After the death of Elena Glinsky, the Shuisky seized power. Their leader was Vasily Shuisky. His ambitions were very high. Three months after the coup, he married the cousin of the young grand duke Ivan. The representative of the senior branch of Rurik became in addition the sovereign's uncle. In addition, Vasily Shuisky released from the conclusions and references of the participants of the previous conspiracies: Ivan Belsky, Andrei Shuisky, etc. Only the young Vladimir Staritsky and his mother remained under house arrest. Shuisky's competitors were not needed.
Vasily Shuisky settled in the chambers of Andrei Staritsky in Moscow. Assigned himself to the old title of deputy of Moscow. With the orphan Ivan Vasilyevich was not considered at all. Subsequently, he recalled that he and his brother Yuri were even fed poorly, like a “shabby chad,” and it happened that they simply forgot to feed him.
Shuisky, strengthening their positions within the state, completely abandoned foreign policy activities. They preferred to put up with external enemies, regardless of losses, and not to fight with them. Shuisky agreed to all the demands of the Crimean "tsar": pledged not to fight with Kazan; send great "gifts." This price was bought "union" with Sahib Giray. However, the “allied relations” with the Crimean Khan did not prevent the Tatar troops from continuing raids on the southern regions of Russia. Kazan, on the other hand, did not continue the negotiations begun under Elena Glinskaya. Kazan troops ravaged the environs of Nizhny Novgorod, Murom, Vyatka, Meshchera, Perm. Kazan began to appear in the interior areas that were previously considered safe, near Vologda, Ustyug, Totma, Kostroma, etc.
It is clear that not everyone was happy with the rule of the Shuisky. Many aristocrats were on the sidelines, but what seemed to be worse than Shuisky? The opposition was led by Metropolitan Daniel and Ivan Belsky. Although Belsky himself was a conspirator, and Shuiskys released him, but now he has become their competitor. His kind was not inferior in nobility to Shuisky. Through the sovereign, Belsky and Daniel attempted to carry out their decisions, to raise supporters bypassing the Shuisky ones. But they could not take control, they did not have enough forces. In the fall of 1538, the opposition was crushed. On behalf of the Boyar Duma and the governor of Moscow Belsky was thrown back into prison, clerk Fyodor Mishurin was executed after torture. At the beginning of 1539, the Metropolitan was removed from his post and sent to the Iosifo-Volotsky Monastery.
True, Vasily Shuisky himself did not succeed in reaping the fruits of the victory over his opponents. He died suddenly. Maybe an elderly man could not stand the mental stress associated with the "Monomakh hat." And maybe the enemies "helped" ahead of time to go to the next world. The leader of the Shuisky was the brother of the deceased - Ivan Vasilyevich. He was very different from his brother. If Vasily was a political player who had far-reaching plans, then Ivan Shuisky was an ordinary possessor. Together with his relatives, he began to rob the sovereign's treasury. The money that was supposed to go on the salary of the boyars' children (the category of service people) went into the pockets of Shuisky. And the Shuiskys tried to "wash" the loot - gold and silver were melted down into bowls, various items on which they put the Shuisky family stamp. At the same time, the Shuisky and their supporters were predators on the ground. Getting in feeding the governorship and parish, they frankly robbed them. They invented additional taxes that went into their pockets. They made people work for themselves for free. Coming up with imaginary crimes, they robbed rich people. The Pskov governors Andrei Shuisky and Vasily Repnin-Obolenskaya especially distinguished themselves; they even plundered churches and monasteries.
Tatar raids led to a mass flight of people. The authorities did not pay attention to the refugees. As a result, in Russia, as always happens during troubled times, the number of robbery people, “thieves”, sharply increased.
There was no one to look for goverment for predators. Now the decisions of the Boyar Duma, which was controlled by Ivan Shuisky, had equal force with the orders of the Grand Duke. Shuisky could easily do without references to the sovereign. Ivan Vasilyev was treated with disdain. Ivan and his brother, Yuri, actually lived by themselves, without much upbringing and attention, put to their persons.
The situation of the country continued to deteriorate. Taxes from the provinces did not reach Moscow, or were stolen already in the capital. The nobles and the boyars' children, without receiving their salaries, left their service on the estates. The construction of the fortresses and precit traits begun by Vasily and Elena was stopped. The defense system of the Russian state began to crumble. Fortunately for Moscow, King Sigismund could not take advantage of this circumstance. Lithuania has not yet recovered from the last war with Russia, and Sigismund had to fight hard against the Ottomans.
The threat from the Crimea and Kazan has sharply increased. Kazan troops broke into the densely populated areas of the Russian state, robbed, burned, killed, drove people into full. 1538-1540 were black for Russia. The hordes of the Kazan Tatars got the opportunity to “walk” with impunity in the Russian regions. It got to the point that the Kazan Khan considered himself the winner of Russia and began to demand that he be paid "exit", the tribute that the Russian principalities used to pay the Golden Horde. On other conditions, Kazan did not want to make peace. Crimean Tatars plundered the Ryazan and Seversk lands. Shuisky abusedly addressed the Crimean "tsar", increased the "gifts". Agreed to recognize Kazan part of the possessions of the Crimean sovereign.
