russian Church and the faithful boyars to save Vorontsov. He promised that if Vorontsov could not be left in Moscow, they would send him to Kolomna. The Metropolitan and the boyars, who came from the sovereign, were pushed into the neck. Macarius also scolded, tore clothes. Vorontsov and his son were exiled to Kostroma, forcing Ivan Vasilyevich to approve the sentence.

Defeat of Shuisky

A week after this scandal, the 13-year-old sovereign went to the annual pilgrimage to the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, and from there to the first hunt in Volokolamsk. The hunt was an ancient princely tradition. He was accompanied by a retinue of boyars, but the Shuiskys did not go. This time they miscalculated. Ivan Vasilyevich returned to Moscow in November. By this time, Ivan and the opposition boyars found a common language and developed a plan of action.

After the Christmas holidays, for the first time Ivan showed himself to be Grozny. At a meeting of the Boyar Duma, he ordered the arrest of Andrei Shuisky, known for robbing Pskov. Shuisky was handed over to the kennels, but they did not bring the prince to prison, they killed him on the way. Already in hindsight, Andrei Shuisky was declared guilty - the robbery of service people, violence against citizens and peasants, the excesses of his servants. Who gave the order to kill Shuisky is unknown. Maybe sovereign, and maybe competitors-boyars. It is possible that he was killed on his own initiative, psari, having played for any of his guilt in front of them.

After the murder of Andrei Shuisky, the chronicler noted that from that time the boyars began to fear and have fear and obedience. The beheaded boyar group was defeated quickly. Ivan Kubensky was thrown into prison. Fedor Skopin-Shuisky, Prince Yuri Temkin, Thomas Golovin and others were expelled from the capital to various cities. Afanasy Buturlin for insulting the sovereign cut language.

The young prince tried to create a support from the Moscow boyars - the Zakharyins-Yuryevs, Morozovs, granted the boyars office to the injured Vorontsov. He brought his mother brothers, Mikhail and Yuri Glinsky, closer to him. I thought that relatives would support him in difficult times. In addition, Ivan Vasilyevich introduced a new court rank - stolnikov. They served at the sovereign's table. They began to recruit young men from noble families. It is clear that they not only served at the table, but could become associates of the Grand Duke, to carry out important tasks.

It cannot be said that from that moment on the emperor became the sole ruler. Notable families were connected by various threads, connections. In particular, Kubensky was released after a few months, because there were numerous intercessors. The stolniki could not become a reliable support for Ivan, since they were closely connected with their families. Glinsky turned out to be completely incapable of state affairs. Vorontsov, who became the favorite of the sovereign, arrogant. He began to claim the role of the new temporary worker. Therefore, a new wave of opal soon followed. The same indefatigable Kubensky, Pyotr Shuisky, Paletsky, Hunchbacked and unlucky favorite Vorontsov fell into the disgraced group. But now the punishment was mild and short. Relatives begged the metropolitan to ask the sovereign for them and forgive everyone.

The sovereign himself continued his education at that time. I read a lot. Notable for great religiosity. According to contemporaries, he did not miss a single church service; he spent hours on the 6-8 hours in the temple every day. In 1545, he made a great trip to the holy places his parents had visited, asking God for a child.

In 1546, Crimean Tatars were expecting attacks. Russian regiments focused on the Oka River. To the troops went and sovereign. The Tatars did not appear, but even without battles, the flight exits to the Oka played an important role in the defenses of the state. Conducted reviews, exercises. The sovereign and his officials checked the readiness of the troops, staffing the regiments, and arming the soldiers. According to the results of the checks, the land salary of boyars' children was determined. In between inspections of the regiments, the sovereign rested, hunted.

Once, on the way to the hunt, the path was blocked by a squad of 50 Novgorod pishchilnikov. And with weapons. The sovereign was alarmed and ordered them to be sent. Novgorod did not listen. There was a clash between them and Ivan Vasilyevich's retinue. Several people were killed and injured. During the investigation it turned out that the people of Novgorod wanted to file a petition, complain about their offenses. And Ivan Kubensky, Fedor and Vasily Vorontsov, Ivan Fedorov-Chelyadnin "incited" them. Direct participants in the rebellion - Novgorod, forgiven. But the assailants were executed. Only Fedorov could repent and justify himself. At the end of 1546, the sovereign visited Novgorod and Pskov with their court.

