Military Review

Evolution of the Hawker Siddely Harrier fighter

Harrier - this is several generations of British combat aircraft with vertical takeoff and landing. Having accomplished the first flight in 1960, for many years he was in service with the Royal Air Force, the US Marine Corps, the Air Force of Thailand and Spain. All this time, the combat vehicle has been constantly evolving, preserving solutions that have already been tested and absorbing technical innovations.

Multi-purpose attack and reconnaissance aircraft with vertical takeoff / landing Harrier GR.1

Harrier GR. Mk.1 - the first in the world aviation serial combat aircraft capable of shortened or vertical take-off / landing. The creation of Harrier was preceded by lengthy tests of the Kestrel VTOL R-1127, created by Hawker Siddeley Aviation Limited (today British Aerospace). The prototype November 24, 1960 made its first flight. In 1967, serial production of Harrier was launched. Two years later, the first combat squadron was formed, consisting of 12 vehicles and included in the British Air Force.

Harrier GR.1 was intended to support ground forces. In this regard, he had to have high maneuverability and operate in any climatic conditions at low altitudes (up to 3050 m). The maximum operating height is 13700 m. The design dive speed is M = 1,2. Harrier aircraft glider is designed to overload up to 11,7d. The construction used alloys of aluminum, magnesium and titanium, as well as high-strength composite materials and steel.

The fuselage of the attack and reconnaissance Hariera is designed as a riveted continuous structure with two technological connectors. In the bow of the cockpit is located. Its rear border runs along a sloping partition serving for mounting the ejection seat. The engine and units are located in the central section of the fuselage. In the front part of the side there are symmetrically placed two fuel tanks (capacity 232 l). Another 473-liter tank is mounted above the main landing gear bay. Between the engine nozzles there are two 177-liter central tanks. Caisson wing - two tanks for fuel 785 l. Under the wing, if necessary, discharged tanks with a capacity of 455 l, and 1500 l for long ferry flights may be suspended.

The Rolls-Royce Bristol Pegasus 101 turbojet engine is attached at four points to the power frames of the central fuselage section. The nozzles are rotated by means of a pneumatic motor from a horizontal position by 98,5 degrees, changing the position of the thrust vector to take-off (90 degrees) and further to the braking one. The position in space is changed by the engine as follows. Four air lines run from the compressor - into the tail and the nose, as well as on the wing console, where the roll control nozzles are located. There are three nozzles in the tail boom: one (together with the nose) serves for pitch control, two nozzles for control over the channel. The activation of the reactive control system occurs when, during vertical take-off and landing, or in flight mode at low speed, the engine nozzles are shifted to 20 or more degrees from the horizontal position.

In the central section of the fuselage are the rear and nose landing gear. The front landing gear is controlled by two hydraulic cylinders that rotate 45 degrees. Equipment compartment is located in the back of the fuselage.

The keel and horizontal full-turn tail have a usual construction made of aluminum alloys. The wheel is made with honeycomb. At the bottom of the tail there is an air brake, which is extended at an angle of up to 66 degrees in flight.

The wing on the Harrier aircraft is continuous, and attached to the fuselage at six points. Construction - caisson with two lower and three upper milled panels. The wing in four places has knots for fastening the pylons for combat load. Fuel tanks can be hung on the inner pylons. Containers of Aden cannons of caliber 30 mm with 130 ammunition of shells (weight 205 kg) can be hung under the wing. The total combat load can reach 3,1 tons.

Later released a modification of the Harrier GR. Mk.1А equipped with a Rolls-Royce Bristol Pegasus Mk 102 engine of greater power. Further development of Hariera followed the path of developing a multi-purpose vertical fighter with a vertical take-off / landing. The first modification was the Harrier GR. Mk.3.

