Military Review

Sociologist Mikhail Gorshkov - about people's aspirations and growing up of society

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Sociologist Mikhail Gorshkov - about people's aspirations and growing up of societyAccording to the polls of the beginning of 2013, 51% of Russians are in favor of a planned economy of the Soviet type, while not wanting to part with capitalism. How to understand them?


What do people really dream about? Have the “Russian dream” and the consumer basket of happiness changed? Who is interested in the opinion of the people today? These and other questions of AiF were answered by Mikhail Gorshkov, Academician, Director of the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Needle of fierce excitement

AiF: - Mikhail Konstantinovich, you recently conducted a study on the theme “Russian Dream”: what kind of it can be realized? ”. So how? Are our dreams the same?

MG: - And you yourself can name the three main dreams of the Russian people today? [Articles: 48578]

"AIF": - Obviously, its real estate - the house, apartment. Well paid work. And a cool car is better than that of a neighbor ...

MG: - Then I will surprise you. The current priorities are to live in prosperity, not counting a penny, health for yourself and loved ones. And - you will never guess! - life in a fair and reasonably organized society. This is the desire of the majority.

Imagine? It is up to which pen it was necessary to bring people to put the public ideal of justice on a par with the dreams of personal and vital!

"AIF": - Maybe we were hoping for justice in the beginning of 90-x?

Dossier
Mikhail Gorshkov was born in 1950 in Moscow. Leading Russian sociologist, Ph.D., laureate of the State Prize of the Russian Federation (2002). Author of more than 200 scientific papers. One of the founders of the sociology of mass consciousness.


MG: - In those years, we wanted something else — changes in order, closer relations with the West, and rapid enrichment. In the wake of idealism and unconscious liberalism, democracy was perceived as synonymous with well-being. It was believed that the liberation of life will solve all the problems: give freedom - and dreams will come true. Freedom was personified with happiness. So they liberated themselves utterly ... Now we realized that the new does not necessarily bring with it a plus. More often at first a minus.

But the dream of a consumer society is still rooted. For example, many firmly sat on the needle of a cheap consumer loan. And, judging by the polls, they do not realize that this trick is akin to a drug. You can understand them: we were too long deprived of much. And here they offer everything - from the kettle to the refrigerator. It is impossible to condemn. But it is terrifying what the faces of buyers making out loans during sales are turning into ...

"AIF": - And what about these faces?

MG: - Fierce excitement. Especially strong against the background of a heightened sense of inequality that has reached glaring sizes. What scares - began to grow a sense of aggression. In the children's colony, we asked 14-year-olds who committed brutal murders: “Why did you do that? Did you think that the person was in pain, would he lose his life? ”60% replied:“ No, I did not think. I enjoyed the fact that he (or she) becomes ill ... ”Imagine, the children confessed that they receive pleasure from the death of another! In another study, we asked the question: “Are you ready to step over moral and legal norms to achieve a personal goal?” 40% of young people answered: “Ready.”

AiF: Do you associate this with the stratification of society?

MG: - Of course! [articles: 60307] According to Rosstat, today the income gap between the 10% of the most affluent and the 10% of the most vulnerable citizens is almost 17 times. According to our data - in 30! In St. Petersburg - already 80 times, and in Moscow - all 100. Do you think the poor child does not see how his peer is carried in a limousine, and he himself has a bun in his pocket at best?

Similarly, in adults. As a result, the social perturbation hierarchy has changed. In 90, people were indignant because of a lack of money, impoverishment. Today, due to the violation of the principle of social justice (80% of respondents), inequality of property distribution (also 80%), inequality before the law (82%). The material aspects of anger have been replaced by moral ones. Do you know what is most interesting? Not only the poorest and middle peasants adhere to this position, but also more than half of those who live well.

What are we building?

