The article that was brought to the attention of readers is written by Edwin BLACK - the author of the books included in the New York Times bestseller list: “Ai-Bi — Em and the Holocaust” and the just-released “War against the Weak” (“Four walls, eight windows” ).
Hitler turned into hell the life of the whole continent and killed millions of people in search of the so-called "superior race." The world considered the Fuhrer to be insane and poorly understood the motives driving them. However, the concept of a higher race — blond, white-skinned and blue-eyed — was not formulated by him: this idea was developed in the United States by the American eugenic movement two to three decades earlier than Hitler. Not only developed, but also tested in practice: Eugenics forcibly sterilized 60.000 Americans, thousands were forbidden to marry, thousands were forcibly evicted into “colonies” and destroyed countless people in ways that are still being studied.
Eugenics - American racist pseudoscience, aimed at the destruction of all people, except those who correspond to a given type. This philosophy has grown into a national policy through laws on forced sterilization and segregation, as well as marriage bans in force in 27 states.
In assessing the intellectual abilities of people to be sterilized and making tests to determine the level of intelligence, they took into account the knowledge of US culture, and not the real knowledge of the individual or his ability to think. It is quite natural that most of the immigrants showed low results in this kind of tests and were considered not quite normal from the point of view of intellect. At the same time, the influence on society and the environment on a person was completely ignored.
It should be noted that not only characteristic features were studied among members of one family, but also attempts were made to identify traits that are inherited within the ethnic group. So, the eugenists identified as good blood - the blood of the first American settlers who arrived from the countries of Northern and Western Europe. They, according to the Eugenists, possess such innate qualities as the love of science and art. Whereas immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe have a less favorable set of traits.
All this contributed to the introduction of restrictive laws for those entering America and laws against mixed marriages between members of different races and nationalities. Otherwise, according to the Eugenists, the likelihood of damage to American blood is high.
But the most radical political action of the eugenistic movement was the official permission of sterilization. By 1924 in the USA, there were 3000 forcibly sterilized. Forced sterilization predominantly imprisoned and mentally retarded.
In Virginia, the first victim of forced sterilization was a seventeen-year-old girl, Carrie Buck. In 1927, she was accused of poor heredity, which means pollution of the American race. The reason for accusing Carrie of unhealthy inheritance was the fact that her mother was in an insane asylum, and the girl herself outside of marriage gave birth to a child. Her child was recognized by a sociologist from ERO and a nurse from the Red Cross for the subjective impression of abnormal. However, when Carrie Buck's daughter went to school, it turned out that her abilities were no less than normal, and the girl studied very well.
The Carrie Buck case was a precedent for the sterilization of Virginia’s 8300!
Moreover, the development of ERO was used by Nazi Germany. In 1933, following the American model, the Hitlerite government passed a sterilization law. This law is immediately reprinted in the USA, in "Eugenics the news". According to the law, 350 thousand people were sterilized in Germany!
Not surprisingly, the head of ERO in 1936 received an honorary doctoral degree from the University of Heidelberg for "the science of racial cleansing".
Hitler diligently studied American eugenic laws and arguments and sought to affirm racial hatred and anti-Semitism in his rights, giving them medical justification and equipping them with a pseudo-scientific shell. Eugenics would not have gone further than strange conversations if they did not have powerful financial support from the corporation of philanthropists, mainly the Carnegie Institution, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Harriman railway business. They were included in the league of American scientists from such universities as Harvard, Princeton and Yale (note as we know the nest of Masonic ideology that cultivates politicians and scholars who are faithful to the cause), within which they falsified and falsified data in the name of eugenic racist goals.
The Carnegie Institution stood at the cradle of the American Eugenics movement, creating a laboratory complex at Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island. Millions of cards with the data of ordinary Americans were stored here, which made it possible to plan a methodical likvdatsiyu families, clans and entire nations. From Cold Spring Harbor, supporters of eugenics campaigned among American legislators, social services and associations of the country.
From the Harriman railway treasury, funds were transferred to local charities — for example, to the New York Bureau of Industry and Immigration — which were to provide Jewish and other immigrants from the general population for their subsequent deportation, imprisonment, or forced sterilization.
The Rockefeller Foundation helped create and finance the German eugenic program and even subsidized the monstrous research of Joseph Mengele in Auschwitz. Subsequently, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Institute, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and the Max Planck Institute (predecessor of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute) provided unrestricted access to information and assisted in ongoing investigations.
Long before leading American philanthropists came to this problem, eugenics was born thanks to scientific curiosity in the Victorian era. In 1863, Sir Francis Galton developed such a theory: if talented people marry only talented people, their offspring will be noticeably better.