Performance characteristics:
Adopted - 1969 year;
Wingspan - 7,7 m;
Wing area - 18,68 m2;
Height - 3,43 m;
Length - 13,87 m;
Empty weight - 5530 kg;
Maximum take-off weight - 11340 kg;
Fuel in internal tanks - kg 2865;
Fuel PTB - 2x1500 kg;
Engine Type - 1 TRDD Pegasus Mk. 101;
Engine thrust - 1x8610 kgf;
Maximum speed - 1360 km / h (at height);
Maximum cruising speed - 1185 km / h;
Practical range - 3700 km;
Combat radius of action - 1200 km;
Practical ceiling - 15000 m;
Crew - 1 man;
Combat load - 2270 kg;
5 suspension units: 2 30 mm Aden cannon container, 2 air-to-air AIM-9D Sidewinder, 2 air-to-air Martel AS.37, or 8 225-kilogram MMNXXX XMX rocket. kilogram bombs or fire bombs 5 or 450 2-kilogram practical bombs or 8 cluster bombs, or 12.7 launchers Type 4 SNEB NUR 4 or launchers 155x6-NUR mm or 19 container intelligence apparatus.

Multi-purpose fighter with vertical takeoff / landing Harrier GR.3

The GR.Mk-3 multipurpose fighter from the base version of the Harrier GR.Mk-1 differs in the upgraded engine of the Pegasus 103 Rolls Royce. Take-off thrust was 9753 kg. The fuselage has not changed significantly. During operation, it became clear that with a full combat load during vertical takeoff, the aircraft consumes too much fuel - which, however, is a common feature of all "Harriers" having a vertical or shortened takeoff / landing. The standard equipment of the GR.Mk-3 includes an air refueling system, a laser range finder and an indicator on the windshield.

Features of the machine: two 30-millimeter guns "Aden", mounted under the fuselage; aerodynamic braking device; the possibility of suspension under the wing rockets "Matra".

The Harrier GR.1 and GR.3 aircraft electronic equipment is based on Ferranti sighting and navigation inertial system FE541. This system provides an autonomous access to the target, aiming, launching rockets, bombing and shooting from guns. Also, the aircraft are equipped with VHF and KB radio stations, radar identification equipment and TAKAN short-range navigation.

The gun-guns of the multipurpose fighter consisted of two detachable Aden guns of 30 caliber mm. Under the fuselage and inside it was placed 1821 kg of weapons. The combat load of the external suspension points is 2x454 kg. Guided missiles - X-NUMX x AIM-2 air-to-air missiles. The LAU 9 - 10 (16x4) unguided 4 mm missiles, the LAU 127 - 68 (28x4) 7 mm Hydra missiles, and the LAU 70 - 69 (XNNXX (NNNXX) 76 (NNNXX) 4 (NNNXX) 19) 81 5 unguided rockets; The plane could carry high-explosive free-fall bombs Mk.119 (82x5 kg.pc. - CBU-227.

Since 1970, three squadrons in the Federal Republic of Germany and one in the UK were completed with Harrier GR.3 aircraft. The last combat unit operating the GR.Mk-3 was the operational re-equipment unit deployed in Belize. After serving almost 20 years, these machines were replaced by new modifications of the GR.Mk-5 and Mk-7.

Performance characteristics:
Adopted - 1970 year;
Wingspan - 7,7 m;
Wing area - 18,68 m2;
The height of the aircraft - 3,45 m;
The length of the aircraft - 13,87 m;
Maximum take-off weight - 11430 kg;
Empty weight - 6140 kg;
Combat load during takeoff with a short run - 3600 kg;
Combat load with vertical take-off - 2300 kg;
The mass of the internal fuel - 2295 kg;
The mass of fuel in PTB - 2400 kg;
Engine Type - TRD Pegasus Mk. 103 (kgn thrust 8750);
Maximum speed - 1350 km / h (at height);
Maximum speed - 1180 km / h (at the ground);
Practical range - 3425 km;
Practical ceiling - 15200 m;
Combat radius - 520 km;
Crew - 1 man.

Multi-purpose fighter with vertical takeoff / landing Harrier GR.5

Since July, the British Air Force began to receive tactical fighters with a short or vertical takeoff / landing of the Harrier GR.1987. From its predecessor - Harrier GR.5, it is distinguished by its ability to carry a large combat load and an increased radius of action.