Government of Ivan Belsky
Discontent with the nobility Shuisky soon led to the organization of a new conspiracy. This time, the leader of the disgruntled became Metropolitan Joasaph. Now the opposition acted more covertly and achieved success. In 1540, there was a coup. Metropolitan and opposition boyars came to the Grand Duke and began to ask for forgiveness Belsky. Having received the consent of Ivan Vasilyevich, they freed Ivan Belsky and put him on a higher place in the Duma. Ivan Shuisky was put before the fact. He was offended and refused to take part in the meetings of the Boyar Duma.
The Belsky government put some order in the country. Removed from the posts most arrogant thieves. Pskov, who was on the verge of an uprising because of the actions of Andrei Shuisky, received special rights, such as Vasily III had once given to Novgorod. The Pskovs got the right to choose their own elders, kisses, who were to administer the court together with the governors. On Pskov spread labial right. The city was given the opportunity to investigate criminal offenses and punish criminals.
Belskoy himself was apparently opposed to a strong sovereign power and supporter of the rule of the aristocracy. Trying to achieve a certain "unity" in the ranks of the nobility, he pardoned all political criminals. Vladimir Staritsky and his mother were released. They returned the inheritance, allowed to keep the squad. Shuisky for their crimes did not suffer any punishment. Ivan Belsky pardoned his brother, the traitor Seeds Belsky. At that time he was spinning in Turkey and the Crimea, declared himself “Grand Prince of Ryazan” and, as “Grand Prince”, transferred the right to rule the Ottoman Sultan to Ryazan land.
However, in terms of strengthening the defense of the state, Belskoy proved to be an energetic and sensible leader. Armed forces in a hurry put in order. Found funds to pay salaries to the soldiers. Boyar children were mobilized, they collected dutch people, strengthened the garrisons of cities and fortresses. Strengthening the defense power of the country was very helpful.
Bakhchisarai and Kazan decided to deliver a powerful simultaneous blow to Russia. They planned to walk along the Russian lands with fire and sword, to put Moscow on its knees. Moscow was lucky that the Kazan Khan Safa-Girey decided to go in the winter - for the Kazan detachments, the best roads were frozen rivers, and the frost bind numerous rivers, rivers and swamps of the region. They fed the horses with hay, which they took in the ravaged Russian villages. The Crimean Tatars preferred to make hikes and raids after the winter, when there was pasture in the Wild Field for horses. In Kazan, they well remembered that two winters in a row they took good prey in Russia without meeting any serious resistance. Safa-Girey, did not wait for Uncle Sahib-Giray and in December 1540, led the troops to Russia. Kazan reached Murom and here faced a well-organized defense. In addition, two ratifications went to Kazan - one from Vladimir under the command of Dmitry Belsky, the second from Kasimov under the command of serving Tatar “king” Shah-Ali. Safa-Girey did not wait for the enemy and lifted the siege. During the retreat, part of his troops were destroyed.
The government of Belsky began to prepare a retaliatory campaign against Kazan. Vladimir became the place of the general collection of regiments. Ivan Shuisky was to command the army. But in the spring of 1541, alarming news came from the south. Sahib-Girey assembled a large army, joined by Nogais, combining Ottoman janissaries with artillery, detachments from Kafa and Anapa. Crimean Khan planned to crush Russia and following the instructions of the Sultan, plant in Ryazan Seeds Belsky. The Russian command left some of the forces in Vladimir, in case of a new attack by the Kazan Tatars, and the main forces began to prepare to repel the strike in the south. Troops led by Ivan Belsky. They prepared shelves in Serpukhov, Tula, Kolomna, Ryazan. Intelligence reported that the Tatars more than 100 thousand people. Boyar Duma and the Metropolitan even began to think where to take the emperor in case of a siege. A letter was sent to the troops from the Grand Duke, the earliest known work by Ivan Vasilyevich (albeit processed by his elders).
July 30 Crimean-Nogai-Turkish horde came to Oka. The enemy was met by the squads of Tutuntaya-Pronsky and Okhlyabin-Yaroslavsky. As soon as it became known the place of the crossing of the enemy, the main forces of the Russian army were pulled here. Khan realized that to cross under the shelling and resistance of the Russian army will not work, gave the order to retreat. On the way back, the Crimean Tatars attempted to capture Pronsk. But the fortress repelled several attacks, and then Sahib-Girey received news of the approach of the Russian troops and continued to retreat. Russian troops drove the enemy to the Don. It was a complete victory.