At the turn of the 19-20 of centuries, Galton's ideas were brought to the United States when the laws of heredity of Gregor Mendel were rediscovered. Proponents of American eugenics believed that the concept of Mendel, explaining the color and size of peas and cattle, is applicable to the social and intellectual nature of man. At the beginning of the 20 century, America was reeling under the pressure of mass immigration and widespread racial conflicts. The elitists, utopians and progressives, driven by hidden racial and class tendencies and at the same time striving to improve the world, turned Galton's eugenics into a repressive and racist ideology. They dreamed of populating the planet with white-eyed, blue-eyed people of the Nordic type — tall, strong and talented. In the course of this work, they intended to turn off blacks, Indians, Latin Americans, Eastern Europeans, Jews from the life of a heap of dark-haired people, poor and weak. How were they going to achieve this goal? By identifying "defective" family branches and condemning them to lifelong segregation and sterilization to destroy whole bloodlines. The maximum program was the deprivation of the reproductive capacity of the "worthless" - recognized as weak and standing at the lower stages of development.
In the 1920, the Carnegie Institution eugenicists established close personal contacts with the German fascist eugenics. In the year 1924, when Hitler wrote his Mein Kampf, he often quoted the principles of American eugenic ideology and openly demonstrated his good knowledge of American eugenic theorists and their phraseology. He proudly declared to his supporters that he was firmly following American eugenic legislation. The struggle of Hitler for the super-race turned into an insane fight for the Higher Race, in terms of American eugenics, when the notion of "Nordic" came replaced by "German" or "Aryan." Racial science, racial purity and racial domination — these were the driving forces of Hitler’s fascism.
Nazi doctors turned into backstage generals in the Fuhrer's war against the Jews and other Europeans, recognized as a lower race. They developed science, invented eugenic formulas, and even personally selected victims for sterilization, euthanasia, and mass destruction. In the first decade of the Reich, eugenics throughout America unanimously welcomed Hitler's plans, seeing in them the consistent embodiment of their ten-year research papers.
The point, however, was not limited to the support of scientists. America financed and helped create German eugenic institutions. By 1926, Rockefeller donated 410.000 dollars (4 a million modern greens) to the work of hundreds of German researchers.
In May 1926, for example, Rockefeller paid 250.000 dollars to the German Psychiatric Institute, which became the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry. One of the leading psychiatrists of this center, Ernest Rudin, later became its director and, as many believe, was the architect of the Hitler's system of medical suppression. Even in the Kaiser Wilhelm science complex there was a brain research institute. Grant in 317.000 dollars allowed this institute to build a main building and become the center of national racial biology. Over the next several years, this institute received additional grants from the Rockefeller Foundation.
The Brain Institute - also headed by Rudin - became the main laboratory and testing ground for deadly experiments and research conducted on Jews, Gypsies, and representatives of other nations. Since 1940, thousands of Germans from nursing homes, psychiatric clinics and other institutions have been systematically strangled with gas. A total of 50.000 to 100.000 people were destroyed.
A special recipient of financial assistance from the Rockefeller Foundation was the Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Kaiser Wilhelm's Eugenics in Berlin. For decades, American eugenics only sought to obtain twins for research in the field of heredity, the German Institute was able to conduct such research on an unprecedented scale.
At the time when Rockefeller made his donations, Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, the star of American eugenic circles, was head of the Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics. In the early years of Vershuera’s work in this post, the Institute of Anthropology was financed directly by Rockefeller, as well as through other research programs. In 1935, Verschuer left the Institute to create a eugenic center in Frankfurt. The study of the twins in the Third Reich went brilliantly with the support of the government, which issued a decree on the mobilization of all the twins. Around that time, Verschuer wrote in Der Herbartz, a eugenic medical journal, the editor of which was himself, that the German war would lead "to a total solution to the Jewish problem."
10 May 1943, the longtime assistant of Vershuera, Joseph Mengele, arrived in Auschwitz. Mengele selected the twins directly from the transports arriving at the camp, conducted brutal experiments on them, wrote reports and sent them to the Verschuera Institute for analysis and synthesis.
As the newspaper "The San Francisco Chronicle" wrote in 2003:
“The idea of a white, fair-haired, blue-eyed mainstream Nordic race was born before Hitler appeared. The concept was created in the United States and cultivated in California for decades before Hitler came to power. California eugenics played an important, though little known, role in the American eugenic movement for ethnic cleansing. ”
Eugenics ─ pseudoscience, which set itself the goal of "improving" humanity. In its extreme, racist form, this meant the destruction of all "unsuitable" people, the preservation of only those who fit the Nordic stereotype. The ideas of this philosophy were enshrined in the national policy by laws on forced sterilization, segregation and restriction of marriages. In 1909, California became the third state from 27 in which such laws applied. As a result, practicing eugenics forcibly sterilized about 60 thousands of Americans, thousands were denied marriage with their chosen ones, thousands were driven into a “colony” and a huge number of people were persecuted in ways that are now being investigated. Before World War II, almost half of forced sterilizations were carried out in California. And even after the war, a third of such operations were carried out in this state.