The GR.5 fighter is designed to conduct air reconnaissance and provide direct air support to the ground forces.

Harrier GR.5 constructively is a cantilever monoplane with a high-swept wing, a bicycle scheme chassis and a single fin tail. A feature of this aircraft is the widespread use of composite materials in the design. Their share is 26,3%. The split wing has a thicker supercritical profile compared to the Harrier GR.3 wing. Wingspan increased by 20%, area - by 14,5%. On the leading edge, the wing sweep is reduced by 10%. Basically for the manufacture of the wing used composite materials. For the front and rear edges of the wing and the tips applied aluminum alloy. According to British experts, an increase in the area of ​​flaps and wings, the use of hovering ailerons, which deviate at a certain angle depending on the position of the engine nozzles, improved the Harrier GR.5 characteristics when using an airplane with a short take-off.

At the same time, innovations introduced into the wing design led to an increase in drag, which was the main reason for the decrease in maximum speed by 80 km / h. It is believed that this reduction in speed can be eliminated due to minor changes in the conjugation of the fuselage and wing, as well as the design of air intakes. The fuselage in comparison with the "Harrier-GR.Z" is somewhat longer. The nose of the fuselage is made mainly of composite material (graphite-epoxy), the tail and the center of the aluminum alloy. Titanium is used in the manufacture of two ventral heat screens and a small panel in front of the windshield. Between the main and nose landing gear at the bottom of the central part of the fuselage can be installed "box", which consists of a retractable transverse flap and two longitudinal fixed rigid ridges. The transverse flap is located behind the nose landing gear, the ridges are attached to the gondolas of gun installations. The “box” during a vertical take-off and landing captures part of the exhaust gases reflected from the ground. This results in an air cushion that increases the lift by approximately 500 kg.

The single cabin of a new design, with air conditioning, is made entirely of composite materials. The pilot's seat is higher on the 3 compared to the Harrier-GR.30,5. Due to this and due to the use of a new lantern pilot gets a good all-round view.

The power unit “Harrier-GR.5” is a single Rolls-Royce Pegas two-circuit turbojet engine of the Mk.105 with variable direction of thrust vector (max. Static thrust is 9870 kgf). Provided 4 second (short-term) transfer to a high temperature mode of the engine during vertical landing. Power onboard oxygen system and flight control system, as well as for sealing the cockpit using compressed air from the compressor.

The fuel system is basically the same as the Harrier GR.3 fuel system, but due to the increase in the volume of wing fuel tanks, the capacity of the internal fuel tanks reaches 4200 liters, which is 45%. more than its predecessor. In addition, the X. NUMX outboard fuel tank (the capacity of each 5 l) can be hung on the GR.4. There is an in-flight refueling system.

Radioelectronic equipment includes interference-free VHF and KB radio stations, the IFF 4760 radar identification device “Konsor”, the Ferranti inertial navigation system FIN 1075, the TAKAN short-range navigation equipment, the receiver of the landing system, the digital calculator of aerodynamic parameters, the electron-optical indicator (data are displayed on windshield) control system weapons Hughes Aircraft. The weapon control system provides the use of various guided weapons, including weapons with a television or laser guidance system. The fighter is also equipped with an integrated electronic system of radio countermeasures and radio intelligence, including an active jamming station, an AN / ALR-67 (V) 2 detection receiver, an IR trap ejection device, and AN / ALE-40 anti-radar reflectors. Under the nose of the fuselage can be installed reconnaissance infrared station front view.

The fighter Harrier GR.5 is equipped with 2 underfusal cannon installations with Aden cannons of caliber 25 mm (200 ammunition ammunition for each cannon). To place other weapons, 9 suspension units are used: 1 between the gun installations under the fuselage and 4 under each wing console. Two underwing assemblies, which are located in front of the under-landing landing gear, serve to install launchers for air-to-air missiles of the AIM-9L Sidewinder short-range firing range. The remaining nodes can be used for hanging fuel tanks, bombs for various purposes and launchers of unguided aircraft rockets.

