Military Review

Childhood of Ivan the Terrible

Childhood of Ivan the Terrible

The father of the future terrible sovereign - the Grand Prince Vladimir and Moscow Vasily Ivanovich, fell seriously ill and died when Ivan was only three years old. Anticipating a quick death, Vasily III summoned Metropolitan Daniel to himself, the boyars and made a testament for all, so that no one could challenge him. Claiming the throne could younger brothers Basil - Princes Andrei Staritsky and Yuri Dmitrovsky. He appointed a son heir, until 15 years he should be under the care of the mother and the board of trustees (the “seventh” boyar commission). This council included: Prince Andrei Staritsky, Grand Duchess Uncle Mikhail Glinsky, Vasily and Ivan Shuisky, Mikhail Zakharyin, Michael Tuchkov and Mikhail Vorontsov.

Basil III, in 1531, took an oath with the brothers to be loyal not only to him, but also to Prince Ivan. Before his death, he forced Andrei Staritsky and Yuri Dmitrovsky to repeat the words of the oath. Apparently, Vasily felt that his death would cause confusion in the Russian state. He conjured the brothers to observe the kiss of the cross, saying that he hoped for their honor and conscience. Vasily Ivanovich urged the boyars to "keep tight" the son and the state. He specifically addressed Glinsky, saying that he should “shed all his blood” for the child and Elena.

Vasily knowingly worried about the future of his wife and son. He had not yet died, as the first squabbles began. The Grand Duke asked for the tonsure and the Metropolitan began to prepare for the ceremony. However, a group of boyars led by Prince Staritsky suddenly rebelled. Although, it would seem, what difference they made, the sovereign would die a layman or a monk. Ugly scene played out right at the bed with the dying Vasily Ivanovich. Boyars shouted, swore. Prince Andrei and Vorontsov even began to pull out the monastic attire from the Metropolitan. Vladyka Daniel had to pacify them with the threat of a curse. So, with the "battle" the Metropolitan was able to achieve the rite. After the death of the Grand Duke, Metropolitan Daniel, for the third time (!) Brought the brothers of the deceased into oath, they promised to faithfully serve Ivan Vasilyevich and his mother, Princess Elena. Metropolitan took an oath and boyars, clerks.

Creating a board of trustees for a child-emperor, Vasily apparently wanted to keep a balance of power by introducing representatives of various boyar groups into it. But it turned out the opposite. The regency council was not viable. Conspiracies began immediately around the throne. The organizer of the first conspiracy was Yuri Dmitrovsky. He was not even included in the Regency Council, which speaks of how Sovereign Basil III did not trust his brother. His supporters began to gather in the Moscow home of Yuri Dmitrovsky. It was said that the oath was given under pressure, that the regents should have given Yury a mutual oath to respect his rights. And since there was no such oath, then Yuri's oath is invalid. Andrei Mikhailovich Shuisky joined the conspiracy. However, when prince Humpback-Suzdal was tried to conspire, he surrendered the conspirators to the Boyar Duma and Princess Elena. At the beginning of 1534, Prince Yuri Dmitrovsky was arrested, his inheritance was annexed to the possessions of the Moscow sovereign. His supporters were arrested, including Andrei Shuisky. Yury Ivanovich died in conclusion - in 1536.

It should be noted that even Vasily Ivanovich could not afford to repress the opposition brothers. Princess Elena, who had not yet had full power, much less had such an opportunity. Apparently, the evidence of guilt was so weighty that the Boyar Duma fully supported the ruler. Against the arrest and imprisonment of his brother did not speak, and Andrei Staritsky, he was the winner. Now he has become the closest contender for the throne. He even tried to profit at the expense of his brother. Prince Andrey owned Staritsa, Vereya, Vyshegorod, Aleksin, Lyubutsk, Kholm. And the lot of Yuri were larger and richer cities - Dmitrov, Zvenigorod, Kashin, Ruza, Bryansk, Serpeysk. Andrei Staritsky asked Helena to give him the lot of his brother, or part of it. But the princess was afraid to strengthen the potential opponent, so the petitioner was refused. True, in compensation he received many expensive gifts - gold, jewels, furs, horses.

