Military Review

Belarusian military-industrial complex - the pride of the country

34



The situation in which the Belarusian defense-industrial complex was located after the collapse of the USSR can be called very contradictory. Despite the fact that the state had a significant share of military production in the total Soviet economy (there were about one hundred and twenty defense organizations and enterprises, including the 15 research institutes and design bureaus), in Belarus, due to its border location, after the war production of the main types of weapons systems and the final defense products.

Probably the only exception was the automobile plant in Minsk, specializing in the production of wheeled tractor for rocket complexes, but these machines were not in themselves weapons. In general, the enterprises of Belarus acted as subcontractors, and were engaged in the manufacture of subsystems and components.

As of today, about five dozen organizations and enterprises are represented in the Belarusian military-industrial complex. It is important to note that, despite the processes of restructuring the defense industry and conversion, the leadership of the country managed to maintain the core of the military specialized enterprises, including all design bureaus and research institutes. In addition, a certain domestic cooperation was formed between these enterprises and the sources of renewal of the defense sector of the economy were preserved. To a large extent, this is due to the attention paid to the problems of the military defense complex by the A. Lukashenko administration.

After 1991, a very purposeful and qualified government policy was carried out in the country, which made it possible to transform the Soviet defense industry into a fully connected and capable complex that focused on the development of promising defense technologies. Among them, first of all, it is necessary to mention telecommunications, information technologies, optical-electronic systems and automated control systems, instrument-making. In addition, the country is still developing and supplying wheeled and tracked chassis for the Russian military-industrial complex.

The close political ties between Russia and Belarus allowed not only to maintain cooperation between the defense-industrial complexes of the two states, but also opened for Minsk the opportunity to act as a completely legal re-exporter and provider of Russian weapons systems in foreign markets, and in addition to modernize the Soviet platforms. and Russian production with developers on legal grounds.

We should not forget that with the beginning of the new century, the Belarusian government was able to support its own defense industry, albeit with a limited, but very tangible, internal defense order.

The Belarusian defense industry, unlike the Russian one, after the collapse of the USSR remained under the control of a single department, which greatly facilitated the management process and the modernization of the defense complex. Up to 2003, the Ministry of Industry controlled the defense industry, and repair military factories were under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defense. In December, the State Military-Industrial Committee was specially organized to exercise control over the defense industrial complex.

In addition, in the sphere of high defense technologies and military production in Belarus there are also private enterprises, in particular, Minotor-Service, Tetrahedron, STC DELS. For the most part, these enterprises are organized by immigrants from the state MIC who continue to use their old personal connections in industrial and military circles.

The Belarusian government is well aware that due to the subcontracting position of the majority of military enterprises, Russia remains the main market. Therefore, it is extremely interested in cooperation with Russian defense enterprises. So, back in 1994, the two countries signed a cooperation agreement between the two MIC, which is still in force. At this point in time, more than 4, hundreds of Russian defense enterprises, are partners of the defense-industrial complex of Belarus. For example, Belarusian enterprises supplied sighting systems for armored vehicles, navigation and pilotage systems for Su-33, Su-27UB, Su-30, high-precision measuring complexes and aerial photographic equipment, monitors for computing electronic systems. However, the greatest interest for Russia is the products of the wheel tractor plant located in Minsk. This company is the main developer and manufacturer of so-called machine centipedes for rocket and other systems of the Russian armed forces. At the moment, the plant works almost exclusively for Russian customers, supplying the MZKT-79221 chassis, which are the platform for the Yars and Topol-M missile systems, the MZKT-7930 - Iskander operational tactical missile systems, and for anti-ship missile coastal complexes "Ball" and "Bastion-P". In addition, the company supplies MZKT-79111 four-axle chassis for use in S-300P anti-aircraft missile systems and Smerch multiple rocket launchers. In addition, specially commissioned by the Russian concern Almaz-Antey, the plant developed the three-axle MZKT-6922 chassis for use in the Top-2МE, Buk-M2E, Osa-AKM anti-aircraft missile systems, as well as the five-axis MZKT-79292 platform for the C-400 anti-aircraft missile radar system.