Performance characteristics:
Adopted - 1987 year;
Wingspan - 9,25 m;
Wing area - 21,37 m2;
Height - 3,55 m;
Length - 14,12 m;
Maximum take-off weight - 13500 kg;
Empty weight - 6250 kg;
Combat load with vertical take-off - 3000 kg;
Combat load during takeoff with a short run - 4170 kg;
The mass of the internal fuel - 3500 kg;
The mass of fuel in PTB - 3700 kg;
Engine Type - TRD Pegasus Mk. 103 (kgn thrust 9870);
Maximum speed:
- on the ground - 1100 km / h;
- at height - 1150 km / h;
Combat radius of action - 520 km;
Practical range - 3825 km;
Crew - 1 man.

Tactical shock fighter with vertical takeoff / landing Harrier GR.7

Harrier GR.Mk7 is the most common Harrier model in service with the Royal Air Force. This aircraft is jointly manufactured by British Aerospace and McDonnell Douglas. Great Britain first withdrew from the joint program Harrier, but then returned. The British Air Force required 94 vehicles, and the US more than three hundred. British Aerospace is a junior partner and is responsible for performing 40% on vehicles designed for Spain and the United States, and 50% for British aircraft. BAE was engaged in the manufacture of stabilizer, tail and center sections of the fuselage, as well as the rudders and keels of the aircraft. The company also performed the final assembly of British cars.

The McDonnell Douglas specialists developed a fully composite wing for the aircraft, which made it possible to reduce its mass by 150 kg. The supercritical wing profile, which has a large relative thickness, made it possible to increase the fuel stock. The AV-88 wing is the largest single composite structural unit ever used on a combat aircraft. The upper parts of the wing are removable for accessing the internal compartments. Single-slit flaps are larger, in the root of the wing there are nodules.

Harrier GR.Mk7 The British Air Force received Rolls-Royce Pegasus Mk 105 turbojet (thrust 95,6 kN) twin-turbojet engines. To eliminate the gyroscopic effect, the motor shafts rotate in opposite directions. The stabilization of the aircraft is ensured by the nozzle valves of the gas-dynamic control system, located in the tail and nose parts as well as on the wing tips. Installed on the Harrier GR.7, the front pair of rotary nozzles with a new design, modified air intakes and a system for increasing the lifting force made it possible to obtain an increase in the load.

Harrier GR.Mk 7 also received a modernized avionics and an infrared system for forward visibility. The GR.Mk 7 is equipped with the robust GEC Avionics AD3500 radio communication system and the Cossor IFF 4760 gas detection system. Ferranti moving map indicator left. The automatic shooting of infrared traps and dipole reflectors AN / ALE-40 is mounted below the fuselage tail section, an additional automatic submachine gun BOL is placed in the pylon. In the nose under the fairing is the IR system of the front view.

The tactical strike fighter installed a new 25-millimeter cannon ADEN, developed by the state-owned weapons arsenal «Royal Ordnance». Lower rate of fire was compensated by the placement of two guns. Gun - revolving type has a rotating drum with chamber. The rate of fire - 1650-1850 shots per minute. Hunting 8L755 cluster munitions became one of the main means of destruction of the Harrier aircraft. The 227-kg container cassette contained 147 submunitions (small-caliber cumulative fragmentation bombs) located in seven compartments. The cassette was opened using pyrotechnic charges, and the submunitions were pushed out of its cylindrical compartments with a pneumatic mechanism at certain intervals.

