Military Review

Leonid Bykov - in love with the sky

34
A talented actor and director Leonid Bykov is still well remembered not only by citizens of the former USSR - his images on the screen worried completely different people. The secret of his popularity is quite simple: he tried to make a movie about people and for people. More than 60 years ago, he played his first film role, and 40 years ago shot his best film, which brought him deserved and very great fame - “Only old men go to battle”. Leonid Bykov managed to make one of the best films about the war, which became the pearl of the Soviet and then Russian cinema.


Leonid Bykov was born on December 12 1928, in a small village Znamensky Slavyansk district of Donetsk region. Since childhood, Leonid Bykov grew up to be a cheerful and intelligent boy, but he didn’t think about becoming an actor and linking his life with the cinema. As a child he had seen plenty of films about pilots, such as The Fighters and Valery Chkalov, so, like many boys of his time, he dreamed of heaven and dreamed of enrolling in a flight school. At the same time, his external data were not the best: a rather small height and the face of a perpetual teenage student. Therefore, in 1943, in Barnaul, where his family was evacuated at the beginning of the war, the attempt to deceive the military enlistment office ended in nothing. The severe military commissar noted that it was too early for Bykov to go to the front and advised him to finish school first.

Leonid Bykov did not leave his dream of heaven in the 1945 year, already in Leningrad, he entered the 2 Special Pilot School, where he managed to study the entire 1 month. From school, he was expelled for a small increase, and on this flight career Bykov finally came to an end. After such a failure, he decided to go to the artists. But even in this new field at first only disappointment awaited him. The first attempt to enter the Kiev school of actors in 1946 was a failure with a crash. After this, our loser-hero was awaited by a joyless return to his home and possible ridicule of his friends. Perhaps realizing this, Bykov decides to go to Kharkov in order to repeat his attempt to become an artist. It is worth noting that he unexpectedly succeeded. Bykov successfully passed the exams at the Kharkov Theater Institute and was enrolled in the 1 course.

Leonid Bykov - in love with the sky

Already in the very first year of the institute, Bykov was entrusted with the role of Pavka Korchagin, while he had to play it on the main city stage in the Kharkiv State Academic Theater. Shevchenko. For a novice artist, it was a real success. In the 1951 year, after graduating from the institute, he was accepted into the troupe of the Kharkov Academic Theater and played on his stage until the 1960 year. Already in 1952, Bykov played his first movie role. It was a film by Viktor Ivchenko and Isaac Shmaruk “The Fate of Marina”, in which the future star of Soviet cinema got only the episodic role of a simple village boy Sashko.

To the surprise of many, this film had a fairly large audience success, and the beginning actor was remembered not only by the audience, but also by filmmakers. In 1954, Alexander Ivanovsky and Nadezhda Kosheverova suggested Leonid to play the role of Petka Mokina in the film “The Tiger Girl”. This picture was a resounding success with the Soviet public, since it, the name of the actor Leonid Bykov became known to almost everyone. Meanwhile, in parallel with the “Tiger Tamer”, the actor was filmed in another Lenfilm tape “Maxim Perepelitsa”. The success of this film in the film distribution was lower, but for Leonid Bykov, this role really opened the doors to big cinema, and he finally won the love of the national audience.

After this, the Bulls continued to actively roll, however, often these were roles similar to one another: the original Maxima Perepelitsa, only on a smaller scale. At the same time, the actor wanted something new, he was not going to endlessly exploit the same image, so he tried as much as possible to choose roles of a different plan. In 1961, the film “Aleshkina Lyubov” was released on the screens of the country, in which Bykov played one of his best roles. From 1961 to 1964 years he managed to play in the films: "At the seven winds", "When bridges are made," "Be careful, Grandma!".


In parallel with this, Bykov is experimenting and trying himself as a director. In the 1960 year, breaking with the theater, he and his family moved to Leningrad. At Lenfilm, they promised to give him a try in the role of director and he agrees to the move. In 1961, in conjunction with director Herbert Rappoport, Bykov shot the short film "As the string goes up ..." and although this work went almost without attention from viewers and critics, this attempt did not frighten young Bykov from directing. In 1963, he was shooting a full-length sarcastic and sad comedy “Bunny”, in which he played a major role, critics did not appreciate Bykov’s work, and he himself understood that he didn’t make a good film.

