Military Review

Blog: Comrade Artyom is a man of his time

Sergey Bogachev, Secretary of Donetsk City Council, Doctor of Economics, Professor of Donetsk National Technical UniversityIn early March, the whole country loudly enough, and in some places scandalously - loudly celebrated the anniversary of the birth of the Great Kobzar. Against this background, another important one, not important, in my opinion, for Donetsk is the date - the 130 anniversary of Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeev or just Comrade Artyom.

Strangely enough, only the Donetsk city organization “Young regions” remembered this date, having laid 19 in March flowers to the monument, which is next to the executive committee on the main street of Donetsk - the name of Artyom again.

The question arises, why such indifference to the memory of a man who has done so much for the Donbass? It was as if they had forgotten about him, neither positive nor negative - nothing. Moreover, on the one hand, Artyom is treated as one of the symbols of Donetsk and Donbass, for example, as a million roses, a monument on the miner's square, Svyatogorsk Lavra. In his time, streets, squares, cities in the Donbass were named after him, and that is typical, no one ever had the desire to rename these names or demolish monuments. But at the same time, our fellow countrymen often forget what this man, this historical personality.

History, whatever it may be, must remain with us. Is this good or bad? I’m sure that it’s bad. Let's remember together Sergeyev’s biography, and in particular those facts that relate to his activities in the Donbass. The first mention of it dates back to March 1903, when the 20-year-old Artem Sergeyev in one of the villages of the Aleksandrovsky district of the Yekaterinoslav province creates the first large peasant social-democratic organization in the region (about 400 people), with which he holds the May Day strike. It was then that his first arrests for revolutionary activity began. Artem took part in the preparation of armed uprisings in Yekaterinoslavl, Nikolaev, Kharkov.

But Sergeyev’s activities in the Donbass fully unfolded after the October Revolution. That he belonged to the idea of ​​Donetsk autonomy. And in 1918, Artyom creates and heads the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic - practically a separate state with its administrative structure and army. Tellingly, this republic was not based on national, but on economic foundations and was opposed to the bourgeois Ukrainian People's Republic. Please note that the issues of autonomy or federalization according to budget or economic principles are also relevant for modern Ukraine. So our countryman, a hundred years ago, tried to bring to life those ideas that are still floating in the air of the Square.

However, in the realities of the later created Soviet empire, the existence of such autonomy became impossible. A year later, in February 1919, the resolution of the Council of Defense of the RSFSR on the liquidation of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic was adopted.

Nevertheless, Artyom did not abandon the idea of ​​the formation of Donbass, as a strong industrial region. And after his election in 1920, the chairman of the Donetsk regional executive committee, he led the work to restore the coal mines in the basin. In other words, Sergeyev was more of a tough manager, a creator, rather than a fiery revolutionary, whose principle was the idea of ​​destroying everything old. Probably, for this he is respected in the Donbass, because he not only knew how to speak loud speeches, but also simply worked for the good of his homeland. Therefore, I would like our contemporaries to remember and honor the memory of not only the infamous politicians, but also the real patriots of Donbass, who lived and worked for the good of our people.

PS By the way, after the death of Artyom, his son was brought up in Moscow in the family of Stalin, along with Stalin's son - Vasily. About Stalin, as a foster father, has kept fond memories. But until the end of his life he believed that the death of his father in 1921 was not accidental, and that she was in the hands of Leon Trotsky.
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  1. VadimSt
    VadimSt 24 March 2013 07: 05 New
    + At least someone remembered Artyom!
    And the current politicians, therefore, do not remember that his name is associated with the formation of the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih Soviet Republic (as the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih Union, held in May 1917, proclaimed 12 on February 1918 of the year). Historically, this fact is not in favor of unitary Ukraine, for the republic was not part of Ukraine, nor was the territory in which it was formed. Officially, but not voluntarily, became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Republic in March 1918
    1. alexng
      alexng 24 March 2013 09: 09 New
      In Svyatogorsk, his mighty monument rises. This is our universal history, and the history of once our common state must be respected. This is now sitting "on the stove", oops at the computer, we can argue that everything is wrong, that we are all the best experts on everything and everything that is good and that is bad. But by and large, we really do not know our history, thanks to forgers from the West, and from home-grown too.
      1. densyaophyng
        densyaophyng 24 March 2013 14: 12 New
        China leader mind honor conscience