Performance characteristics:
Length - 14,53 m;
Swipe - 9,25 m;
Wing area - 21,37 m2;
Height - 3,55 m;
The power plant - 1 TRD Rolls-Royce Pegasus Mk 105;
Traction - 95,6 kN;
Empty mass - 6336 cr;
Maximum take-off weight - 10410 kr;
Total fuel supply - 8858 l
Maximum speed at high altitude - 1041 km / h;
Maximum speed at low altitude - 1065 km / h
Practical ceiling - 15240 m;
Takeoff with shortened take-off - 435 m;
Ferry range - 3640 km
Fighting range:
- with a vertical take-off - 277 km;
- during takeoff with a short run - 2722 km;
Crew - 1 man;
Armament: two Aden cannons of caliber 25 mm (total 400 ammunition ammunition);
Nine suspension units: 1 under the fuselage, 4 under each wing;
Maximum combat load:
- with a vertical take-off - 3 tons;
- during takeoff with a short takeoff - 4170 kg;
On two nodes in front of the under-nose landing gear are launchers for air-to-air AIM-9L Sidewinder guided missiles.
On other nodes can be suspended:
4 guided AGM-65 Maveric air-to-surface missiles;
4 AIM-120 AMRAAM or AIM-9 air-to-air class;
SeaEagle 4 PKP or Harpoon AGM-84;
2 container with 30 caliber mm;
2 bombs AGM-62 Walleye with optical guidance;
various PU NUR and bombs, as well as containers with EW and reconnaissance equipment.

Tactical shock fighter with vertical takeoff / landing Harrier GR.9

The Harrier GR.9 / 9a British Air Force has two main elements. The first element is an integrated weapons program designed for the unified use of a wide range of developed / upgraded precision weapons. The second is the installation of a more powerful Rolls-Royce Pegasus Mk.107 engine.

IWP forms the basis of GR.9 / 9a. The program is based on the GR.7 capabilities through the integration of air-to-surface Brimstone and Storm Shadow weapons systems. The previously planned use of the ASRAAM air-to-air guided missile was rejected. Although the use of these precision weapons systems is the basis of the IWP, Harrier GR.7 requires many other improvements to make the most effective use of these weapons. This is mainly due to the need to apply the modern MIL-STD-1760 control system associated with the new on-board computer and software. For precision weapons, you also need to use the new inertial navigation system GPS, which can provide it with navigation information. The plane is installed more informative dashboard and warning system of the danger of rapprochement with the ground.

Harrier GR.9 made its first flight in 2001 year. Adopted in 2003 year. The existing GR.7 Harrier will be equipped with an IWP and upgraded to GR.9.

The Air Force and British Navy have 2 squadrons equipped exclusively with Harrier GR.9. There is also a training squadron, equipped with a double version of the machine, having an IWP but equipped with a less powerful engine.

Performance characteristics:
Length - 14,30 m;
Height - 3,55 m;
Wingspan - 9,25 m;
Wing area - 21,37 m2;
Empty weight - 6336 kg;
Maximum take-off weight - 14060 kg;
Engine - Rolls Royce Pegasus Mk.107;
Thrust - 10795 kgf;
Maximum speed at the ground - 1086 km / h;
Maximum speed at high altitude - 1198 km / h;
Ferry range - 3640 km
Combat range with outboard fuel tanks - 2700 km;
Combat range during takeoff with a short run - 1800 km;
Combat range with vertical takeoff - 280 km;
Crew - 1 man.
Two Aden cannons of caliber 30 mm (ammunition of one 200 cannon cartridges).
Maximum combat load - 4900 kg;
Nine suspension units:
6 air-to-air AIM-120 AMRAAM or AIM-9;
4 Brimstone guided missiles or AGM-65 Maveric air-to-surface missiles;
SeaEagle 4 PKP or Harpoon AGM-84;
2 bombs AGM-62 Walleye with optical guidance;
2 container with 30 caliber mm;
various bombs, containers with electronic warfare and reconnaissance equipment, PU NUR;
Storm Shadow cruise missiles.