Specialized production at the Minsk Tractor Plant was engaged in the production of tracked chassis for missile anti-aircraft systems. Thus, the GM-355 series was used for combat vehicles of the Thor anti-aircraft missile system, while the Tunguska series for the 2C6 complexes was the GM-352 series. At one time, Russia was looking for an opportunity to replace the Belarusian chassis with Russian ones, but to no avail, therefore, to date, the Russian side has been purchasing these series from Belarusian manufacturers. By the way, Minsk Tractor Works is improving these series. So, in particular, the company has proposed a modified GM-1М352 chassis for the Tuneska-М1 complex, and a GM-1М352Е series for the Pantsir-S-1.

In 1991, a private enterprise Minotor-Service was established in Minsk, which repairs the MTZ chassis and mainly works for the Russian military. In addition, this company is engaged in the development of upgraded packages for samples of light armored vehicles, but with little success. The company also sought to act as an independent designer, providing the 2000 “Stalker” combat reconnaissance vehicle based on the GM-2 / 352 chassis, as well as the 355T Mosquito track carrier in 3. True, they remained prototypes.

As for the development and production of air defense, then this area with Belarus is developing quite well. So, for example, the 256 th station for the repair of electronic weapons is located in Borisov. Since the existence of the Soviet Union, there have been engaged in the repair of certain types of radar stations and C-125 and C-75 complexes. In addition, this company owned the prerogative to repair anti-aircraft missile systems C-200В. Over time, the company mastered the specifics of repairing Buk, C-300PT / PS, Osa-AKM anti-aircraft missile systems, as well as Tunguska complexes, a large number of radar stations, control complexes and ground equipment. It should also be noted that this plant is one of the leading participants in the modernization of the C-125М anti-aircraft missile systems at Pechora-2М for export supplies, as well as in the modernization of air defense systems.

In 2001, the Tetrahedr private enterprise was organized, the main activity of which was the modernization of the C-125 anti-aircraft missile systems in Pechora-2T and Pechora-2МТ. At the moment, the company is also engaged in the modernization of radar stations, anti-aircraft missile systems Osa, Strela-10, as well as the creation of new simple А3 and Т38 Stilet systems.

In the sphere of air defense systems, the Research Institute of Automation Works also works. In the Soviet period, the institute held leading positions in the creation of integrated mobile troop control systems. A large number of integrated systems were designed here, in particular, Panorama (command center of the air force and air defense force), Neman (command center of the air force), Prostor, Poliana and Ranzhir. (command posts for air defense forces), Bor and Sprut (guidance points), Sozh and Bug (flight control points), Helmet (Igla complex fire control center). The institute is also the lead developer of a modernized Belarusian version of the Buk anti-aircraft missile system in Buk-MB, which was first demonstrated in 2005 year.

In the field of optics and electronics, one of the most successful enterprises in Belarus is the Minsk joint-stock company Peleng, which, even during the USSR, was among the leading developers of military optical and electronic products. The enterprise is mainly engaged in the production of sighting systems and sights for armored vehicles. So, the Peleng products include such sighting systems as the panoramic command complex (for the T-90 and new BMPTs), Rubezh-M (for the modernized MBP-2), and the Booklet thermal imaging multichannel sights (for the BMP- 3M), gunner’s sight “Pine-U” and “Pine” (for tanks T-72), thermal imaging single-channel gunner’s sights “Tisas” (for T-72), “Essa-72” (for T-72), “Spring-K” (for BMP-3), “Essa” (for T- 90), “Plis” (for T-90S and T-80U), PL-1 laser infrared spotlight, Sozh-M sight (for BMP-3). All these developments are successfully used not only in the Russian armed forces, but are also exported by Russia.

Еще одно не менее известное предприятие, которое работает в данной сфере, - это Белорусское оптико-механическое объединение. Предприятие это занимается производством наиболее сложных образцов оптико-электронной и оптико-механической аппаратуры, в том числе и космических, топографических, aviation, спектрозональных комплексов и систем, приборов ночного видения и лазерного наведения, бронетанковых прицелов. Определенная доля продукции ведется по разработкам предприятия «Пеленг».

In the city of Vitebsk there is a design bureau “Display”, which in many respects remains the only enterprise that supplies monitors and displays designed to work in conditions of tough use. The lion's share of products goes to the Russian market.