California was considered the center of the eugenics movement in America. At the beginning of the 20 century, the Californian eugenics consisted of strong, but little-known scholars and scholars. Among them were the army venereologist, Dr. Paul Popenow, citrus tycoon Paul Gosney, Sacramento banker Charles Göte, as well as members of the Council of Charities and Correctional Institutions of the State of California and the Board of Regents of the University of California.
Eugenics would have been, by and large, an unusual topic of conversation in the living rooms, if she had not been so generously financed by large philanthropic organizations, in particular the Carnegie Institute, the Rockefeller Foundation and the company Harriman railroad fortune. They all collaborated with prominent American scientists from such prestigious universities as Stanford, Yale, Harvard and Princeton. These scholars supported the theory of race and eugenics themselves, and then fabricated and perverted the data in favor of eugenic racist goals.
In 1904, the president of Stanford University, David Starr Jordan, in his message "The Blood of the Nation" introduced the concept of "race and blood." The university scientist stated that the qualities of a person and his position (for example, talent and poverty) are transmitted by blood.
Harriman railroad fortune paid local charities (for example, the New York Bureau of Industries and Immigration) for helping to search for Jews, Italians and other immigrants in New York and other densely populated cities, their deportation, restriction of movement or forced sterilization .
Almost all of the spiritual guidance and political advocacy material for the eugenics movement in America came from California quasi-autonomous eugenics societies such as the Pasadena's Human Betterment Foundation and the California branch of the American Eugenics Society, which coordinated most of their activities with the Eugenics Research Society in Long Island . These organizations (which functioned as part of a closely related network) published racist eugenic leaflets and pseudoscientific magazines Eugenical News, Eugenics, and propagated Nazism.
The most common genocide weapon in the United States was the death chamber (better known as the local government gas chamber). In 1918, Popenou, an army venereologist from World War I, co-authored the widely used textbook Applied Eugenics, which argued that “with historical from the point of view, the first method that speaks for itself is the death penalty ... Its importance in maintaining the purity of the race should not be underestimated. " This textbook also has a chapter on “selectivity of death,” which “kills an individual with adverse environmental factors (such as excessive cold, bacteria, or physical illness).”
Breeders from eugenics were convinced that American society was not yet ready to use an organized killing. But many psychiatric clinics and doctors independently practiced improvised mortality and passive euthanasia. In one of the Lincoln, Illinois clinics, incoming patients were given milk from cows with tuberculosis, believing that a genetically pure individual would be invulnerable. From 30% to 40% of deaths per year accounted for Lincoln. Some doctors practiced "passive evgenocide" over each of the newborns. In other psychiatric clinics, negligence was widespread, often resulting in death.
Even the US Supreme Court supported the approaches of eugenics. In 1927, in his infamous decision, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote: “It would be better for the whole world if we do not wait for the generation of degenerates to drown us in crime, and not let them enjoy their dementia when society can prevent reproduction those who are not suitable for this. Three generations of degenerates is enough. " This decision paved the way for forced sterilization and harassment by thousands who were considered inferior. Subsequently, during the Nuremberg process, the Nazis quoted Holmes as their excuse.
Only after eugenics was consolidated in the United States, was the campaign to plant it in Germany. To a large extent, this contributed to the California eugenics, who published booklets idealizing sterilization, and distributed them among German officials and scientists.
Hitler studied the laws of eugenics. He tried to legitimize his anti-Semitism, bringing him under medicalization and giving him an even more attractive pseudoscientific form of eugenics. Hitler was able to attract a large number of followers among rational Germans, saying that he was engaged in scientific research. Hitler's racial hatred was born in his head, but the ideological foundations of eugenics, which he adopted in 1924, were formulated in America.
In 20, the Carnegie Institution eugenicists developed deep personal and professional relationships with fascist German eugenics. In the book Mein Kampf, published in 1924, Hitler referred to the ideology of American eugenics, demonstrating deep knowledge of it. “Today there is one state,” wrote Hitler, “in which there is at least some progress towards a better concept (on immigration). Of course, this is not our exemplary German Republic, but the United States. ”
At the dawn of the Reich, American eugenics hailed Hitler’s achievements and plans as the logical conclusion of his many years of research. California eugenicists republished Nazi propaganda for distribution in America. They also held Nazi science exhibitions, for example, an exhibition at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in August 1934, the annual meeting of the American Association of Health Workers.