        1. alexng
          alexng 24 March 2013 18: 45 New
          And you do not seem to know another?
  2. Zhzhuk
    Zhzhuk 24 March 2013 07: 13 New
    I am glad that you remember the ancestors of your region, but I don’t want to offend the words about autonomy and federation, but I understood it as separation, because in those days there was great trouble, then if you catch the intonation, you regret that Ukraine and Russia were preserved as states (right now, separately I'm sure this is temporary)
    1. VadimSt
      VadimSt 24 March 2013 07: 24 New
      This was a response to the 3 Universal of the Central Rada, which claimed a claim to this land.
      In general, how the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih Association took shape in May 1917.
  3. vladsolo56
    vladsolo56 24 March 2013 07: 20 New
    Who needs the patriots of socialism now, money is the main thing in the upbringing of today's patriotism, who is richer, he is a greater “patriot”.
  4. Fedor
    Fedor 24 March 2013 07: 59 New
    The author of the article either missed out of ignorance, or deliberately, the fact that the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih Republic did not suit Lenin in any way and was liquidated by his direct instruction.
  5. 120352
    120352 24 March 2013 09: 45 New
    If the phrase is translated into English (French, Chinese, German, etc.) and vice versa, we get the Large Balalaika.
    As for Artyom, he is a separatist.
  6. radio operator
    radio operator 24 March 2013 10: 00 New
    I can’t say anything about this man, neither good nor bad.
    But he is a part of history, and history cannot be forgotten.
    1. elmi
      elmi 24 March 2013 12: 08 New
      And how many undeservedly heroes we have forgotten, we are glad that we find them and glorify them.
  7. dmb
    dmb 24 March 2013 10: 28 New
    I don’t know what kind of separatist Artyom was, but the author definitely gravitates towards him. ““ The oaths of the red empire ”abolished autonomy. I think that Artem could have punished the author for miners for such thoughts.
  8. Egoza
    24 March 2013 11: 01 New
    Add to "clarify the moment"
    The idea of ​​Donbass autonomy, celebrating the "five" century of its existence, has proved its viability. Let me remind you that on February 12 we will celebrate the 95 anniversary of the founding of the Donetsk Republic. The memory of her by the efforts of the Kiev governments for a long time, unfortunately, was hushed up. In not so long ago, a certain president Yushchenko on the occasion of the "Day of Zluka" generally stated that "there have never been and never will be any Donetsk republics." And even today, if you open a modern Ukrainian history textbook, then about the UPR there will be 40 pages, about ZUNR - 14, and about the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih Republic, which had armed forces larger than the armies of the UPR and ZUNR combined - in the best case, a couple paragraphs. As if this republic was not. But she was! With his government, the capital in Kharkov, and then in Lugansk, and such charismatic leaders as comrade Artem and Klim Voroshilov (future marshal and people's commissar of defense of the USSR). The “silence figure” has led to the fact that the history of the existence of the DKR is still plagued by various politicized myths.
    Despite the self-made speeches of the Kiev rulers, for 20 years in a row they have been repeating like a spell: “Ukraine One, One Ukraine!”, We must honestly and openly admit: this country is not united. There is no single Ukrainian political nation, there is no unifying Ukrainian idea. By the way, this is not the author who invented this is the opinion of the respected historian, vice president of the ANU Petro Tolochko. Recall that one of the attributive epithets of Ukraine is “cathedral”. So no state in the world calls itself. “Sobornna” means “assembled,” for Ukraine, within modern borders, has been assembled in parts for many centuries in a row. A country assembled from such mottled parts as the Donbass, Galicia, Crimea simply cannot be “united”, and this fact should be recognized as reality. To recognize and legitimize the federal structure of the state is the only way to avoid collapse. This is confirmed by the Ruin of the XVII century. (civil war of the right- and left-bank Cossack hetmans), and the events of 1917-1918.
  9. Egoza
    24 March 2013 11: 01 New