At the same time, Bykov’s long-time dream was to shoot a picture that would tell about the heroism of the Soviet pilots during the Great Patriotic War. Love for the sky and for the people of this profession has lived in Bykov since childhood and never left it. In addition, he remembered his best friend Viktor Shchedronov, who, unlike Bykov, was able to finish the flight school, went to the front and died in the battle of 11 on April 1945 of the year in Czechoslovakia. Through 20 years after that, Leonid Bykov wrote the script for his best film and one of the best Soviet war films - “Only old men go to battle”. He embodied his deceased friend Viktor in the form of a Darkie, retaining to that even the name of a friend - Lieutenant Shchedronov.

Leonid Bykov created the script of his immortal picture in collaboration with screenwriters Alexander Satsky and Yevgeny Onoprienko. In this case, to put this picture in the USSR for a long time was not allowed. The bureaucrat considered this film not heroic enough. In order to prove the opposite, Leonid Bykov begins to run around the script of the film from the stage. Reading them separate passages of the film script in the most different cities of the USSR provoked constant delight of the listeners, and this proved that the scriptwriters were not mistaken and the idea of ​​their film was correct. In the end, the cinema leaders of Ukraine understood this. In 1972, Leonid Bykov started shooting, and in 1974, the film was released on screens, and since then it has remained one of the most beloved films about the war with the national audience.


After the triumph of this picture, it was simply impossible not to notice the talented director. In the same year, Leonid Bykov was awarded the title of People's Artist of Ukraine. Moreover, unlike many of the then artists who deserved this title for a number of very different reasons, and not for popularity among people and talent, Leonid Bykov received this title deservedly. Earlier in 1965, Bykov was already awarded the title of Honored Artist of the RSFSR.

A year after the premiere of the film “Only Old Men Are Going to Battle”, Bykov again addresses the topic of war. This time he begins to shoot the picture "Aty-bata, the soldiers marched." The screenplay for this film was written by Boris Vasilyev and Cyril Rappoport. One of the main roles in this film was played by the director himself, for whom this role in the movie has already become 22. At the same time, he initially did not think of acting in this film; at the time many actors tried to play the role of corporal Svyatkin, but none of them came up. And then colleagues advised Bykov himself to play this role. It is worth noting that they were right, it is unlikely that anyone would have been able to play this role better.

The filming took place near Zagorsk winter 1976, and were quite complex. In the courtyard there were very hard frosts, from which both people and equipment suffered. In the course of the work, it turned out that most of the captured film turned out to be a marriage, while Bykov himself suffered a second heart attack and spent a month in the hospital. In any case, the heroic work of the participants in this film did not go in vain. The release of the picture was another triumph of the actor and director Leonid Bykov. For this picture he was awarded the State Prize of the Ukrainian SSR.

Looking through the lines of the official biography, do not flatter yourself. Of course, Bykov rejoiced at the awards and triumph, but his soul was restless. Charity, universal flattery, corruption that prevailed in the country did not allow him to work and live in peace. Even the official acceptance of the war film “Aty-bats, soldiers were going”, which did not contain any dissidence, there was no policy, it was very difficult. During the screening of this film, a representative of Goskino suddenly snored. And when he woke up, he started asking ridiculous questions: “Why does your movie have a strange name? It looks like a child's counting ... ". Thank God, those present then had the courage to object to him and fight off many remarks and quibbles.


After removing two very good pictures about the war, Leonid Bykov decides to change the subject and in 1978, he starts shooting a satirical fantasy film called “Alien”. The shooting of this film took place in difficult conditions for the director. To the picture once again began to find fault with the officials from the film industry. In addition, Leonid Bykov himself could no longer see how his colleagues were cursing before the authorities and the authorities, literally trampling each other in the dirt in the fight for trips abroad, apartments. Apparently for this reason, Leonid Bykov never joined the CPSU, although he was “strongly invited” there.