Princess Elena was a very intelligent woman. And her rule was a unique event for Russia. After all, since the time of Princess Olga, there was no precedent for a woman to rule the Russian land. She coped well with the burden of power. In favor of the princess played the hidden conflict of the Boyar Duma and the Regency Council. The Duma was a legitimate body, with established traditions and the boyars who were part of it, with hostility perceived the rise of the "seven-boyars". Some of the members of the Regency Council were not even members of the Duma. Princess Elena was able to skillfully play on contradictions, making her decisions. In addition, she found reliable support among the highest dignitaries. She was not uncle Mikhail Glinsky, but a brilliant commander, military favorite Ivan Fedorovich Telepnev-Ovchina-Obolensky. Blame the princess in this is not worth it. She was still young, life went on. Helen needed a solid male shoulder. And the choice is worth endorsing. Telepnev in wars always commanded an advanced regiment, it was a dashing warrior who led the fighters into the battle. In addition, there is no information that Telepnev, having become the favorite of the Grand Duchess, received for it patrimonies, high ranks and precious gifts.

The Regency Council ruled the Russian state for less than a year, after which its power began to crumble. This was due to a new conspiracy. The Polish-Lithuanian king Sigismund and the Crimean Khan concluded an alliance and began to prepare for an attack on Russia. Princess Elena and Boyar Duma began to prepare troops on the western and southern borders to repel the attack. But it soon became clear that the Lithuanians were counting not only on their own strength and the Tatars, but also on the “fifth column”. And among the relatives of the Grand Duke. The prince Semyon Belsky and the experienced commander Okolnichy Ivan Lyatsky maintained contact with Sigismund. They were supposed to form units in Serpukhov, but the boyars, with their squads and servants, fled to the Polish king (although the soldiers and servants soon abandoned their masters, not wanting to serve Lithuania). It turned out that the plot was broader and that the governors of the Big Regiment Ivan Belsky and Ivan Vorotinsky participated in it, the sons of Vorotinsky - Mikhail, Vladimir and Alexander. They were arrested. The consequences of this conspiracy, with the onset of enemy troops, could be catastrophic. However, the conspiracy on time revealed. At the same time (in August 1534), a member of the board of trustees, Mikhail Vorontsov, was also arrested.

At the end of 1534, another change occurred in the leadership of Russia. Suddenly, Mikhail Glinsky was arrested. He was imprisoned, where he died. Officially, he was accused of wanting to seize the throne. About the true causes of opals is unknown. Perhaps Prince Mikhail Lvovich Glinsky really tried to crush the princess under his sole influence. And for this it was necessary to remove from the princess Telepnev and Duma boyars. Can not be ruled out and treason. Glinsky had already betrayed Vasily, he was in prison for a long time. Only the young wife of the Grand Duke secured uncle freedom. In the west, Glinsky had some connections. It was not for nothing that the ambassador of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I Herberstein was bothering for him at the time. At the same time, it is quite possible that Glinsky was simply slandered. For Elena's enemies, he could have been a serious obstacle to the realization of their designs. After this, the Regency Council ceased to exist.

Elena's board

The reign of Elena Glinskaya was successful for Russia. She was not only beautiful, but also a smart girl, who possessed political will and state thinking. In China, built China Town, strengthening the defense of the capital. Several fortresses were erected on the outskirts - Sebezh, Zavolochye, Velizh, several more were laid, including on the eastern frontiers. They began to build new walls in Balakhna, Ustyug, Vologda, Pronsk, Temnikov. In 1536, the government of Helena forced the Polish king, Sigismund I, to conclude a world advantageous for Russia. Prior to this, the Russian commanders destroyed the Lithuanian army near Sebezh.

During her reign, the most important monetary reform was carried out - in fact, a single monetary unit was introduced in the Russian state. It was a silver penny weighing 0,68 g; one fourth of a penny was called a half. Prior to that, Moscow, Novgorod and Pskov money were in circulation. It was an important step to stabilize the economy of the state. The activity of counterfeiters was stopped. Old money was withdrawn from circulation.