    Recall that already at the beginning of the revolution on Ukrainian lands spontaneously formed a "two -centre." Two regional associations of Soviets arose: the South-Western Territory united the agricultural Ukrainian Right Bank and the center with Kiev, the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog region - the industrial Russian-speaking South-East, the core of which was Donbass, and the capital was Kharkov. The administrative fragmentation of the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih industrial hub between the Kharkiv, Yekaterinoslav provinces and the Region The Donskoy Army was still worried by the tsarist government, therefore, already in the first days after the February Revolution of 1917, the Provisional Government of 3 on March established a special Donetsk Committee, uniting the economic management of the Donetsk Coal and Kryvyi Rih ore basins, led by engineer M. Chernyshov. On 15-17 in March in Bakhmut (Artemovsk) the 1 Conference of Donbass Councils was held, bringing together an 132 delegate from the 48 Council of the region. A single coordinating body, the Information Bureau, headed by the Bundist, was established and 6 regional associations of Soviets were created. The representative of the Kharkov Council, who was then in Yuzovka, “proposed the organization of the Regional Council in Kharkov as part of the provinces: Kharkov, Kherson, Taurida and Yekaterinoslav”. The regional conference of the Bolsheviks of Don Kryvbas, held on July 13-16 in Yekaterinoslav, determining the location of the regional committee, split almost in half - 14 voted for Kharkov, against 11, and there were no 4 Yekaterinoslav delegates. The Central Bureau of the Military Revolutionary Committee of Donbass, and later the Central Headquarters of the Red Guard of Donbass, were located in Nikitovka, then in Yuzovka, where the newspaper Donetskaya Pravda was published.
    And the 25 of April-6 of May in Kharkov hosted the 1 Congress of Soviets of the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih region, which established the united Executive Committee and a harmonious system of district councils. By the way, the thesis about the DKR as a “Bolshevik invention” is incorrect - the leadership was completely Socialist-Revolutionary and Menshevik, which reflected the then political situation of the predominance of these moderate socialist parties. Socialist Revolutionary Lev Golubovsky became the chairman of the Regional Council and the Regional Executive Committee. During the 1917 year, the 2 congress took place (6-12 of October and 9-11 of December), which finally formalized the structure of power in Don Krivoblast.
    The first card of the DKR. Compiled by the author in 1998 on the 80 anniversary of the Republic and widely distributed in the form of leaflets of the Interdistrict.
  10. Egoza
    24 March 2013 11: 02 New
    The South-Western Territory held only one regional congress of Soviets, here the power was concentrated in the hands of the Central Rada. Modern textbooks diligently circumvent this fact, and, in modern terms, the Central Democratic Republic was a completely illegitimate, self-proclaimed organization. A couple of dozen Ukrainians representing student, trade union, and cultural organizations gathered in Kiev and declared themselves the Central Rada - the only supreme authority in the Little Russian provinces. True, several Ukrainian congresses took place in the summer - military, peasant, worker, delegating their representatives to the Central Committee, making it more representative. But all the same, “we didn’t judge us,” the head of the Central Committee, Grushevsky, admitted with an 50-hryvnias banknote, “we didn’t go over to the representative office, vibrating with the absentee vote.”
    Unlike the people of Kiev, the legitimacy of the Kharkiv Regional Congresses of Soviets is not in doubt. I also remind you that the autonomous power of the Central Asian Republic following the results of the summer negotiations with the Provisional Government of Russia was limited to 5 provinces of the Center and the West (Kiev, Poltava, Volyn, Podolskaya and half of Chernigov). Neither the Odessa region, nor the Kherson region, nor Tavria, nor, especially Donbass, did not submit to the Central Administration; there was its own power. The head of the Don-Krivobkom RSDLP (separate from the South-West regional committee) Artem already in September telegraphed to the Central Committee about the "actual decree of the republic of the Kharkov province."