In the 1934 year, when the number of sterilizations in Germany exceeded 5 thousands per month, the leader of the California eugenics C.M. On his return from Germany, Göthe told one of his colleagues with admiration: “You will be interested to know that your work has played a huge role in shaping the views of the group of intellectuals behind Hitler in his landmark project. Everywhere I felt that their opinions were very susceptible to American influence ... I want, my friend, that you remember all your life that you gave impetus to the development of a great government that governs 60 by millions of people. ”
In addition to providing an action plan, America funded research institutes dealing with eugenics in Germany.
Since 1940, the regular persecution by gas of thousands of Germans, forcibly taken from old people's homes, psychiatric institutions and other guardianship sites, began. It was systematically killed from 50 000 to 100 000 people.
Leon Whitney, the executive secretary of the American Eugenic Society, declared Nazism: "While we are cautious, the Germans call things by their proper names."
The Rockefeller Foundation was especially favored by the Berlin Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity and Kaiser Wilhelm's Eugenics. For decades, American eugenics needed twins to do research on heredity.
Now the institute was ready to undertake such research at an unprecedented level. 13 May 1932, the Rockefeller Foundation in New York, sent a telegram to his office in Paris, "the June Executive Committee meeting nine thousand dollars for three years for the Institute for Anthropology of the Kaiser Wilhelm TWINS FOR RESEARCH AND INFLUENCE OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN THE germplasm for future generations".
The period of charitable donations from Rockefeller fell during the leadership of the institute Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, a famous personality in eugenic circles. Rockefeller continued to finance this institute at the beginning of Verscher's management activities, both in the mainstream and through other research channels. In 1935, Foresher left the institute to create a rival eugenic institute in Frankfurt. This event was publicly announced in the American eugenic press. Supported by government decrees in the Third Reich began to be intensively conducted experiments on twins. Ferscher wrote in the Der Erbarzt eugenic medical journal Der Derbarzt, which he headed, that the German war would "once and for all solve the Jewish problem."
As Michael Crichton wrote in 2004, he wrote: “Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson and Winston Churchill were also her supporters. She was approved by the Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and Louis Brandy, who ruled in her favor. She was supported by: Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the phone; activist Margaret Sanger; botanist Luther Burbank; Leland Stanford, founder of Stanford University; novelist HG Wells; playwright George Bernard Shaw and hundreds of others. Nobel laureates provided support. Research supported the Rockefeller and Carnegie foundations. To carry out these studies, a science complex was established at Cold Spring Harbor, important research was also conducted at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Stanford and Johns Hopkins universities. Anti-crisis laws were passed in the states from New York to California.
These efforts were supported by the National Academy of Sciences, the American Medical Association and the National Research Council.
They said that if Jesus was alive, he would also support this program.
In the end, research, legislative activity and the formation of public opinion regarding this theory lasted for almost half a century. Those who opposed this theory were ridiculed and called reactionaries, blind people, or simply declared ignorant. But what is surprising from the point of view of our time is that there were very few who opposed it.
There was a plan - to reveal mentally handicapped people and to stop their reproduction by isolation in special institutions or sterilization. They agreed that mainly Jews are mentally deficient; and many more foreigners and black Americans.
Such views found widespread support. G. Wells opposed the “poorly trained crowds of handicapped citizens.” Theodore Roosevelt argued that "society has no right to allow degenerates to reproduce their own kind." Luther Burbank demanded "to prohibit criminals and the weak-willed to give birth." George Bernard Shaw declared that only eugenics would save humanity.
American eugenics were jealous of the Germans, since they took the lead since 1926. The Germans were amazingly successful. They delivered “mentally handicapped” to ordinary houses and interrogated them one by one, and then sent them to the back room, which essentially served as a gas chamber. There, people were poisoned with carbon monoxide, and their bodies were shipped to a crematorium located in private territory.
Over time, this program has grown into a wide network of concentration camps located near railway tracks, which made it possible to use efficient transport. Ten million "useless people" were killed in these camps.
After the Second World War, it turned out that eugenics does not exist, and never did. The biographers of celebrities and the powerful have not mentioned the interest of their heroes in this philosophy, and sometimes they did not even remember it. Eugenics has ceased to be a school subject in colleges, although some claim that her ideas continue to exist in a modified form.
By the way, it should be noted that the most active adept of eugenic science, Dr. Mengele, who is notorious for his terrible experiments on living people, including children, including even newborn babies, was carefully transferred to the USA at the end of the war, where he received all the necessary documents to move to Latin America. Where he did not dare to touch even the Mossad. And in 1979, he died quietly and peacefully from a stroke while swimming.