When Elena began lip reform. Local residents themselves now chose officials who were supposed to investigate crimes. The continuation of this reform led to a reduction in local abuse.

The princess continued the centralized ransom of people hijacked by the Tatars. In order to increase the population of the Russian state, they began to invite peasants from Lithuanian possessions. Migrants from Lithuania provided various benefits, relief, land. Given the fact that under the Polish and Lithuanian pans, the common people did not have a simple life, if not disgustingly (given the national and religious oppression), the peasants began to move en masse to Moscow lands. The protests and indignation of the royal dignitaries in Moscow did not pay attention. Say, do your best to look after your people.

Elena Glinskaya. Reconstruction of the skull, S. Nikitin.

The conspiracy and rebellion of Andrei Staritsky

Andrei Staritsky, offended by the refusal in the section of Brother Yuri's inheritance, left for his possessions and reviled the Grand Duchess. For the time being, he got away with it. It was necessary to solve more important matters, it was not up to the slander of the prince. But the old prince behaved more and more defiantly. He refused to attend meetings of the Boyar Duma, although it was his direct responsibility. Pretending to be sick. In the war against Lithuania with his regiments did not take part, which in general was on the verge of treason. It turned out that he is an independent ruler and respects "neutrality". Under the pretext of helping the patient, the Grand Duchess sent Andrew the court physician Theophilus to Andrew. He found the prince completely healthy. Andrei continued to evade service. He wrote that he was in "sickness and longing." When the Kazan troops invaded the Russian borders, Andrei Staritsky was ordered to stand against them with his squad. But he ignored this indication.

It is clear that at the court of the old prince Elena had his own eyes and ears. The princess was informed that the disgruntled boyars gathered at the court of Andrei Staritsky, and the squads who had not participated in the war with Lithuania and Kazan were supported in full combat readiness. In addition, there were reports of Andrei’s relations with the Lithuanians. It was suggested that Andrei Staritsky wants to flee to the Polish-Lithuanian sovereign. To Andrew with words of admonition was sent to Krutitsky bishop Dosifey. One and the old boyars who were in Moscow were arrested.

As a result, it became clear that Andrei Staritsky was plotting not a flight, but a coup d'etat. But the preparation of the coup failed. Upon learning that his man had been captured, Staritsky became worried, realizing that he was threatened with exposure. Andrei was in a desperate situation and decided to open rebellion. With family, courtyard and warriors, he spoke in the direction of Novgorod, where he had accomplices. Prince Andrew began to urge the boyar children to go to his service, promised a reward. The motive of his speech was the fact that “the Great Prince is small, and the boyars hold the state. And who will serve you? ”Many nobles supported Andrew, began to come to him. Among them were prominent commanders Prince Pronsky, Khovansky, Paletsky, boyars Kolychev. Power was facing the threat of civil war. In addition, the campaign against Kazan was disrupted.

But the time factor played against Prince Staritsky. While he was thinking and gathering strength, Elena did not sit still, but acted. Boyar Nikita Khromoy-Obolensky was sent to Novgorod and quickly brought order there. Ivan Telepnev-Obolensky with a horse unit rushed in pursuit of Andrei. Prince Andrei Staritsky did not reach Novgorod, having received the news that the case was failed. He turned south towards the Lithuanian border. But did not have time to leave. He overtook the voivode Sheepskin-Telepnev-Obolensky. Moscow voivod deployed forces and began to prepare for the attack. Andrew was not ready to fight. In the camp of his supporters reigned discord. Many would be glad to see the Grand Duke in Andrei Staritsky, to receive an award for his support. But here the warriors did not want to fight. It was obvious that the coup failed.

Andrei Staritsky confused and entered into negotiations. He agreed to capitulate if he is guaranteed immunity. Obolensky, too, was not eager to shed Russian blood and agreed. The rebels were brought to Moscow. In the capital city, Elena expressed her anger at Obolensky, he did not have the authority to take the oath of the immunity of Andrei Staritsky.