Ivan Shuisky again on horseback
Ivan Belsky was not at the height of his fame for long. Forgiving the traitors and high-ranking thieves, he dug his own grave. Ivan Shuisky continued to lead the regiments in Vladimir, who were to speak at Kazan. However, Shuisky was busy with other things. He handled subordinates, recruited supporters. A new conspiracy was organized, which was joined by other Shuisky, Kubensky, Paletsky, Treasurer Treasury. They were supported by the rich Novgorod.
In the capital, began to prepare a coup. On the night of January 3, 1542, a detachment of Peter Shuisky, the son of Ivan, who had been sent from Vladimir, burst into Moscow. On a signal, Novgorod, supporters of the Shuisky, joined him. Ivan Belskoy did not know about the plot and could not organize resistance. Belsky and his supporters arrested. Sovereign Ivan Vasilyevich was again frightened, they rushed into his chambers, grabbed and dragged Prince Schenyatev. The rioters broke in and the residence of the Metropolitan. Joasaph first hid in the courtyard of the Trinity Monastery, then - in the chambers of the Grand Duke. But for the second time the conspirators broke into Ivan's quarters, scolded the metropolitan “with great disgrace” and almost killed him. Joasaph was “deposed” and exiled to Beloozero in the Kirillov Monastery.
At dawn in the capital city with Ratiu, as the winner entered Ivan Shuisky. Arrested opponents were sent to custody. Ivan Belsky was exiled to Beloozero. Shuisky was not going to repeat the mistakes of the enemy, and after four months his people killed Belsky.
What did sovereign Ivan do in childhood
With the filing of the writer and mason N. Karamzin, who put a lot of effort to distort the Russian stories, the reign of Ivan Vasilyevich, including his time of his youth, was defamed. According to this version, in his youth, the sovereign amused himself by tormenting and killing animals, rushing with his friends around the capital, knocking down and stomping people with horses, arranging games and fun, spoiling girls, etc. The source of such information was “The story of the Grand Duke of Moscow »Kurbsky, a traitor-deserter.
A similar view was subjected to crushing and thorough criticism in the tsarist times, and then in the Soviet era. But Western liberals 19-20 for centuries enthusiastically continued to develop a version of Kurbsky - Karamzin. It is clear that such self-flagellation and denigration of Russian history likewise appealed to foreigners. These inventions are still a significant part of the works that relate to the era of Ivan the Terrible.
Not a single contemporary reports such facts. Kurbsky wrote about this already in exile. None of the foreigners, although many of them were hostile to Russia, does not mention such facts. In addition, there is an important indirect evidence that can tell us about the youth of the Grand Duke. All researchers, even hostile to Ivan Vasilyevich, note his education. Call the Grand Duke one of the most educated people of the era. Ivan the Terrible was well versed in theology, he knew by heart whole texts from holy scripture. Well versed in heresy. He knew the work of ancient philosophers, Greek and Roman mythology. He was well versed in Russian and foreign history. In his writings, he cited examples from the history of ancient Babylon, Persia, Greece, Rome, Byzantium, the western kingdoms. He thoroughly knew the genealogies of European and many Asian dynasties. Ivan Vasilyevich mastered the art of rhetoric, poetry, music, he knew military science, mathematics, architecture, had some knowledge of medicine and was a good chess player.
This is the answer, what did the sovereign in his youth. The only person who could give such a fundamental education to Ivan was Macarius. As a student and follower of Joseph Volotsky, Macarius achieved the position of Novgorod archbishop. Macarius was one of the most educated people of that time. It was he who began the grandiose work of compiling the Great Chetikh-Miney (a compilation of almost all the works of a church-narrative and spiritual-educational nature). During this work, Macarius formed a circle of spiritual and secular scientists, a whole "academy" around him. The work went on 12 for years and ended with the creation of the Sophia arch from 12 volumes. Makarii made a lot of efforts to establish a typographic business in Russia. When it was opened in the capital, the first printing house for printing sacred and liturgical books.
Ivan Shuisky deposed Joasaph, for a long time he thought about whom to replace him with. As a result, stopped at the candidacy of Macarius. The scholar, scribe, enlightener Macarius seemed to him not dangerous. In addition, Novgorod, where Macarius was the archbishop, supported his coup, it was necessary to mention Novgorod. Indeed, becoming the metropolitan Makary continued the work on the creation of a set of Orthodox literature. For ten years, they have created an even more complete monument - the Assumption Vault. But about the loyalty of the new Metropolitan Shuisky was mistaken. True, he chose a longer path of opposition. He began to prepare for the reign of Ivan Vasilyevich. The boy was still neglected by the secular rulers. The Metropolitan had access to it at any time. It can also be noted that Metropolitan Joasaph could have started the education of the sovereign, while Macarius successfully continued it. Shuisky did not interfere with such an education. A great sovereign is reading “priestly” books, very well, if only he is not confused under his feet.
To be continued ...