"AIF": - Question bluntly, Mikhail Konstantinovich: who needs your polls today? [/ B]

MG: - “Above,” in the government, in my opinion, to no one. Over the past 10 years there has been only one case when, according to our research, the findings were made. Usually, even thanks do not say. Not so long ago, we conducted a survey "20 years of reform through the eyes of Russians." There was no newspaper that would not use it on its pages, including AiF. And from the corridors of power - not a sound. Recently, in the Council of Federation, I spoke to the second persons of all regions - the chairmen of the Legislative Assembly. Our data requested almost everything! Here you have a reaction in the field. In the government they kept silence again. The principle is simple: if the numbers and findings of the polls do not coincide with the opinion of the official in the ministry, then he “knows nothing”, “did not hear” about them, etc. I find it very inconvenient when serious authorities do not order us polls, but foreign ones funds They are regularly interested in the “springs” and “gears” of our society. For some reason, the Russian authorities do not. But without sounding society, it will have fog ahead - without landmarks. [Articles: 49116]

"AIF": - What do the polls promise us? Where are we going?

MG: - I will answer by contradiction. What will not be? Revolutions and other social explosions of the federal scale. The opposition has nothing to captivate the masses. And most importantly, a layer appeared that would not allow this to be done - the middle class. These are 30% of the population and 10-15% "sympathizers" who will behave the same way. These people have property, material support for children and grandchildren. They really do not want to lose it. Almost 40% of them are ready to solve their problems without state assistance. The main thing is that the power does not interfere, but it is desirable that it helps ... They play the role of a buffer, balancing the extreme forces that are trying to rock the boat, to "push" the middle ground. Now you will not “collide” it without explaining why it is needed. There is no idea for which people will refuse the benefits obtained by their efforts. Never in my life!

"AIF": - So, you can relax and not wait for shocks?

MG: - The power is now occupied by itself. Really relaxed. And in vain. The middle class asks itself: “What is in the future? Will they come to me with pitchforks? ”Remember the English principle“ my home is my fortress ”? It is today and their dream. But Russia can no longer live only at the expense of the resource of stability. The state provided it. So what is next?

The government has repeatedly stated: "We will not build state capitalism." And what will we do? This question is not answered. But sooner or later the authorities will have to answer it. And what would the people want to build? Mass consciousness is no longer thinking in categories, but in the desired images. Most want to combine all the good from the Soviet experience and market economy. Persecuted academician Sakharov called this convergence - convergence of systems. But the people, on the title, the shop window, the ideological framing, do not pay any fundamental attention. It would be a good judge.
Author:
Originator:
http://www.aif.ru/society/article/61275
26 comments
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  1. Vanek
    Vanek 25 March 2013 07: 41 New
    +3
    MG: - “Upstairs”, in the government, in my opinion, to nobody.

    Said everything.
  2. bairat
    bairat 25 March 2013 07: 47 New
    +6
    On the eve of the revolution, Lenin also complained to his comrades-in-arms against the Russian people, they say he is inert and silently demolishes the oppressors of the exploiters. And then everything started spinning, we still disentangle the consequences.
    1. ziqzaq
      ziqzaq 25 March 2013 10: 22 New
      +3
      Quote: bairat
      On the eve of the revolution, Lenin also complained to his comrades-in-arms against the Russian people, they say he is inert and silently demolishes the oppressors of the exploiters. And then how it all began to spin, we’re still dissolving the consequences

      Until the crisis intensifies everything will be stable, and I really want to hope that neither the 17th, nor the 91st will happen again ......
      1. nakaz
        nakaz 25 March 2013 13: 46 New
        0
        And the 17th and 91st year will even happen again, but I really hope that in the West and not in Russia.
    2. S_mirnov
      S_mirnov 25 March 2013 14: 36 New
      +2
      "we are still trying to clean up the consequences" - this is not the rule. Now we are just starting to clean up the consequences of the revolution of the party nomenclature that merged the USSR. And we still have a lot to sip and a full spoon.
  3. radio operator
    radio operator 25 March 2013 07: 51 New
    +3
    Then I will surprise you. Current priorities - to live in abundance, not counting a dime, health for yourself and loved ones. And - you will never guess! - life in a fair and reasonably organized society. This is the desire of the majority.