Leonid Bykov was tragically killed in a car accident at the age of 50. The accident occurred on the route "Moscow-Kiev" 11 April 1979. Leonid was returning from his cottage near Kiev in his car. In front of him on the road was an asphalt skating rink, which the actor decided to drive around, but when he tried to overtake, a lorry jumped out to meet him. In order to avoid a head-on collision, the Bulls turned the steering wheel to the side and collided with the roller at full speed. He was buried a famous actor and director at the Baikovo Cemetery in Kiev. Today, one of the boulevards of the capital of Ukraine bears his name, and in 1994, the International Astronomical Union assigned the name of the Bulls to one of the open minor planets.

In people, Leonid Bykov, above all, appreciated their “authenticity,” he did not tolerate duplicity and falsehood. His movie characters to this day attract the viewer with their spiritual purity, unspoiled inner world and some very bright attitude to life. Yes, it is, in general, not surprising, if we imagine for a moment that in the movies, the Bulls often played himself.

Information sources:
- http://tainy.info/personalia/leonid-bykov-doroga-v-nebo
- http://www.rusactors.ru/b/bykov_l
- http://www.kino-tv-forum.ru/publ/aktery/leonid_bykov/2-1-0-373
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  1. omsbon
    omsbon 26 March 2013 08: 39 New
    12
    Films of Leonid Bykov about the war - this is a monument to their creator for centuries!
    1. Sakhalininsk
      Sakhalininsk 26 March 2013 09: 35 New
      +3
      Quote: omsbon
      Films of Leonid Bykov about the war - this is a monument to their creator for centuries!


      These films, in addition to the fact that they are a monument to the creator, are also the greatest paintings on the basis of which young people can and should be educated.
    2. Iraclius
      Iraclius 26 March 2013 11: 56 New
      19
      Quote: omsbon
      Films of Leonid Bykov about the war - this is a monument to their creator for centuries!

      I think this is a monument to the people who, in the most difficult conditions, were able to defeat the fascist monster.
      My little daughter still does not know who Leonid Bykov is, but sometimes asks: "Dad, let's see a movie about our military pilots. The one with the dark-skinned one!" And for me, the biggest revelation at the time was not even Leonid’s biography, which I have known for a long time, but what fate fell to our famous Soviet comedian - Alexei Makarovich Smirnov!



      Sometimes I find myself thinking - what kind of person does a pure soul and strength need to go through the hell of World War II and then become ... a comic actor?
      Eternal memory to these real Russian peasants. Real artists!
      1. Mikhado
        Mikhado 26 March 2013 13: 05 New
        +7
        About Smirnov - you look at his pictures of the military! He smiles there - this is the real Russian soul, as it is!
        And the war did not cripple his soul, but his body. There was some reason because of the wound that left him alone in life alone.
        And although he was not the leader, he remained the Great Actor in the folk memory, along with Bykov.
        1. Iraclius
          Iraclius 26 March 2013 13: 29 New
          +7
          I’m writing about that. He was awarded the Orders and medals: the Order of Glory, the Order of the Red Star, the medal "For Courage" ...
          I don’t know about the wound. I know that I received a strong concussion in the battles in Germany.
          As for the presenter ... Sometimes a talented supporting actor speaks more than the main character. What would a Maestro be without his faithful and devoted squire - mechanic Makarych?
          In addition, Alexei Makarovich was a very educated, intelligent person. He was brilliantly versed in Japanese poetry. I never talked about my exploits in war in vain and was a very modest, even shy person.
          You look at the current “stars” with whom to insult a woman, swearing obscenities on the air - just spit, and I don’t even say anything about arrogance, arrogance and arrogance, then there’s no word.
      2. kris
        kris 26 March 2013 13: 45 New
        10

        military biography of Alexei Smirnov.
        He did not like to remember the war and never trumped his military merit. Only the closest people knew about his geographic military past.

        From the personal file of Smirnov:
        He commanded a fire platoon in the 169th mortar regiment, went from a private to a lieutenant.
        Two orders of Glory - the 2 and 3 degrees, the Order of the Red Star, the medal "For Courage" and "For Military Merit."

        In total, Aleksey Makarovich Smirnov had 11 military awards

        Excerpts from the award sheets:

        “On April 9 1944 of the year in the vicinity of the village of Pilyava, after powerful artillery raids, two enemy battalions with the support of 13 tanks went on the attack. Comrade Smirnov with a platoon opened powerful mortar fire on the German infantry. In this battle, platoon fire destroyed: 4 easel and 2 light machine guns, 110 Nazi soldiers and officers. The counterattack of the Germans was repulsed "

        “By order of the third artillery division of the 15 of September 1944 of the year:

        On July 20 of 1944, in the region of the height of 293, the enemy attacked the battery with power up to 40 of the Nazis. Comrade Smirnov, inspiring the fighters, rushed into battle and repulsed the German attack. He personally captured 7 Nazis.