Kingdom wedding

When Ivan Vasilyevich turned 16 years, Metropolitan Macarius felt that it was time for the sovereign to take upon himself the burden of power management. According to the instructions of the Metropolitan, the Grand Duke made two decisions - to marry and marry the throne. According to Russian traditions, only a married man, the head of the family, was considered a real adult. A kingdom wedding was generally conceived for the first time. It was a deep symbolic act. The title of king was special. Moscow rulers sometimes used it, but only in correspondence with foreigners. In ordinary life, they were content with the title of the great princes. The kings in Russia called the rulers of the Byzantine Empire and the Golden Horde. The official adoption of such a title by the Grand Duke of Moscow meant a very serious bid. Russia actually declared itself the heir to the possessions of the Horde, and the Russian tsar became the successor of the Horde khans. On the other hand, Ivan Vasilyevich declared himself the spiritual heir of the Byzantine Basileus, the head of the entire Orthodox world.

Macarius for the wedding of the kingdom of Ivan Vasilyevich developed a whole new rite. He took the Byzantine traditions as a basis, but creatively reworked them, adapted them to Russian conditions. The metropolitan became the main organizer of the celebration. 16 January 1547 of the year according to the city of hails rang the bells of churches and monasteries. The Kremlin was filled with people. A procession walked along the paths of expensive fabric to the Assumption Cathedral. After the prayer, Metropolitan Macarius performed the anointing, the great sovereign was given the grace of God for his ministry. The sovereign signs were laid on Ivan Vasilyevich: A life-giving cross, barmas and Monomakh's hat. The Metropolitan blessed the young king to strengthen the “judgment and truth” in his native land, protect it from enemies, be merciful to his subjects, and strictly punish evil. The church was declared "king" for the king.

In early February, the Consecrated Council was convened. In the course of his work on the compilation of the Great Chetih-Miney Makarii collected information about the work and life of the saints, who were venerated in different areas of the Russian land. Now it was decided to canonize them for all-Russian worship. 23 saints were canonized, including the great warrior and creator of the Russian prince Alexander Nevsky land.

February 13 held another important event - the king's wedding. The bride was chosen from among the noble maidens of the empire, Anastasia Romanovna, from the Zakharyin-Yuryev family (later known as the Romanovs). It took into account not only the spiritual and physical health of the bride, her beauty and mind, but the race. Zakharyin-Yuriev was considered one of the most noble families of Russia. Since the 14th century, their ancestors served the great princes and were related by kinship with many families. Thus, this marriage strengthened the support of the king in all the old-Moscow boyars. The father of the bride, Roman Yuryevich Koshkin-Zakharyev-Yuryev, was okolnichy with the Grand Duke Vasily III, but due to his early death, he did not distinguish anything special, and her uncle was with the juvenile sovereign Ivan IV as guardian. Anastasia's mother, Uliana Fedorovna Karpova, was the daughter of okolnichy Fedor Ivanovich Karpov, who in 1508 — 1539. led the Eastern foreign policy of the Russian state. Also important was the fact that the Zakharyins-Yurievs were not smeared with participation in any conspiracy, did not belong to any opposition. It was one of the most loyal to the throne of aristocratic families.

Crowned young metropolitan. Anastasia Romanovna made the wedding ceremony not only his wife, but also the queen. At the wedding walked the entire capital city. The convicts were forgiven, alms were heard, and peers were noisy. The main heroes of the occasion received congratulations and attended feasts. But the old Russian custom did not drink themselves. Their task was serious and responsible - they had to conceive healthy offspring. Soon, Ivan and Anastasia, before the end of the holiday, went to the Trinity-Sergius Monastery to pray and ask for blessings for their family life.

Moscow fire and rebellion

In the year of the wedding to the throne, another important event occurred - fire and rebellion. In the summer of 1547, the trip to Kazan was planned. The stockpiles of gunpowder for this campaign were taken to the Kremlin and stored in one of the towers. In April, a part of China-town was burned down by a fire. The tower where the powder was stored exploded, part of the wall collapsed. We coped with the fire. But a week later, the blocks burned down across the Yauza River. And on June 24 a “great fire” flared up. A strong wind helped spread it. In addition, the fire "began" in several places. There is an assumption that the fire was organized by certain persons. The fire quickly swept the central part of Moscow. China Town, the Kremlin, the Big Posad turned into a sea of ​​fire. From the terrible heat cracked and even stone walls crumbled. Killed several thousand people. Metropolitan Macarius barely managed to save, he was already in a semi-conscious state carried out of the Assumption Cathedral and lowered to the Moscow River with ropes. True, the ropes broke and Makari strongly hurt himself.