Armed insurgency was a very serious crime. Recently, prisoners of Kazan were executed without exception, because they were considered rebels against the legitimate sovereign. But in this case, the princess and the Boyar Duma had to take into account the high position of the rebel. Staritsky was thrown into a dungeon, where he died several months later. His wife and son Vladimir were placed under house arrest. After the death of Andrei, the Staritsa Principality passed to his son Vladimir. Princes of Pronsky, Paletsky, and Khovansky were subjected to a “commercial” execution — they were beaten with a whip on the Torg. Other notable rebels set off for prisons and exile. Only 30 children of boyars were sentenced to death.

Helen's death

At the age of seven, Ivan Vasilyevich already performed the first duties of the sovereign - he patiently sat on the throne during ceremonial receptions, said the words required by custom. Appeared before the people during the exits to the temple. He complained about the distinguished governor. Although the decision, of course, did not take it yet. The life of the youth at that time was good — his mother was surrounded by care, Telepnev, the mother of Chelyadnin, his own mother’s court. In 7 years he had a howling uncle tutor - Ivan Fedorov-Chelyadnin.

In April, 1538, 30-year-old Elena Glinskaya died suddenly. None of the sources report any disease. The princess was healthy. Modern data from the study of her remains indicate that poison poisoning (mercury) has become the alleged cause of Elena's death.

Judging by the subsequent events, it was a well-organized coup. It was headed by Vasily and Ivan Vasilyevich Shuisky, the most distinguished princes occupying leading positions in the Boyar Duma. The princess was buried the same day she died. Without the presence of the Metropolitan, apparently, he was taken under house arrest. Without the grand duke's funeral rank, long church services, the people were not allowed to mourn. The mother of the sovereign, the ruler of the Russian state, was simply carried out of the palace and buried.

Then eliminated supporters of Helen. On the seventh day after the death of the governor, Ovchina-Obolensky and his sister Agrafena were captured, feeling the danger, and hiding in the sovereign's chambers. This all happened in front of the young Ivan Vasilyevich. The prince soon died in custody, he was starved to death. Agrafena was exiled to Kargopol and nunned. Metropolitan Daniel in 1539 was deposed and exiled to the Iosifo-Volokolamsky Monastery.

Apparently, this conspiracy was organized a long time ago and the Shuiskys were waiting for just the right occasion. Throne was supposed to take Andrei Staritsky. After the death of Helen, he would have easily eliminated Ivan. Therefore, the old prince wanted to hide behind the powerful fortifications of Novgorod, waiting for good news from Moscow. However, at this stage the plot failed, and Andrei was no more. Therefore, the conspirators saved the life of the young sovereign, to rule on his behalf.

To be continued ...
Articles from this series:
Childhood of Ivan the Terrible
Childhood of Ivan the Terrible. 2 part
Childhood of Ivan the Terrible. 3 part
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  1. radio operator
    radio operator 25 March 2013 09: 16 New
    Even Karamzin wrote, in essence, capitulating to the complexity of the topic: “The character of John, a hero of virtue in his youth and a violent bloodsucker in his years of courage and old age,” he exclaimed in his hearts, “is a mystery to the mind”
    1. ShturmKGB
      ShturmKGB 25 March 2013 12: 19 New
      Always in troubled times, outstanding personalities appear who are not allowed to fall apart in Russia. Yes, the methods they use are not always humane ...
      1. nakaz
        nakaz 25 March 2013 12: 43 New
        Only cruelty and blood can call people to order.
    2. Ascetic
      Ascetic 25 March 2013 12: 31 New
      Quote: radio operator
      “The character of John, the hero of virtue in his youth and the frantic bloodsucker in his years of courage and old age,” he exclaimed in his hearts, “is a mystery to the mind.”