    I agree, for this it is not necessary to freeze with a microphone on the street. Enough to visit our site good .
    1. tronin.maxim
      tronin.maxim 25 March 2013 08: 00 New
      +2
      Quote: radio operator
      I agree, for this it is not necessary to freeze with a microphone on the street. Enough to visit our site

      Our site is different, or rather forum users. A site that brought together people from all over the world speaking Russian! There are nationalists, liberals, patriots, and many others. I think in 1-2 years the members of the forum will increase 5 times or more!
    2. Alexander Romanov
      Alexander Romanov 25 March 2013 08: 04 New
      0
      Quote: radio operator
      Enough to visit our site

      Putin probably doesn’t know about the existence of our Sait, then he might find out what the people want
      1. S_mirnov
        S_mirnov 25 March 2013 14: 38 New
        0
        Eat, rule - rule, but dosihpor did not bother to find out what he wants there, this people like him! laughing
      2. SASCHAmIXEEW
        SASCHAmIXEEW 25 March 2013 16: 10 New
        +2
        I think the services are not asleep and they give him an analysis, if not, then this is bad! may miss the moment and God forbid Russian rebellion !!! All against everyone !!! Roll up bills! etc...
        1. S_mirnov
          S_mirnov 25 March 2013 19: 36 New
          -1
          The fact is that the people have no official opportunity to influence the government. The authorities took care of this. That leaves only the Russian riot. An overheated wheel of popular discontent will explode sooner or later.
          http://www.km.ru/v-rossii/2013/03/25/federalnaya-sluzhba-bezopasnosti-rf-fsb/706
          814-v-fsb-obyavili-zabastovku-iz-za-o
          when the FSB begins to rebel, then the matter is bad.
  4. Sirocco
    Sirocco 25 March 2013 07: 54 New
    +2
    What do they say about Russia? The fact that we do not understand the mind. Well, we are such a nation, harnessed for a long time, but then ohhh how fast we drive laughing
  5. fenix57
    fenix57 25 March 2013 07: 55 New
    +2
    ".Life in a fair and reasonably organized society.. "- because the" mess "is tired of the connection with the West too. And the government relaxed in vain; - as if not to get "unearthly pleasure" in speed ....... We are in Russia, in the sense that we harness for a long time, then ....... hi
    1. Sirocco
      Sirocco 25 March 2013 11: 08 New
      0
      Whatever happens, Eeehh, pump it out lol
  6. krasin
    krasin 25 March 2013 07: 57 New
    +2
    Although he is a professor, somehow he draws conclusions a little wrong. Conclusions sitting in a chair, white bone rushing - Surveys polls and conclusions ???
    1. lav566
      lav566 25 March 2013 09: 46 New
      +3
      The conclusion has already been made in the East and some economists
      in the West: a market economy with a strong regulatory
      the role of the state. For Russia, this should mean
      nationalization of the commodity industry, heavy industry,
      electric power industry
      large banks, housing and communal services, etc. And give an opportunity to develop
      small and medium-sized businesses. An example of such a model of NEP
      carried out by V.I. Lenin in the 20s. Remember it
      the term is "commanding heights in the economy of the state."
      1. SASCHAmIXEEW
        SASCHAmIXEEW 25 March 2013 16: 21 New
        0
        And what does Comrade Glazyev think about this? In my opinion, this is the best option for RUSSIA !!! If Putin is not prevented from taking this path, then I think everything will work out for us !!! Unless of course Putin for such a device RUSSIA !! If not, then trouble can not be avoided !!! I think so .... And you LAV566 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
  7. Andrey57
    Andrey57 25 March 2013 07: 57 New
    +5
    Until the results of the predatory privatization are revised, there will be no progress - more than 80% of the population has not resigned itself to the robbery of the country and the appropriation of all the wealth by a handful of "close to the trough". hi
    1. itkul
      itkul 25 March 2013 12: 40 New
      0
      Quote: Andrey57
      Until the results of the predatory privatization are reviewed, there will be no movement forward - more than 80% of the population has not resigned itself to the robbery of the country and the appropriation of all the wealth by a handful of "close to the trough"



      What is there to offer? And then they write, they write ... Congress, some Germans. The head swells! Take everything, and divide.
      “So I thought that was exactly what I thought.”