    The Russified population of the Southeast was cool in the nationalist rhetoric of Kiev. The Yekaterinoslav newspaper Zvezda, for example, wrote to 1.12.1917 that the population "at 70% consists of Ukrainian workers and soldiers, who are extremely indifferent, and often directly hostile to national desires." Therefore, when, after the October Revolution and the overthrow of the Provisional Government, the CR tried to explicitly present its power claims to these areas, the Plenum of the Executive Committee of the Soviets of Don Kryvbas 30.11.1917 unanimously rejected the 3 Universal CR as a separatist, wrecking the unity of Russia and demanded a referendum to leave the region within the Russian Federation republics. The text of the Resolution, found by the author in the archive, reads: “The regional committee states that the Universal is infused with separatist aspirations that threaten the economic unity of Russia ... The definition of the borders of the republic proclaimed by him was established without a preliminary plebiscite. The regional committee calls on the proletariat of the Don – Krivbasin: 1) to demand a referendum throughout the entire Don – Krivbasin; 2) in the period preceding the referendum, to develop widespread agitation for the abandonment of the entire Don – Krivbasin with Kharkov as part of the Russian Republic, with the attribution of this territory to a special, single administrative and self-governing region. ”
    For this resolution, the Social Revolutionary Golubovsky, the Menshevik Rubinstein, the Bunderer Baer, ​​the Bolshevik Artem unanimously voted. The latter in his speeches pointed out that the Kharkov leadership “does not break up a single republic, does not encroach on the national interests of Ukraine ... we want to get in touch with the whole country”, because Don Krivbas is more closely connected with industrial relations with industrial Russia than with agricultural South-West by the edge. Such a position was also approved by the Resolution of the Yuzov Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies from 5 (18) December 1917: “The 3 Universal, in connection with the entire practical policy of the current leaders of the Rada, is reduced to non-recognition of the government of the Soviets, the struggle against Sovvlast and violent - without first interviewing the population - imposing authorities of the current Kiev Rada to the population of localities that did not choose the Rada and protesting against the policy of the Rada. The Yuzovsky RiSD Council declares that the present Rada does not deserve the trust of the laboring workers and peasant masses, the Council also protests against the surrender of part of the Donetsk basin ... its dismemberment on any historical or other grounds is unacceptable. "
    People's Commissars of the DKR: Artem and Boris Magidov. From the documents of the Donetsk archive, No.108.
  11. zart_arn
    zart_arn 24 March 2013 12: 02 New
    A professional revolutionary who died, like many of his colleagues, "under mysterious circumstances."
  12. luka095
    luka095 24 March 2013 12: 32 New
    Dear Sergey. In general, I liked your article (but could not deliver a plus - there is no possibility after improving the site), but I would like to draw your attention to some inaccuracies.
    In 1919, when the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih Republic was abolished, there was no Soviet empire (you yourself talk about it) - the war was civil ... By the way, when there was a need, they created republics - remember the Far East.
    It seems to me that Artem was, rather, not a man of his time, but ahead of him. It is a pity that he was no longer in the 30s. At that time there were few good managers and business executives - but there were enough politicians ...
    1. zart_arn
      zart_arn 24 March 2013 14: 50 New
      The "mysterious circumstances of death" indicate that he would not have been allowed to survive until the 30s. Maybe for him for the better - the whole system of repressions was invented and launched for reprisals against people like him. An analysis of that situation is given in the book by Vadim Kozhinov, "The Truth of Stalinist Repression."
      1. Nick
        Nick 24 March 2013 18: 18 New
        Quote: zart_arn
        the whole system of repression was invented and launched for reprisals against people like him.

        The entire system of repressions was invented by the "old guard" in order to maintain power in the regions, as opposed to Stalin's plan for renewal of personnel through liberalization of the country's political life.
        1. zart_arn
          zart_arn 24 March 2013 19: 35 New
          Alas, this is not so and you know it very well - it was the old Bolsheviks who were the first to be repressed.
  13. taseka
    taseka 24 March 2013 14: 55 New
    Such as Artyom sacredly believed in the bright future of the common people, and for this they were dying! And then, as always, from the cracks, after the bloody war, vile and petty little people got out with their dirty little souls and made themselves reinforced food and state deliveries !!!
    1. Nick
      Nick 24 March 2013 18: 19 New
      You are absolutely right, Alexander.
  14. Skavron
    Skavron 24 March 2013 20: 49 New

    Monument to Artyom in Svyatogorsk
  15. Skavron
    Skavron 24 March 2013 21: 59 New

    Monument to Artyom in Svyatogorsk