      In 1963, after the commission of the Ministry of Culture of the USSR opened the tombs of Ivan the Terrible, his sons - Ivan Ivanovich, Fyodor Ivanovich - and the governor Skopin-Shuisky, a terrible picture opened up in the remains of Ivan IV the Terrible, one of the most poisonous metals for the human body - And its content reached 13 grams per ton, while usually in a person the mercury content does not exceed 5 milligrams per ton! The difference is 2600 times!
      In the remains of Ivan Ivanovich, mercury was also recorded - up to several grams per ton, which is also absolutely abnormal. But in the remains of the youngest son - Fedor Ivanovich - there was no mercury recorded! A simple comparison of these facts leads to a single conclusion: Ivan IV and his family were purposefully poisoned with mercury! Here are the facts:
      1. The first-born of Ivan IV and Anastasia Zakharyina - Dmitry - was born a healthy and normal child, and died of a common cold (caught a cold during a trip with his father on a pilgrimage), which even tsarist doctors could not always cure in those days. No mercury was found in his remains.
      2. The second son of Ivan IV and Anastasia - Ivan - the one whom Ivan the Terrible killed in the 1581 year with a staff, was born in the 1554 year, when Grozny himself was only 24 years old, and grew up a healthy and strong man. But a high concentration of mercury was found in his remains!
      3. But the third son from Anastasia - Fedor - was born in the 1557 year and was moronic. Moreover, as the reconstruction of the famous anthropologist M.M. finally established Gerasimov, an ugly dwarf with a small head on a wide-bones skeleton! And no trace of mercury was found in his remains. Consequently, in the period from 1554 to 1557, the years of Ivan IV began to seriously poison mercury.
      And in 1560, the very young Queen Anastasia, dearly beloved by Ivan IV, dies. Moreover, the autocrat himself does not doubt that she was poisoned.
      That is probably the answer of the Karamzin riddle? At least such a version exists. For the main symptoms of mercury poisoning of the body are deep depression, chronic insomnia, severely depressed state, persecution mania, mental disorder, expressed in violent and violent attacks, extremely dangerous for others. Moreover, from ancient times it was known that mercury poisoning quickly leads to a comprehensive defeat of the gene apparatus and is inherited - the "crazy hatter" back in the Middle Ages recorded the birth of flawed offspring, especially if both spouses were poisoned. About the same changes occurred in the appearance of Ivan from the virtues of youth to the tyrant in old age
      1. Ascetic
        Ascetic 25 March 2013 12: 41 New
        Now to the question of the poisoners.
        It was in the period 1553-1554 in Russia that the first British spy appeared, the merchant Richard Chanslor - a confidant of the English court, as well as became for a long time the personal physician of Ivan the Terrible, a graduate of Cambridge, a doctor, an astrologer, a magician and a sorcerer (and at the same time a spy) Eliseus Bomeliya, by nationality, apparently, a Dutchman.
        The conclusion that Chancellor made about Russia was unique and went down in history: “If the Russians knew their strength, then no one could compete with them, but they do not know it”. That is what he reported to London. And then, obviously, so that the Russians would never know their strength, the "healer" Bomelia entered into the matter.
        It was he who was hated in Russia with fierce hatred, believing the tsar to be wild, unbridled atrocities, who, as it were, was transformed from a normal person into a fierce tsar on a throne. and it is under this definition that he appears in the annals. And only a quarter of a century later it befell, although barbaric by modern standards, but absolutely deserved punishment: the most experienced executioners of Malyuta Skuratov blew blood from him, and then they roasted him live on a spit.
        It is curious that another spy of the English crown, Jerome Horsey, very close to the Russian court and, apparently, acting as a resident, looked after Ivan Ivanovich and his abilities to govern the state. Incidentally, it was he who for some reason was directly under Ivan the Terrible at the time of his death — to be convinced that the goal was achieved? .. All this ended with the establishment of the power of Boris Godunov and the Great Troubles, in which Russia miraculously resisted.
        1. Beck
          Beck 25 March 2013 18: 36 New
          I will give a hypothesis. But first, a brief background.