      “Do you know the way?”
      “What a way.” Simple business. And then: one in 7 rooms settled down, he has 40 pairs of pants, and the other hangs around in the garbage, looking for food.


      Do not remember where it comes from
      1. SASCHAmIXEEW
        SASCHAmIXEEW 25 March 2013 16: 42 New
        +1
        Sharikov's words ..... Do you think that criminals should be free? Chubais should be imprisoned for the "privatization" scam ... He replaced the "registered" vouchers, as planned, with impersonal ones! Simple trick and the whole country in deep F ... except for the "chosen ones"
    2. SASCHAmIXEEW
      SASCHAmIXEEW 25 March 2013 16: 32 New
      0
      On this Troubles and wakes up!
  8. Asgard
    Asgard 25 March 2013 08: 04 New
    +5
    In my opinion such articles "leading" economists, politicians, psychics - it's nothing ...
    Everyone sees the pre-storm situation, they don’t know what to do .....
    What does it mean - the "middle class" will not allow something to be done ??? no one will ask him and will not .... The war to change formats in society will begin just with property that was stolen from the people ......
    And what's the difference - more (oil company)) or less (trolleybus fleet)) today's owners will hang on poles for a contact wire ......

    There is a request in society for JUSTICE .... And that means there will be hang and power ..... (MIA, FSB, DEPUTIES, MEMBERS OF THE PARTIES))))

    Alas, this is objectivity, since the same OPPOSITION cannot offer another solution .... and the World is pushing for a solution where the change is not a dollar, but a .... owner’s blood))
    1. optimist
      optimist 25 March 2013 11: 59 New
      0
      "Golden words, Pyotr Venediktovich!" laughing The whole question is only WHEN this will happen and HOW much blood will be shed. As long as there are more or less enough of Putin's "gingerbread", the people will remain quiet. But the first and main "bell" has already rang in Cyprus.
  9. Tartary
    Tartary 25 March 2013 08: 13 New
    +2
    Quote: Andrey57
    more than 80% of the population did not come to terms with the robbery of the country and the appropriation of all the wealth by a handful of "close to the trough."

    But there is already a result - Potanin has gathered or has already given away half of his capital ...
    Conclusion: - it is necessary, gentlemen oligarchs, to share with the people, it is NECESSARY!

    How?

    Yes, everything, in my opinion, is just ...
    To give half not to the state treasury, but to create a national bank or a national fund that will distribute the collected funds to support small (!) Entrepreneurship. Real support, with scanty percentages, preferential terms for extradition, but with harsh responsibility and without the direct participation of officials ...
    That is, it is not considered a crime if the funds taken by the entrepreneur are turned into liquid - production, other property, but for one reason or another, in good faith (on time) return the funds to the bank / fund, the entrepreneur does not have the opportunity ...
    It is considered a crime when the money is received for deliberately inappropriate spending, for any criminal scenario ...
    A citizen who is happy for the development of his dream - production, trade, etc., will never get into trouble.
    1. Cheloveck
      Cheloveck 25 March 2013 08: 33 New
      +1
      Quote: Tartary
      Yes, everything, in my opinion, is simple ... To give half not to the state treasury, but to create a national bank or a national fund that will distribute the collected funds to support small (!) Entrepreneurship. Real support, with scanty percentages, preferential terms for extradition, but with harsh responsibility and without the direct participation of officials ...