        27 July, in the area of ​​the village Zhuravka, leaving the encirclement, captured 5 Nazis. Comrade Smirnov A.M. worthy of a government award - the Order of Glory 3 degree.

        The commander of the 169 mortar regiment Saltsyn. "

        He received the second Order of Glory for the battle near the village of Postaszewice. Again there was a German attack, hand-to-hand combat and stingy lines in the award sheet:
        “Comrade Smirnov with three fighters rushed at the Germans and personally killed three Nazis from a machine gun and captured two. On January 22 of 1945 of the year, in spite of intensive machine-gun and artillery-mortar shelling, it calculated to ferry a mortar on itself to the left bank of the Oder River. Where did the fire from the mortar destroy 2 machine gun points in the village of Eichenrid and up to the 20 Nazis. 36-th artillery regiment captured the village and the bridgehead on the left bank of the Oder. "

        Before Berlin, there was only a little bit left, but the most severe concussion interrupted A.M. Smirnova. After prolonged treatment at the hospital, he was commissioned from the army.

        For information:

        The Order of Glory is a military order of the USSR, established by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from November 8 to 1943. Awarded to the rank and file of the Red Army, and in aviation and to those with the rank of junior lieutenant. It was handed over only for personal merits; military units and formations were not awarded to them.

        The Order of Glory, in its statute and color of the ribbon, almost completely repeated one of the most revered awards in pre-revolutionary Russia - the St. George Cross.

        The Order of Glory has three degrees, of which the highest I degree is gold, and II and III are silver (in the second degree the central medallion was gilded). These insignia could be issued as a personal feat on the battlefield, issued in the order of strict sequence - from the lowest to the highest.
        http://www.aleksey-smirnov.ru/bio-front.html - сайт памяти Алексея Смирнова.
  2. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 26 March 2013 08: 55 New
    +8
    One of my favorite actors and directors. Well, "Only Old Men Are Going to Battle" is a classic.
  3. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 26 March 2013 09: 13 New
    21
    And Bykov’s friend was real - Alexey Smirnov, who simply died after learning about Bykov’s death
  4. erased
    erased 26 March 2013 09: 23 New
    +3
    The pleasing, general flattery, corruption that prevailed in the country did not allow him to work and live in peace

    Pleasing and flattery are not the best things in life, but not fatal. But where does such corruption come from? This is the USSR of the 70s, and not Russia of the 90s and present times.

    As for Bykov, he is a talented actor, an excellent director and screenwriter, a universal favorite. A man who worked for the people, not for power. His films were shot with love and skill, a wonderful example of true Soviet art. The current crafts of "pseudo-military" films did not even stand nearby, and in the distance, too.
    Eternal memory and great gratitude for his life and work!
  5. vladsolo56
    vladsolo56 26 March 2013 09: 40 New
    +4
    What can I say, but nothing to add, everything is so true that we just remember a real person and a talented artist.
  6. urich
    urich 26 March 2013 09: 47 New
    +5
    even if Bykov hadn’t acted as an actor anywhere and didn’t have made a single film, except for “Old Men Are Fighting,” this film alone would be enough to make it history for centuries! And he has a whole list of them.
  7. Prapor Afonya
    Prapor Afonya 26 March 2013 10: 20 New
    +4
    One of the best actors! Now there are none (or practically none)! He has excellent films, and not only in “Only Old Men Go to Battle”, for example, I have revised “Maxim Perepilitsa” many times, I really like this film, some kind, right one!
  8. galiullinrasim
    galiullinrasim 26 March 2013 10: 29 New
    +7
    in the last frames, when he says about the orchestra, I want to cry. I watched how many times and I want more
  9. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi 26 March 2013 10: 42 New
    11
    “Only old men go into battle” and “Ata bats were soldiers” - these are films about a war of the highest artistic and moral level. Without pathos and special effects, images of genuine courage and service to the Motherland were created. You can’t create this with any money; you need to invest your whole soul here. Literally burn out like Danko. It happened to Bykov. "Ata bats ..." he was shooting a seriously ill patient.
  10. Egoza
    Egoza 26 March 2013 11: 51 New
    +8
    The author forgot to mention the wonderful role of the actor in the film "Volunteers"! And he really played himself. he was very modest in life. I often saw him riding in an ordinary city bus that travels along Rusanovka to the metro station Levoberezhnaya in Kiev. And the place always gives way to the old woman, and was very embarrassed if someone asked for his autograph. Although more often people just smiled at him, and he answered people with a slightly embarrassed smile! Eternal memory to him!
  11. Iraclius
    Iraclius 26 March 2013 11: 53 New
    0
    Quote: omsbon
    Films of Leonid Bykov about the war - this is a monument to their creator for centuries!