          The Great Jamble of 1359-1381 shocked the foundations of the Golden Horde. In these years and until 1399, the power of the Catholic Grand Duchy of Lithuania grew. By 1399, the Lithuanian princes subjugated Galicia, Kievan Rus, Belarus, the Western lands of Muscovy up to Pskov and Smolensk. Having suffered the defeat of oi Timur, Khan Tokhtamysh lost the Horde throne and was accepted, with the remnants of the army, by the Lithuanian prince Vitovt. Somewhere at this time, the Pope issued a bull against Orthodoxy, it was outlined something like a crusade against Russia. Vytautas agreed with Tokhtamysh that he would help the latter return the throne of the Horde, but Tokhtamysh officially transferred Muscovy to the rule of the Catholic Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

          Naturally against this was the khan of the Horde Temir-Kutlug and his beclarbek Edigey, who put Temir-Kutlug on the throne.

          In 1399, the Catholic army of Prince Vitovt, in which there was the Polish gentry of Pan Shurkovsky, the German knights of the Teutonic Order, with artillery, the troops of the West Russian princes set out on a campaign. On the River Worksle they were met by the forces of the Golden Horde led by Temir-Kutlug and Edighey. The battle began, the largest in terms of numbers in medieval Europe and the most bloody. Vytautas troops were defeated. The Golden Horde pursued about 500 versts who fled.

          From that moment, the Greatness of Lithuania rolled back and she, according to the Union of Vilna, in 1401 entered the Kingdom of Poland. It was also one of the last major victories of the Golden Horde. The Golden Horde, at its last gasp, halted Catholic spread.

          Now Gumilev.

          Prisoner Vitovt, who fled, met in the dense forest the Turk Mamaia, a direct descendant of the famous Temnik Mamaia. Vytautas promised Mamaia the princely title if Mamaia takes him out of the forest. Mama brought Vytautas. And Vitovt kept his word, gave Mamaia the princely title and in the possession of the tract Clay. So the family of princes Glinsky was born. Initially, as the Tatar-Lithuanian, then the Lithuanian and in the end the Russian princely family.

          According to another version. Mansur after the murder of his father Mamaia, having fled from the Crimea with his close associates to the Sumy region where he restored the city of Glinsk. Which was owned by his son Mamai. And it was to this Mamaia Vytautas that he issued the princely title.

          Read more.
          1. Beck
            Beck 25 March 2013 19: 07 New
            Quote: Beck

            In 1508, the Princes Glinsky moved to serve in Moscow and swore allegiance to Grand Duke Vasily !!! To Ivanovich. Prince Vasily !!! second marriage marries the young princess Elena Glinsky. Which gave birth to him the son of John! V, known in Russia and in the World as Tsar Ivan the Terrible

            So in Ivan the Terrible two hereditary branches came together. Rurik’s network and Genghis Khan’s network. Since the temnik Mamay was married to the daughter of Janibek, the khan of the Golden Horde, who was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan.

            In this context, the emblem of Russia - the TWO-HEADED EAGLE - looks very symbolic.
            1. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 26 March 2013 07: 33 New
              Beck "So in Ivan the Terrible two hereditary branches came together. Rurik’s branch and Genghis Khan’s branch. Since the temnik Mamay was married to the daughter of Janibek, the khan of the Golden Horde, who was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan"
              This is not that Mamai. I think that apart from the name, nothing connects them. By that time, Temnik Mamai had long been mayor ...
              1. Beck
                Beck 26 March 2013 12: 41 New
                Quote: Nagaibak
                This is not that Mamai. I think that apart from the name, nothing connects them. By that time, Temnik Mamai had long been mayor ...