      Gee-gee-gee !!!!
      Excuse me....
    2. Cheloveck
      Cheloveck 25 March 2013 08: 36 New
      +2
      Quote: Tartary
      to support small (!) entrepreneurship

      Damn, how much can be carried on fairy tales?
      Who will work?
      PrEdprymenyateli, damn it!
      1. Tartary
        Tartary 25 March 2013 12: 27 New
        +1
        Quote: Cheloveck
        Gee-gee-gee !!!!
        Excuse me....

        Do you think that I do not understand what this is like "the dream of a nanai to become a Russian" ??????
        Quote: Cheloveck
        Damn, how much can be carried on fairy tales?

        Do not lead, but believe ...
        What can you do? The Russian soul has always believed and believes in a bright, kind, honest ...
        So be it, so as not to become stupid pragmatists, chewing gum and drinking Coca-Cola ...
        Perhaps, I suppose ...
        How to know?
      2. SASCHAmIXEEW
        SASCHAmIXEEW 25 March 2013 16: 53 New
        +1
        Not everyone is given the opportunity to be an entrepreneur, as well as a tough worker, each has his own path in heaven!
    3. Begemot
      Begemot 26 March 2013 15: 57 New
      0
      How naive !! the word "bank" implies control by officials from the Central Bank, FSNS, etc., etc. , and what a! , can only the production of nuclear weapons be more tightly controlled.
  10. Was mammoth
    Was mammoth 25 March 2013 08: 34 New
    +3
    "The principle is simple: if the figures and conclusions of the polls do not coincide with the opinion of an official in the ministry, then he" knows nothing "about them," did not hear ", etc. I feel very uncomfortable when serious polls are ordered not by the authorities, but foreign funds. They are regularly interested in the “springs” and “gears” of our society. But for some reason the Russian authorities are not. "

    This is the main thing in the article. And the worst thing is that the authorities and the people live different lives. What can this lead to? The country's experience is not happy.
    1. Pinochet000
      Pinochet000 25 March 2013 13: 07 New
      +1
      Quote: There was a mammoth
      And the worst thing is that the authorities and the people live different lives. What can this lead to? The country's experience is not happy.
      Exactly! recalls the state of society in the Republic of Ingushetia before the First World War .... the reason for the authorities to think. Only to them in my opinion all FSUs ... are confident in their own exclusiveness .. IMHO
  11. SPACE
    SPACE 25 March 2013 08: 50 New
    +3
    Russia is in first place in the extraction and sale of gas and oil, as well as in first place in aluminum and titanium, wood and much more. In the first places on the proposals and implementation of projects in the field of nuclear and space technologies, as well as in the sale of military equipment. Someone tried to take the approximate amount of everything sold, per year and multiply by the cost, on the Internet, there is about everything. And the received, compared with the adopted budget or the number of residents of Russia, interesting conclusions will be obtained. Doher money and more, but outside the window, many see a mess and theft. This is where the legs of discontent grow. In Russian people, only morons see 3,14 bastards, but a statesman lives in us and in the first place people cry for JUSTICE and the common state business, and they themselves earn money and educate and teach children. So the people are not stupid and who needs a forehead with green paint has already smeared. The worst thing in a person is pride and excessive self-confidence, if it seems to you that you are unattainable, it seems right to you. From the throne to the bottom, the distance is measured in minutes. And if you do not believe it, then ask Kadaffi, Hussein or Berezovsky. And faith does not provide insurance policies.
  12. AleksUkr
    AleksUkr 25 March 2013 08: 56 New
    +2
    MG: - And you yourself can name the three main dreams of the Russian people today? [Articles: 48578]

    "AIF": - Obviously, its real estate - the house, apartment. Well paid work. And a cool car is better than that of a neighbor ...