Based on materials:

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  1. radio operator
    radio operator 22 March 2013 08: 50
    Harrier is one of the few bourgeois fighters to enjoy. Best in class.
    1. avt
      avt 22 March 2013 09: 20
      Quote: radio operator
      Harrier is one of the few bourgeois fighters to enjoy. Best in class

      Yes, an extremely successful design. And they used it competently. But he has no replacement.
      1. Kyzmich
        Kyzmich 5 February 2018 14: 43
        And dead end in essence.
  2. radio operator
    radio operator 22 March 2013 08: 56
    [media = http: // v = FZDfrjLUr3w]

    However, this also happened.
    1. Forest
      Forest 22 March 2013 11: 02
      This is an underwater drone)))
  3. Nayhas
    Nayhas 22 March 2013 09: 28
    Harrier is the last purely "British" combat aircraft, the last reason for the pride of British aircraft designers ...
  4. Forest
    Forest 22 March 2013 11: 07
    The Harriers proved to be excellent in the Falkland War. In battles against the Mirages, they were more maneuverable.
    1. Kyzmich
      Kyzmich 5 February 2018 14: 44
      Yeah, the result is five sunken ships of the British Navy, with almost all direct bombing))).
  5. Lone gunman
    Lone gunman 22 March 2013 16: 46
    Yes, a cool car, because we could have a similar plane ... I like all the verticals.
  6. Avenger711
    Avenger711 22 March 2013 20: 43
    Su-27 is gaining ground.
  7. ABV
    ABV 23 March 2013 02: 35
    a small mistake about the McDonnell Harrier, not the AV-88, but the AV-8B ....
    and ochch interesting article!
  8. gregor6549
    gregor6549 23 March 2013 16: 00
    Harrier is not just a successful aircraft, but an entire era in aircraft construction. This aircraft allowed the British fleet to build aircraft carriers without catapults and to provide the possibility of its (aircraft) combat use from unequipped sites. Harrier also proved its usefulness during real combat operations in the Falkland Islands with a rather strong enemy operating from stationary airfields and having the ability to use "standard" fighters against the Harriers. They tried to copy Harrier both in the USSR and in the USA, but nothing good came of these attempts. In the end, the USSR did not receive a full-fledged such aircraft, and the United States had to establish production of Harriers under an English license. Another, and very pathetic attempt to create a replacement for Harrier is the US F35. But even here it doesn't smell like great success
    1. Alex
      Alex 23 March 2013 23: 45
      Quote: gregor6549
      They tried to copy Harrier in both the USSR and the USA, but nothing good came of these attempts.

      You're not right. In the USSR, they did not copy, but went their own way - on the Yak-38 1 lift-marching engine and 2 lift engines, and on the Harrier 1 engine with 4 rotary nozzles. Harrier's scheme was abandoned immediately. The Yak-141 was already supersonic and in all respects surpassed the Harrier and could well withstand the 4th generation aircraft. Thanks to his propulsion system, Harrier cannot fundamentally fly at supersonic speed. (the speed of 1350 km / h given in the article is a clear mistake).
      In the USA, Harrier was not copied either, but was busy with fans. By the way. on the F-35 in the version with vertical take-off and landing lift-marching engine and lift fan. The design of the rotary nozzle of the engine was borrowed from the Yak-141. Initially, they tried to make a flat nozzle. Then I had to take a round, but could not make a normally working design (problems with the joints of sections). On Yak, a witty decision - the sections do not extend, retract, but rotate relative to each other around the central axis. In the 90s, after the closing of the topic, the Yakovlev Design Bureau sold documentation on the Yak-141 to Americans ..
      1. gregor6549
        gregor6549 24 March 2013 06: 57
        Alex, speaking of copying, I did not mean stupid, primitive copying.
        This did not work even with the creation of TU4, despite Stalin's strict order not to change anything. I had to change a lot, tk. Soviet components had to be installed on TU4, which are neither in size, nor in weight, nor in other things. characteristics often and did not "lie" close to the US.
        Therefore, if anything was borrowed / copied, then creatively, taking into account the capabilities of the industry and technology. The main motive was that the Americans have something or will soon have something, so we need the same. They, Americans, are not fools, they don’t throw money away. And the race began to create the same "wunderwaffe".
        Another thing is that the result (as in the case of the Yak 38) often turned out much worse than the "foreign" model chosen for imitation.
        In the same place where development went from the very beginning, in the domestic way (for example, С300, СУ27, etc.), the result often far exceeded its Western counterparts, if any.
        It would be hard to say how successful the 141 Yak would be. it didn’t even come to introduction into the series, and the F35, despite the similarity of some technical solutions with the 141 UC, differs from the latter as the sky from the Earth. A completely different level of technology and technology.
        It is difficult to say whether F35 will be brought to the level of ensuring its safe and effective use. The car turned out to be too complicated and expensive. But this is, as always, when there is an attempt to do everything in one bottle and push all competitors out of the "playground". Life does not like unnecessary complexity, as well as monopoly. And competitors, as a rule, are biting.
        1. Kyzmich
          Kyzmich 5 February 2018 14: 34
          Excuse me than the Yak 38 is worse than his same-year-old Sea Hrrier?
          1. Town Hall
            Town Hall 5 February 2018 14: 50
            Quote: Kyzmich
            Excuse me than the Yak 38 is worse than his same-year-old Sea Hrrier?