                Inattentively read. I didn’t even write that Vytautas brought Mamai’s temnik out of the forest. Temnik was killed in the Cafe in 1380. His descendants fled from repression in the present Sumy and Poltava regions. The son of Mamaia Mansur-Kiyat was killed in a battle with the troops of Timur in 1391, near Samara. His son, that is, the grandson of the prisoner Mamai, was also called Mamai. So he brought Vytautas out of the woods. And it was to him that Vmiovt issued the princely title. And it was precisely the grandson of Temnik who became the ancestor of the princely Glinsky family.
        2. Petrospek
          Petrospek 25 March 2013 23: 18 New
          All this is of course “good,” but what motive is it? the British Terrible oh as needed.
      2. Sharingan
        Sharingan 25 March 2013 14: 54 New
        I read somewhere about it. True, it was also there that mercury poisoning was the work of the English Moscow Company. Too close the king let the British to himself, too trusted them.
        1. Petrospek
          Petrospek 25 March 2013 23: 20 New
          Well, did they make sense to poison him?
    3. ABV
      ABV 26 March 2013 00: 32 New
      Yes, many have already recognized, Karamzin lied to the Russian history, at the instigation of the Anglo-Saxons, this is now called an agent of influence ... and we will not give our country to the Anglicos ...
  2. predator.3
    predator.3 25 March 2013 10: 45 New
    According to legend, after the defeat at Voroskl (1399) from Edigey, Vitovt fled and his son Mamai was a guide, for this service Vitovt gave him the place of Clay, which became the ancestor of the small princes Glinsky, thus Ivan the Terrible falls to Mamay and Dmitry Donskoy great-great-grandson
    And after the Don Battle of Mamaev, the son of Mansur-Kiyat (Markisuat), the Prince, cut down three cities of Glinesk, [yes] Poldova (Poltava), [yes] Glecenitsa (Glinitsa), the children of the Mansur-kiyatovs (Mansurkiatovs), the smaller son of Skider (Skidyr) [ he caught [a herd] of a herd of horses and camels and rode to Perekopy, and the big son of [him] Alex (Olesko) [Prince, a] stayed in those towns of prejudiced [town].
  3. vladimirZ
    vladimirZ 25 March 2013 10: 55 New
    The history of the Russian state is hidden with great secrets at all times, since each Ruler remade History "for himself" dear, and not for Great Russia!
  4. Elliot
    Elliot 25 March 2013 11: 10 New
    Thanks for such a detailed article! Very interesting))
  5. Orik
    Orik 25 March 2013 11: 47 New
    As heaven and earth are eternal, so are not adequate elite ambitions. What didn’t you have? They would build the Russian state, serve the b and be the first. No, give even more power, slaves, gold. As everything is not new, they do not know how and do not want to serve, but give money and power.
  6. rexby63
    rexby63 25 March 2013 12: 24 New
    Thank you for the article, but the most interesting is to come.
  7. Bosk
    Bosk 25 March 2013 13: 28 New
    I was always surprised by the Shuiskys ... after all, if you read the story, you can notice that they constantly participated in conspiracies ... and other dark affairs ... and constantly somehow they got away with it .. knowing the mores of those times, I wonder that their kind was not cut out at the root ...
    1. Ascetic
      Ascetic 25 March 2013 14: 27 New
      Quote: Bosk
      I was always surprised by the Shuiskys ... after all, if you read the story, you can notice that they constantly participated in conspiracies ... and other dark affairs ... and constantly somehow they got away with it .. knowing the mores of those times, I wonder that their kind was not cut out at the root ...