    Social Priorities of the Population of the USA and Russia

    USA Ranks Russia

    Own Home 1 Health
    Car 2 Happy marriage
    Happy Marriage 3 Children
    Kids 4 Lots of Money
    Child education 5 Highly paid work
    Interesting work 6 Own separate apartment
    Highly paid work 7 Stable life
    Garden, lawn 8 Machine
    A lot of money 9 Own home
    Color TV 10 True Friends

    Source: FOM-INFO. Weekly Newsletter of the Public Opinion Foundation. Vol. 0. March 15, 1994.S. 4.


    Author Andrei Volodin is the true product of our young generation. His priorities are corresponding. (See above)

    The authorities really do not want, unfortunately, to hear the aspirations of the people. Most want to combine all the good from the Soviet experience and the market economy. But this does not apply to today's youth educated on PEPSI. They have different aspirations.

    Some moments:
    Registered in the Social Protection Service (employment service) in the Irkutsk region. as of February 1.02.2013, 19.95, there were 46.09 thousand unemployed people, despite the fact that, at the request of enterprises, 40.3 thousand people were required. But the unemployed, registered in the Social Security Service, are basically people with higher education and corresponding ambitions. And most employers are now looking for simple workers. The number of such vacancies in total exceeds XNUMX thousand. The realities of life are such that students go to universities for prestigious higher education, while enterprises seek hard workers, but they do not want to go to work specialties. A couple of weeks ago, I talked with one such high-growth obtuse. Mother works as a cleaner, but he is only for a managerial position and no less. In the meantime, let my mother feed me - he says. According to the constitution, probably his own, is obliged to support me.
    Here are the priorities.
    Let's remember the Soviet times - at the Likhachev plant, over 400 workers had higher education, and they did not consider themselves inferior. Now the opposite is true - everyone wants to be lawyers, financiers, managers. And as the journalist says - "Obviously, your own real estate - a house, an apartment. Well-paid job. And a cool car is better than a neighbor's ..."
    It turns out an interesting situation - our party-political leadership of our beloved state absolutely does not want to take effective measures to determine the path of development. Fog ahead. There are no guidelines. Power is occupied by itself - and so it is. Chernomyrdin once remarked, "The government is not the body where, as they say, you can use only language ..." It is ridiculous to say that the people like capitalism. And about the middle class - do we have it in the direct sense of who is the middle class.? Only politicians can say that. In a word, again according to Chernomyrdin - "We wanted the best, but it turned out as always."

    WISH: And then - It would be good.
  13. avt
    avt 25 March 2013 09: 24 New
    +2
    Strange people, these "sociologists" questioners .------- ,, "Are you ready to step over moral and legal norms to achieve a personal goal?" 40% of young people answered: "Ready." ----- Ask a question and are horrified at the answer. But did it occur to me to ask, but in general these young norms of law and morality know? Someone brought her to mind? First, the cult of consumption and violence is replicated, and then they are horrified at the result, weirks.
  14. Egoza
    Egoza 25 March 2013 09: 30 New
    +2
    "The current priorities are to live in abundance, not counting a penny, health for yourself and your loved ones. And - you will never guess! - life in a just and reasonably organized society. This is the desire of the majority." - wasn't that what was considered a socialist ideology?

    "In those years we wanted something else - a change in the system, rapprochement with the West, get rich quick" - Show me the one who shouted: "I want capitalism!" The people were not in favor of changing the system, but against the snickering party elite, which, starting with Khrushchev, was losing its adherence to principles and the very essence of the communist party! Rapprochement with the West? for what? Who wanted this? Only those who thought that it was possible to really realize the "American dream" - to be a beggar, and then again! - and you're a millionaire. They justified their inability to earn by the existing system. "They didn't give us, otherwise we would ..." That was skillfully fueled by Western propaganda. I am sure that if the same Masherov stood at the head of the country and continued the Stalinist path, there would be no capitalism in Russia and there would be no spirit. And all these current dreams of the people would be a reality.
  15. homosum20
    homosum20 25 March 2013 13: 39 New
    0
    If not laziness, look at this:
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=xCbF6NoxVZw
    you will not regret.