It is also necessary to note the fact that in Belarus there have recently appeared quite a few state and private enterprises that are engaged in the development of unmanned aerial vehicles. Despite the fact that from a practical point of view, the results of these developments are not impressive, because most of the projects are semi-handicraft, in itself the desire to create something similar is commendable. For example, the military academy of the armed forces, the Minsk association Sistemtroniks, the design bureau INDELA, the joint-stock company MTK, and the design bureau Mir, are engaged in the development of the drones.

There are also enterprises in Belarus that are focused on carrying out repairs, these are the so-called repair factories, thanks to which the country has an independent platform for repairing and modernizing military equipment of the Soviet period.

One of these repair plants is the 140-th armored repair plant, located in Borisov. He has been repairing tanks and armored vehicles (T-55, T-80, T-72, BTR-80, BTR-70, BTR-60, BMP-1 / 2, BRDM-2). The plant receives the main income from the overhaul of the above equipment, which comes here not only on the orders of the Belarusian army, but is also exported abroad from the arsenals of Russia and Belarus.

As for the repair of aircraft, the 558 th aircraft repair plant, which is located in Baranavichy, deals with this. His interests include the repair of Su-22, Su-17, Tu-16, Su-27 aircraft. In addition, already in the years of independence, the plant specialists mastered the repair of Mi-24 and Mi-8 helicopters, as well as the An-2, MiG-29 and Su-25 aircraft.

It should be noted that this plant, in fact, is the main center for the repair of Soviet aircraft for foreign customers in the entire post-Soviet space. Since 1996, the plant underwent a major overhaul of more than four hundred units of aircraft.

Another aircraft repair plant, the 571 plant in Balbasov near Orsha, which was previously engaged in repairing the Tu-22М3 and Tu-16, was later renamed Orshansky aircraft repair plant. Currently, it is fully focused on the repair of Mi-24, Mi-8, Mi-26 helicopters, both for the needs of the Belarusian army and for foreign customers.

Thus, it is quite obvious that the specialization of the military-industrial complex, which was characteristic of the Soviet period, remained in Belarus. The government is trying to use the features of its own defense industry to develop new technologies of both military and civilian nature in the field of telecommunications, information, electronics and optics. In addition, it is very reasonable, given the availability of material and technical resources, the Belarusian authorities are not trying to provide themselves with the main types of ammunition and weapons themselves, but to meet military needs by importing supplies from Russia on preferential terms.

Materials used:
http://vpk-news.ru/articles/8950
http://bmpd.livejournal.com/3770.html
http://www.arms-expo.ru/049056050057124050055055048050.html
http://www.redstar.ru/index.php/news-menu/v-armiyakh-sng/belarusarmy/item/2358-oboronka-rasshiryaet-vzaimodeystvie
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34 comments
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  1. svp67
    svp67 26 March 2013 08: 38 New
    +7
    Well done sabry !!! I wish you success and good luck.
    1. M. Peter
      M. Peter April 1 2013 08: 58 New
      0
      I watched a movie good





  2. ziqzaq
    ziqzaq 26 March 2013 09: 18 New
    +4
    Lukashenko well done !!
    1. kris
      kris 26 March 2013 13: 38 New
      18
      we would like that!
  3. Evgeny Petrovich
    Evgeny Petrovich 26 March 2013 09: 26 New
    +4
    Where - do we find our Old Man ...?
    1. Blackwing
      Blackwing 26 March 2013 11: 25 New
      +2
      His dad should grow his own real elite. And now, by the elite, they mean all shellon.
      1. Old_kapitan
        Old_kapitan 26 March 2013 12: 18 New
        +2
        His dad should grow his own real elite.

        And you will recall the military path of the Old Man - from the chairmen of the collective farm to the presidency. So the Belarusian “elite” has nothing to do with it, it goes to rallies against the Old Man.
      2. vyatom
        vyatom 26 March 2013 15: 14 New
        0
        Quote: blackwing
        His dad should grow his own real elite. And now, by the elite, they mean all shellon.

        Dimasik for example considers himself an elite. Now it’s like that — an iPhone or an iPad means you are an elite.
    2. Egoza
      Egoza 26 March 2013 11: 55 New
      +5
      Quote: Yevgeny Petrovich
      Where - do we find our Old Man ...?