The king at this time was in his summer residence, the village of Vorobev'e. June 25 Ivan Vasilyevich and the boyars gathered in the Novospassky monastery to discuss how to eliminate the consequences of the misfortune and help the victims. Several boyars said that the fire was caused by evil and witchcraft. The king gave the order to conduct an investigation.

The conspirators: Prince Skopin-Shuisky, boyar I. P. Fedorov-Chelyadnin, Prince Y. Temkin-Rostovsky, FM M. Naked and G. Yu. Zakharyin spread rumors around the city. Glinsky was accused of witchcraft. Desperate and confused fire victims easily believed this rumor. Although Princess Anne, the grandmother of the tsar and Mikhail Glinsky were not in the capital at all, they left for the summer to their estates. Unlucky Yuri Glinsky, he was on Cathedral Square, where people gathered. He tried to hide in the Assumption Cathedral, but he was dragged out and stoned. Then the crowd defeated the estate of Glinsky, interrupted their servants. They also slaughtered the boyars' children from Seversk land, who were on business in the capital, they were also declared “guilty”.

29 June armed crowd moved to Vorobevo. The young king, disoriented by the latest events and frightened by priest Sylvester, who declared that God was punishing Moscow for the sins of the sovereign, did not take any measures. Therefore, the armed townspeople calmly appeared in the village of Vorobyovo and demanded the extradition of the rest of the Glinsky. The king promised people to understand the situation. Making sure that Glinsky is not here, people began to diverge. The hopes of those who wanted the raging "mob" to kill the sovereign were not justified. The people were not opposed to Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich.

The Moscow uprising led to the downfall of the Glinsky family. Priest Sylvester got to the Tsar's entourage, who was brought together by Ivan Vasilyevich by Alexey Adashev. He was a cunning man. A clever politician and intriguer, he frightened the king with God's punishments, which for his sins fell upon the country and called for repentance and “correction” (when nothing was serious about the young king). Frightened by fire, rebellion and murder, the king received Sylvester as his spiritual master.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Childhood of Ivan the Terrible
Childhood of Ivan the Terrible. 2 part
Childhood of Ivan the Terrible. 3 part
4 comments
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  1. biglow
    biglow 28 March 2013 12: 40 New
    +4
    good article, thanks to the author
  2. Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx 28 March 2013 15: 33 New
    +3
    Yes, thanks to the author!
    These words were especially pleased ". But they themselves did not drink the old Russian custom. Their task was serious and responsible - they had to conceive healthy offspring." - I also read that before in Russia, young people did not drink at a wedding.
  3. Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx 28 March 2013 15: 33 New
    0
    Yes, thanks to the author!
    These words were especially pleased ". But they themselves did not drink the old Russian custom. Their task was serious and responsible - they had to conceive healthy offspring." - I also read that before in Russia, young people did not drink at a wedding.
  4. Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx 28 March 2013 15: 33 New
    0
    Yes, thanks to the author!
    These words were especially pleased ". But they themselves did not drink the old Russian custom. Their task was serious and responsible - they had to conceive healthy offspring." - I also read that before in Russia, young people did not drink at a wedding.
  5. Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx 28 March 2013 15: 33 New
    0
    Yes, thanks to the author!
    These words were especially pleased ". But they themselves did not drink the old Russian custom. Their task was serious and responsible - they had to conceive healthy offspring." - I also read that before in Russia, young people did not drink at a wedding.
  6. Witch
    Witch 28 March 2013 18: 50 New
    +2
    +1
    A long time ago nothing about John Vasilievich was new.
    And his positive assessment is completely rare.
    I hope the author and about the quarantine imposed by Grozny, will tell ...
    1. Vasya Ivanov
      Vasya Ivanov 29 March 2013 03: 45 New
      +1
      Good article. Request to the author, I wanted to know more about relations with Europe and the oprichnina.
    2. Vasya Ivanov
      Vasya Ivanov 29 March 2013 03: 50 New
      0
      Good article. Request to the author, I wanted to know more about relations with Europe and the oprichnina.
  7. Vasya Ivanov
    Vasya Ivanov 29 March 2013 03: 40 New
    0
    Good article. I would like to know more about our history. It is very interesting to learn about the oprichnina and about relations with Europe.