      Princes Shuisky were Rurikovich, and they came from the branch closest to the one from which the tree of the Moscow ruling house grew. Something they turned out to be even higher than the sovereigns whom their clan served. The roots of the Shuiskys rooted in the Grand Duke of Vladimir Andrei Yaroslavich. He was the younger brother of the Grand Duke Alexander Yaroslavich, nicknamed Nevsky (namely, from Alexander Nevsky came the Moscow Prince's House). But Prince Andrey got to the grand-ducal table in Vladimir before his elder brother - in 1248 - and ruled until 1252, when Alexander Yaroslavich was in his place.
      Descending from the same root as the great princes of Moscow, Shuysky, in the event of the death of all representatives of the ruling dynasty, had the right to take the throne. In other words, they played the role of “princes of blood”
      The princes of Shuisk under Ivan IV had an extremely high status, and even later retained it - until the accession to the throne of Emperor Vasily Ivanovich from their kind, who reigned from 1606 to 1610. They always were at the helm of the most important political affairs. They were invariably present in the Boyar Duma. In the late 30s - early 40s. even the period of the “Shui kingdom” was established: under the sovereign sovereign Ivan IV, the Shuisky court party completely seized power in the country and could even arbitrarily overthrow the Moscow metropolitans ... Then the dominant position was lost by them, however, a strong position on the highest levels of government still remained. In adulthood, the first Russian Tsar did not like and was afraid of the Shuiskys, but he was not going to refuse their service.
      The exact characterization of the Shuiskys' situation when Ivan the Terrible matured was given by the historian G.V. Abramovich:
      “In the infancy of Ivan IV, Shuiskys in the role of regents stood at the head of the Russian state. This period of their activity, which is very controversially illuminated by sources, requires particularly careful research. The subsequent history of the clan is notable for the fact that, having lost long before the oprichnina, as a result of a fit of rage of the thirteen-year-old Ivan IV, one of his representatives, Andrei Mikhailovich, later on, throughout the entire reign of Grozny, the Shuysky clan, unlike all other princely clans of Russia, even in the midst of oprichnina terror did not lose a single person. This fact is in complete contradiction with the demonstrative hatred that permeates Grozny's accusations against the Shuiskys in his message to Prince Andrei Kurbsky. But it is precisely to them that historians who study the reign of Ivan IV attach such great importance. On the contrary, as if to refute these allegations, Shuysky throughout the reign of Grozny were part of the Boyar Duma and held the highest posts in governorates and voivodships»

      This is explained by the fact that Shuysky clan excelled in performance.
      1. Ascetic
        Ascetic 25 March 2013 14: 27 New
        In the time of Ivan the Terrible, in addition to Prince Ivan Petrovich Shuisky, the army elite of the Moscow state also included princes Ivan Andreevich, Ivan Mikhailovich and Peter Ivanovich Shuisky, as well as their closest relative, Prince Alexander Borisovich Gorbaty-Shuisky. It was a family of "commanders." On Shuisky, the heavy burden of constant participation in the military enterprises of Russia fell. They "served" their high position completely. Remove their active clan from the command staff of the armed forces of our country, and now a huge gap is forming, which is very difficult to close. And in the era of Russian Troubles of the beginning of the XVII century, it was from this family that the famous commander Prince Mikhail Vasilyevich Skopin-Shuisky came out.
        1. Bosk
          Bosk 25 March 2013 15: 04 New
          Yes, there really was a well-known commander from Shuiskys ... he probably is the only bright ray of this kind ... although what is surprising here ... there is such a trick in the military business .... with these campaigns and battles it’s somehow not up to intrigue ...
      2. Bosk
        Bosk 25 March 2013 14: 59 New
        Now I can’t remember who exactly ... but Shuisky alone kind of reigned for some time and if I didn’t hesitate, this reign came down mainly to retain power and not to the affairs of the Russian state ...
        1. Ascetic
          Ascetic 25 March 2013 15: 13 New
          Quote: Bosk
          but one Shuisky kind of reigned for some time, and if I didn’t hesitate, this reign came down mainly to retain power and not to the affairs of the Russian state ...

          Quote: Ascetic
          Vasily Ivanovich from their family, which reigned from 1606 to 1610.

          This is precisely the period of the seven-boyars and the Time of Troubles, But this is a separate story, the “Princes of the Blood” divided power in strife and intrigue. whose family should become royal, in view of the suppression of the Rurik Dynasty. about interests of the country probably thought last. This somewhat reminds us of the Semibankirshchina under the “Tsar” Boris today, when they also divided the country between their Family, only then the noble aristocracy fought, and we have a roguish non-Russian oligarchy.
        2. Egoza
          Egoza 25 March 2013 21: 01 New
          Quote: Bosk
          but one Shuisky kind of reigned for some time

          That's right!
          Vasily (4) Ivanovich Shuisky. Tsar of All Russia in 1606-1610
  8. rezident
    rezident 25 March 2013 23: 43 New
    Terrible person. It’s good that the genus of this monster was interrupted.