    I think this is a monument to the people who, in the most difficult conditions, were able to defeat the fascist monster.
    My little daughter still does not know who Leonid Bykov is, but sometimes asks: "Dad, let's see a movie about our military pilots. The one with the dark-skinned one!" And for me, the biggest revelation at the time was not even Leonid’s biography, which I have known for a long time, but what fate fell to our famous Soviet comedian - Alexei Makarovich Smirnov!



    Sometimes I find myself thinking - what kind of person does a pure soul and strength need to go through the hell of World War II and then become ... a comic actor?
    Eternal memory to these real Russian peasants. Real artists!
  12. laurbalaur
    laurbalaur 26 March 2013 12: 54 New
    +2
    Thanks to DOSAAF for helping make the great actor’s films!
  13. kamakim
    kamakim 26 March 2013 13: 11 New
    +1
    A good article, but there are inaccuracies. Bykov is an eternal memory ...
  14. knn54
    knn54 26 March 2013 13: 22 New
    +1
    He lived and worked honestly, for real!
  15. smprofi
    smprofi 26 March 2013 14: 46 New
    11
    wonderful was the Actor and Director



    1. Iraclius
      Iraclius 26 March 2013 14: 53 New
      +2
      Wonderful monument. Where is it installed?
      1. smprofi
        smprofi 26 March 2013 15: 38 New
        +4
        in Kiev, near the Park of Glory
        coordinates in google: 50.440575,30.553839
        Street View double-click
    2. Oberon
      Oberon 26 March 2013 20: 55 New
      +1
      he remained in the Soul of many.
      And he had the right to the Star of the Hero!
      How good that there is a monument .....
  16. Iraclius
    Iraclius 26 March 2013 16: 02 New
    +1
    Thank. Somehow I’ll go to Ukraine. If I’m in Kiev, I’ll definitely call in.
  17. MAG
    MAG 26 March 2013 17: 20 New
    +5
    Great person!!! “Everything is falling normally” “I waved without looking” “WE WILL LIVE !!!!!” while we look and show our children we will not format it to the west !!!
  18. Humpty
    Humpty 26 March 2013 17: 21 New
    +3
    Bykov is the master.
    Grigory Rechkalov is the prototype of the “grasshopper” and “maestro” all rolled into one.
  19. Yankuz
    Yankuz 26 March 2013 17: 47 New
    +2
    I bow my head to such People !!!
  20. Vadzja
    Vadzja 26 March 2013 18: 14 New
    +3
    Great director and man !!!
  21. itr
    itr 26 March 2013 19: 07 New
    0
    A truck drove to meet him ???? Maybe all the same, he drove into the oncoming lane
  22. HaByxoDaBHocep
    HaByxoDaBHocep 26 March 2013 19: 12 New
    0
    here is the prototype of the maestro
    http://www.warheroes.ru/hero/hero.asp?Hero_id=348
  23. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign 26 March 2013 19: 21 New
    +1
    Thank you for the article!..
    Wonderful actor, talented director, Real Man! ..
    And his friends in life are the same ... Eternal memory!
  24. strenadk
    strenadk 26 March 2013 19: 21 New
    +3
    Quote: Vadzja
    Great director and man !!!