      And we doubly need it! According to the "Ukrainian habit", it remains only to envy. In general, success in work! Keep it up!
      1. Old_kapitan
        Old_kapitan 26 March 2013 12: 20 New
        +1
        And we doubly need it!

        Yeah! Just wanted to ask: find - give us a while. wink
    3. K.Shimada
      K.Shimada 26 March 2013 12: 35 New
      +2
      Invite in an exchange of experience. Only now the US-Russian friendship will end and mass migration of oligarchs will begin;))
    4. rennim
      rennim 26 March 2013 15: 07 New
      +6
      Old Man in the President of the United Russia and Belarus!
      1. SerAll
        SerAll 26 March 2013 17: 54 New
        0
        I am only "FOR", a good idea !!! Level of education, medicine, and etc. just happy, not like our bureaucrats !!! Only in Russia the apparatus of officials was created not to solve the problems of the people, but to “write off” and send “competently” ... yes, to pull bribes ...
    5. vjhbc
      vjhbc 26 March 2013 20: 35 New
      +2
      why look, if you are part of Belarus, another area will be like the zone in the stalker of normal people, we will move to the current Belarus enough space to squeeze and call the rest stalkers and they will drag us instead of artifacts, oil and gas, etc.
  4. Russian
    Russian 26 March 2013 11: 44 New
    +4
    Russia, Ukraine, Belarus is Holy Russia!
    It is a pity that we have good relations with Belarus, but there are problems with Ukraine.
  5. Gari
    Gari 26 March 2013 12: 18 New
    +1
    Economy of Belarus - 61st world economy in terms of GDP by PPP (in 2011)
    After gaining independence, Belarus did not carry out large-scale privatization of large industrial enterprises. When they were corporatized, the shares remained largely state-owned. State-owned enterprises continue to play a dominant role - they account for at least 75% of GDP. The largest are the Belneftekhim production associations (it combines the Mozyr and Novopolotsk refineries, Belaruskali, Grodno Azot, providing up to half of Belarus' export earnings), Belenergo, Beltransgaz. The structure of industrial production was largely preserved.
    Due to the large share of Belarusian exports in Belarus' GDP, one of the main factors in the country's economic growth is the increase in exports.
    On March 18, 2010, World Bank Vice President for the Europe and Central Asia Region, Philippe Le Houeroux, said that remarkable progress has been observed in the development of the Belarusian economy over the past 10 years, in particular, economic growth has been closer to Chinese than European, has declined very much poverty level.
    However, in 2011, a financial crisis erupted in the country. Over the year, the dollar exchange rate rose from 3000 Belarusian rubles to 8500, inflation amounted to 108,7% (including food prices rose by 125%), core inflation (excluding prices for goods and services regulated by the state and seasonally changing) - 118,1%, interest rates on consumer loans rose to 120% per annum, wages in dollar terms fell from 500 to 250-450 dollars.
    The main outcome of 2012 is the achievement of relative stability. The refinancing rate deliberately, but carefully lowered (up to 30% per annum). Inflation was kept within the set parameters (as of December 11, it amounted to 21% against the forecasted 19-22%). Salary growth was provided almost to a predetermined level of $ 500. The average nominal accrued salary in November amounted to 4,24 million rubles, or $ 496
    And here’s private business — The number of private business enterprises in Belarus can increase three times to 1 million. This opinion was expressed today by the chairman of the Presidium of the Republican Confederation of Entrepreneurship Vladimir Karyagin at the Assembly of business circles, BelTA reports.