            Yes, nothing .... except it may be the fact that I almost couldn’t fly, I couldn’t carry any weapons on my own, I didn’t have a radar station, the pilots were afraid to land on it .. and so the beautiful pepelats having no analogues otherwise ...

            ".... In the television series about the history of Soviet aviation" Red Stars "about the Yak-38, there was such an interesting fact: in the aggregate of qualities (in terms of combat effectiveness), the Yak-38 aircraft was inferior not only to the British Harrier, but even to the Ka-29 helicopter: the Ka-29 has more powerful and diverse weapons, and a larger range, and overall reliability is much higher than that of the Yak-38. And even the higher flight speed of the Yak-38th did not give it before Ka-29 no advantages, which served as a result of one of the reasons for the removal of Jacob-38 from service in the late 1980s ..... "
            1. Kyzmich
              Kyzmich 5 February 2018 15: 04
              read less stupid things less.
              YAK38 was no different in its performance characteristics from its one-year-old "Sea Harrier"
              All the stupidity comes from the fact that we are slipped TTX "Harrier" in the configuration of take-off and landing with a take-off.
              But if you look at its VTOL configuration, it becomes sad.
              here are the data on
              Sea Harrier FRS. 1(1978!)
              And here is the data for Sea Harrier FA.2(1988g)
              1988 year!
              empty mass -6616kg
              take-off (max) -7992kg
              flight time -24 minutes
              combat radius135km.
              I hope you calculate the combat load and fuel?
              That’s the whole myth.
              1. Kyzmich
                Kyzmich 5 February 2018 15: 09
                That is precisely why the Yak38 did not begin to be modified to Yak39, and so on, but went directly to the supersonic Yak41 model.
                1. Kyzmich
                  Kyzmich 5 February 2018 15: 17
                  Regarding "did not have a radar"
                  Yak 38 is a lightweight deck attack aircraft.
                  Such he is according to the terms of reference of the MO.
                  Attack aircraft Su25 and A-10 also have no radar.
                  So what?
                  For your information, on the same year, Sea Harrier was a radar from .... a helicopter.
                  With a very (!) Mediocre performance characteristics.
                  And only in 1985 did a normal radar appear on it.
  9. GUSAR
    GUSAR 7 September 2013 20: 13
    One of my favorite planes
  10. merkava-2bet
    merkava-2bet 19 August 2017 01: 22
    The article is not complete, but where is Sea Harrier, a marine modification?
  11. Kyzmich
    Kyzmich 5 February 2018 14: 39
    This article is very subjective.
    Since it is a VTOL aircraft, it would be worthwhile to indicate the combat radius and combat load in the VTOL configuration.
    Otherwise, the data presented is misleading to readers.
    But if you look at these data, "Harrier" in the VTOL configuration, then they are very modest.
    The first version of the MK1-combat radius .... 90km
    And the next ones ... as much as 135km
    Let me remind you that in the Yak 38 this parameter is a little more-195km.