    If tears flow down the cheeks when watching movies, then the Master was shooting. When watching Bykov films, tears appear constantly. Great was the Man! It is a pity that "was" ....
  25. igorgar
    igorgar 26 March 2013 19: 42 New
    +4
    "Only old people go into battle," "And the dawns here are quiet," "Hot Snow" - here on such films our patriotism must be educated.
  26. George
    George 26 March 2013 20: 15 New
    +2
    Hello all.
    I remember watching the dock. film dedicated to Leonid Bykov. So at the end, one of his friends (unfortunately I don’t remember who) said that during his lifetime, Bykov asked that they sing “Smuglyanka” at his funeral. One day after the funeral, they gathered close at his grave. A friend says:
    - We stood and were silent. Although everyone remembered the request of a friend, there was simply no strength to sing. It seemed to me just a little more and that’s all, we won’t sing, but we will disperse silently, but suddenly someone quietly - quietly sang, and everyone slowly began to sing along. And so we cry and sing. "
    Great actor. Eternal memory.
  27. Oberon
    Oberon 26 March 2013 20: 49 New
    +2
    Bright memory! Rest in peace. I remember .... I poured a glass, I remembered .... Masters.
    Only the Old Men go into battle!
  28. Marek Rozny
    Marek Rozny 27 March 2013 12: 46 New
    +1
    My favorite movie is "Only Old Men Go to Battle". Every second of the film I know by heart, like many other people. And every time I review with new emotions.
    1. Linkor200
      Linkor200 April 29 2013 23: 25 New
      -2
      If we compare two films - “Only the elderly go into battle” and, for example, the undeservedly forgotten “Chronicle of a diving bomber”, then in this comparison the “Old Men” remain far, far behind and below. A true truthful film about the war - and an attempt not even to a film, but to some sort of cheer propaganda action. Real combat everyday life of the Pawns crew / and REAL Pawns / - and far-fetched amateur performances in the DOSAAF air regiment - After all, the respected director did not even bother to at least slightly mask the Yak18 P / sports aircraft of the 70s / under Lavochkin, which he clearly meant. And the “Messer”, on which he “waved without looking,” is a complete parody of a combat aircraft. This is what concerns technology. But the mechanic performed by the truly remarkable actor A. Smirnov is one-to-one re-shot from the mechanics from the Chronicle, and even the same complexion. Unsuccessfully shot episodes of air battles. What a cardboard fascist super-gun. And, suddenly, the coward from the Captain Nemo lying down from the sky in the finale of the film with a bold heroic exclamation “... we will live” / which was hardly the case in a real war / - And, indeed, the HEROES death of the HERO the PE-2 crew ramming enemy planes at the airport, which happened many times in reality. Film and film. Day and night. Naum Birman and Leonid Bykov.
  29. Linkor200
    Linkor200 April 29 2013 23: 24 New
    -1
    If we compare two films - “Only the elderly go into battle” and, for example, the undeservedly forgotten “Chronicle of a diving bomber”, then in this comparison the “Old Men” remain far, far behind and below. A true truthful film about the war - and an attempt not even to a film, but to some sort of cheer propaganda action. Real combat everyday life of the Pawns crew / and REAL Pawns / - and far-fetched amateur performances in the DOSAAF air regiment - After all, the respected director did not even bother to at least slightly mask the Yak18 P / sports aircraft of the 70s / under Lavochkin, which he clearly meant. And the “Messer”, on which he “waved without looking,” is a complete parody of a combat aircraft. This is what concerns technology. But the mechanic performed by the truly remarkable actor A. Smirnov is one-to-one re-shot from the mechanics from the Chronicle, and even the same complexion. Unsuccessfully shot episodes of air battles. What a cardboard fascist super-gun. And, suddenly, the coward from the Captain Nemo lying down from the sky in the finale of the film with a bold heroic exclamation “... we will live” / which was hardly the case in a real war / - And, indeed, the HEROES death of the HERO the PE-2 crew ramming enemy planes at the airport, which happened many times in reality. Film and film. Day and night. Naum Birman and Leonid Bykov.
    1. OTTO
      OTTO April 29 2013 23: 47 New
      +1
      And inappropriately to compare. These are different films. Yes, and real technology during the war by 73, especially flying, there are few. And about amateur performances ... I advise you to read "In the harsh military air" Emelianenko, he really fought in the attack aircraft. And the notes on board his IL were painted.