    Quote: ziqzaq
    Lukashenko well done !!
  6. knn54
    knn54 26 March 2013 14: 06 New
    +3
    ... Today, more than 70% of the products of the Belarusian defense industry goes to the foreign market. And the equipment of such enterprises as Peleng, MZKT, Tetraydr is almost completely sold to foreign customers. “We managed to overcome the situation when Soviet equipment, which was overwhelming in the Armed Forces, prevailed in the export structure. Now almost 90% of the exported weapons and services are Belarusian. Such positive dynamics need to be consolidated, ”Alexander Lukashenko emphasized.
    An example worthy of imitation.
  7. honest jew
    honest jew 26 March 2013 15: 46 New
    +9
    well done dad! keep it up !
  8. z-exit
    z-exit 26 March 2013 16: 09 New
    +3
    Eh !!! I suddenly felt sorry for Chavez ... Let the earth rest in peace for him. Everlasting memory...
    And God forbid Lukashenko good health and many years !!!
    It was great if Old Man would run for president of Russia!
    1. ak orda
      ak orda 26 March 2013 20: 51 New
      +1
      But nevertheless Putin, in my opinion the man who will return Russia to its former greatness, however, even now they are afraid of Russia and began to reckon with it, remember the Russian veto on military intervention against Syria. Now there is a large-scale information war going on against Putin and it is a pity that within the people themselves there are those who do not like him. I understand the Russians who do not approve of the policy of the Russian leadership regarding the Caucasus, but Russia has no right to lose the Caucasus. Putin is a very far-sighted politician, a strong personality who almost single-handedly confronts the West. Putin's plan is Russia's victory!
      1. M. Peter
        M. Peter April 1 2013 09: 33 New
        -1
        I completely agree that Putin didn’t please, what do you think that Lukashenko came out exactly the same in the Russian Federation as in his native Belarus? Nifiga! I do not belittle him at all, but the scale is not the same. With his temperament and charisma, they would have banged on order. We in Russia are just Putin just right, the cunning like foxes, is slowly doing its job. What is little done? After all, you yourself write that Belarus has huge exports and that lives on, and whoever asks them buys them, Russia. But when buying not in warehouses, everything falls, is put and installed on the same tanks, planes, cars and so on, that is, the work is in progress.
  9. Ivan Tarasov
    Ivan Tarasov 26 March 2013 17: 40 New
    0
    A dozen "Stalkers" would be nice to run in Syria.
    There can be no better advertising.
  10. Vadzja
    Vadzja 26 March 2013 18: 04 New
    0
    Quote: kris
    we would like that!


    And oh, how useful it would be for us !!!!
  11. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign 26 March 2013 19: 30 New
    0
    A fairly complete and competent review of the military-industrial complex of Belarus.
    Well done neighbors ...
  12. pooop
    pooop 26 March 2013 19: 55 New
    +4
    good article, video too
    their products are very decent, given that their base has already been accumulated, they always exhibit good samples at exhibitions, everything is very standardized, well done!
  13. lobik
    lobik 26 March 2013 20: 52 New
    0
    But what, to go to the dad and on his knees to ask to take office, as when people asked Mikhail Romanov. If one hundred gets up, then this is garbage, but if one hundred thousand Russians come from Russia. I would like to look at the faces of the world community .
    1. sq
      sq 26 March 2013 23: 52 New
      +1
      You can ask for something. The question is whether he wants to. Any leader needs a team. The Old Man gathered his team according to the principle: Take all the rubbish and the embroidery, God sees - it’s better to give. Well, it turned out something else.
      1. artem_n
        artem_n April 3 2014 22: 49 New
        0
        Then I agree with you the management team he just fire sad the level of the majority is simply on the face. The career ladder of a typical manager from his team: collective farm chairman-minister of agriculture - governor of the region - and then bunks or pensions at best for disrupting the implementation of some kind of modernization program.
  14. ak orda
    ak orda 26 March 2013 20: 59 New
    +2
    But nevertheless Putin, in my opinion the man who will return Russia to its former greatness, however, even now they are afraid of Russia and began to reckon with it, remember the Russian veto on military intervention against Syria. Now there is a large-scale information war going on against Putin and it is a pity that within the people themselves there are those who do not like him. I understand the Russians who do not approve of the policy of the Russian leadership regarding the Caucasus, but Russia has no right to lose the Caucasus. Putin is a very far-sighted politician, a strong personality who almost single-handedly confronts the West. Putin's plan is Russia's victory!
    1. I think so
      I think so 26 March 2013 23: 56 New
      0
      Putin is too tied up with relations with his roofing felts, toli's friends, relatives whom he instructed in key points of the state, and will not be able to change personnel dramatically, set tasks and really ask for their implementation, but without it everything will float as it is now swimming - something sluggishly done, but basically everyone steals ...
  15. Jeber
    Jeber 26 March 2013 20: 59 New
    +2
    Well done Old Man! I saved what was and gave way to a new generation!
  16. lobik
    lobik 26 March 2013 21: 18 New
    0
    Putin has been in power for almost 15 years. Please tell me what he managed to do during this time, even as he calls it after the nuclear war. Agriculture is not, industry is not, defense is not, migration is simple, communal trouble. Exactly, pretends to be.
    1. ak orda
      ak orda 26 March 2013 22: 07 New
      +1
      Your ancestors reached Berlin, in fierce battles near Moscow and Stalingrad they came out victorious, despite HUNGER, FEAR, believed that good times would come, and you are here ... Yes, there are problems, but who does not have them? What about managed to do? Surely the most important thing - he did not let Russia collapse !!!
    2. M. Peter
      M. Peter April 1 2013 09: 39 New
      0
      Quote: lobik
      Putin has been in power for almost 15 years. Please tell me what he managed to do during this time.

      Fifteen years ago, my native plant stood for me, worked on a rolling ball, lived on my mother’s retirement, which I was detained. Now I’ve gone on vacation, I’m moving to a cottage with my family, so I’m not going to rest on the sea. I provide myself with such a life by working in a factory that is fully loaded ...
      I won’t bring numbers, they don’t have anything for you, like you don’t believe them, but I’ll say from myself that Putin has done a lot and I feel that comparing how I lived and how I live, then and now. wink
    3. artem_n
      artem_n April 3 2014 22: 57 New
      0
      Our industry is far from being in the best condition, most enterprises work for the warehouse, most of the products are frankly uncompetitive, and what's the point that he saved them without upgrading, so that now the warehouses would be unloaded at the direction?
  17. Docklishin
    Docklishin 27 March 2013 01: 23 New
    0
    Well done, definitely. It is interesting where, for example, matrices for displays in computer systems come from, various boards, transistors and microcircuits (made in China ???).
    1. gregor6549
      gregor6549 27 March 2013 15: 36 New
      0
      In Belarus, back in Soviet times, a very powerful industry was created for the development and production of semiconductor devices, integrated circuits, digital television, etc. It is enough to say that information display systems for MIG29, SU27 and their modifications were developed and produced by Minsk Horizon NPO " So there were no special problems with the elemental base in Belarus. And cooperation with Russia in this part as it was and has not disappeared. Of course, I had to sell a lot to "dummies" ie China, as it was necessary to survive as long as proud Russia endlessly bounced with Belarus, either because of gas or oil because it did not understand that it was chopping the branch on which it itself was sitting. Now it seems to have reached Russia that with fraternal people we need fraternally. Do not share, but share the last loaf of bread. If we talk about the military-industrial complex of Belarus, I will allow myself a lyrical digression in the form of memories of a person who was once involved in this military-industrial complex. (See below)
  18. gregor6549
    gregor6549 27 March 2013 04: 54 New
    0
    30 years of life were given to the Research Institute of Automation Tools NPO Agat (Minsk), which was a very serious component of the USSR defense industry and which continues to play an important role in the defense industry of Belarus and Russia. In particular, ASUV "Constellation" and the like are none other than the modernized ASUV "Maneuver" developed by NIISA in the 70 years. Yes, and the development of control systems for multi-axle tractors MZKT and crawler self-propelled MTZ shown in the video NIISA has a direct relationship. Yes, and the almost forgotten ASUV Air Force and Air Defense "1M" also left the walls of the NIISA, which until 1971g. It was called SKB of the Minsk Electromechanical Plant. It would be worthwhile to mention that the founder and first Gen Constructor of NPO Agat was Major General Podrezov Yuri Dmitrievich, in which NPO Agat was at the peak of his creative and production heyday, and one of the leaders of the military-industrial complex of the Republic of Belarus for a long time was his successor Nikolay Ilyasovich Azamatov. Azamatov, by the way, was one of those who offered Lukashenko real ways to preserve the defense industry of Belarus from collapse in critical years for the republic. And I don’t want to remember them, these years. In particular, for all his life he remembered the almost lifeless snow-covered territory of the Minsk Tractor Plant and the endless rows of famous tractors of Belarus that suddenly turned out to be useless to anyone. The picture provokes then very sad associations with pictures of the winter blockade of Leningrad. But Belarusians, as in the Second World War, managed to withstand and not just survive, but to make their products again in demand in Russia and several other countries. The main thing now is to prevent the next “perestroika” from breaking apart the growing union of Belarus and Russia and to scatter the national wealth of these countries into their own personal pockets. And such attempts do not stop until now.