Military Review

Ultra Small Piranha Submarines

34
In connection with continuous strengthening fleet NATO, as well as the possibility of war, the Soviet command decided to turn its attention to the construction of mini-submarines that would be able to operate in rivers, in shallow water, in the territory of the enemy fleet bases. To implement these goals, the naval leadership instructed the Leningrad Design Bureau "Malachite" to design a mini-submarine. The boat being developed received the designation Project 865 and the code “Piranha”. Subsequently, 2 submarines of this type were created in Leningrad - this is the MS-520 experimental boat and the MS-521 series lead boat. In total, only 2 boats were built, both of them were in service from 1990 to 1999.


For many years, ultra-small and small submarines were not built or designed by domestic industry. Their design was resumed only in the 70s of the last century. Since 1973, the Malachite design bureau has begun work on the submarine 865 Pr. Piranha. The main designers of the boat were Yu. K. Mineev, S. M. Bavilin, L. V. Chernopyatov. The small submarine was designed to carry out special missions in shallow, coastal and navigation-difficult areas in which conventional submarine operations were either impossible or seriously difficult, including in conditions of serious anti-submarine defense.
Ultra Small Piranha Submarines

Initially, L. V. Chernopyatov was the chief designer of the project, but in 1984, he was replaced by Yu. K. Mineev. The chief observer for this project from the Soviet Navy was AE Mikhailovsky, captain of the 2 rank. The experience of creating and designing such technical tools at that time was absent in the country. For this reason, we had to work almost from scratch. At the same time, the novelty of the task set before the designers and engineers led to the implementation of a very large number of model and field tests of the boat, experimental work, and conducting various experiments on individual structural elements, technological processes and devices. For this reason, the laying of the first, experienced submarine of the 865 project occurred only in July of the 1984 year in the Leningrad Admiralty Association.

To accomplish the tasks assigned to them, the Piranha submarines were equipped with a specialized diving complex, which included 2 outboard sealed automated containers (diameter 0,62 m, length 12 m) intended for the storage of individual means of movement of divers and diving equipment and a dry cell sluicing for the release of saboteur divers into the sea underwater. In addition, there was an 2 outboard permeable device (diameter 537 mm). The Piranha submarines were equipped with modern electronic armament systems, including small-sized navigation, communications and surveillance (radar and sonar) and an automated control system, which made it possible to reduce the crew size to a minimum (total 3 man).

The armament complex was located in the middle part of the boat's superstructure and consisted of 2's cargo containers in which 2 transporters of the Sirena-UME type or 4 of the Proton type tug could be located. In addition, there were 2 mine-laying devices in which PMT mines were located (up to 4 high-power mines, nuclear warheads could be used), or 2 grids for the Latush 400-mm torpedoes that were used throughout the entire depth of immersion by the “self-escape”. For unloading, loading, as well as mounting diving equipment on the boat had a retractable tray. The controls and drives of the tray were located inside the robust hull of a mini submarine. The mine-laying device was a starting permeable grill with guide tracks of a pneumomechanical ejector, which ensured the ejection of mines in the course of the submarine's movement — forward. According to the second option, torpedoes could be used instead of mines.

In addition to a variety of special equipment and weapons, the submarine had increased secrecy. This was achieved through the use of a non-magnetic case, low-noise mechanisms, perfect acoustic protection and the use of a diesel-electric power plant with full electric propulsion. The boat used a diesel generator with a power of 160 kW, as well as a low-speed all-mode main electric motor with a power of 60 kW. On the 865 boat, a lead-acid rechargeable battery with a total capacity of 1200 kW-hours or a silver-zinc battery with twice the capacity could be used.

The super-small submarine, pr. 865, had a displacement of 319 tons in a submerged position, and in a surface displacement - 218 tons. The dimensions of the boat were meter 28,2x4,7x5,1. At the same time the boat was a double-hull (light and durable hull), had a developed superstructure and one shaft. In order to provide increased controllability and maneuverability of the boat, a propulsion unit with a propeller screw in the swivel nozzle was mounted on the short course on it.

In the central post of the mini-submarine there was an operator’s console, information display devices and an instrument rack, and controls for the main devices and systems. The instrumental complex of the boat included sonar communications, sonar, radar and other devices. Under the floor of the deck of the central post (CPU) was a battery hole. Closer to the nose from the operator’s console there was a mine of a retractable radar complex, a periscope and an access hatch. The spherical bulkhead limiting the CPU had an entrance hatch in the airlock, which could also be used for decompression. On the bulkhead there was a gateway to transfer items from the CPU to the camera and the porthole to monitor the divers. The controls of the diving locking system were also located here.

Aft flat bulkhead, equipped with a gas tight door, separated the CPU from the electromechanical compartment, where a diesel generator, a rowing DC motor, compressors, fans, pumps and other equipment were located on a special damped platform disconnected from the robust case. Noise-absorbing coating on the hull structures of the submarine in combination with a two-stage damping system provided the mini-submarine with a very small acoustic field. At the same time, the electromechanical compartment was uninhabited, while the boat was on a campaign, it was visited only to check the condition of the equipment. The screw, which was installed in the rotary ring nozzle, also served as a vertical steering wheel.

The crew of the mini-sub included all 3-s people. They were all officers: the commander-navigator, electronic weapons assistant and assistant to the electromechanical part. In addition to the crew, the boat could take on the reconnaissance and sabotage group in the number of 6 people. It was saboteurs who, in essence, were the main "weapons»Submarines. Combat swimmers could leave the submarine both on the ground and at depths up to 60 meters. Being outside the submarine, they had the ability to replenish the supply of gas mixture in breathing devices, as well as to apply electricity supplied from a boat through the wires. The autonomy of the submarine project 865 was equal to 10 days.

The direct development of the Piranha-type submarines could be the Piranha-2 mini-submarines with a normal displacement of 400 tons, which had an air-independent (anaerobic) power plant that used the Kristall-20 fuel cells. The maximum submerged speed of such a submarine was supposed to be 12 knots, and the cruising range about 1200 nautical miles. The boat was planned to equip 2-8 torpedoes in special launchers on a light body. At the beginning of 1993, Malachite began to promote its submarine in the international market. In this case, the normal displacement was brought to 250 tons, and the crew grew to 4 people. In general, based on the 865 Pr submarine, a whole family of submarines with a displacement from 130 to 920 tons was developed.

The fate of the ships of this project was quite sad. Already in March 1999, both built boats were towed to Kronstadt, where they were cut for scrap. In the fleet, they have not served and 10 years. There were several reasons for the withdrawal of boats from the fleet: this is, first of all, the lack of funding, as well as the opinion of a number of naval officers about the uselessness of such submarines to the Russian fleet. It is worth noting that before the mini-submarines were sawn into scrap metal, one of them took part in the filming of the comedy “Peculiarities of National Fishing”.

Tactical and technical characteristics of the "Piranha":

Dimensions: length - 28,3 m, width - 4,7 m, height - 5,1 m.
Displacement - surface - 218 t, scuba - 319 t.
Underwater travel speed - 6,7 knots, surface - 6 knots.
Cruising range - full 1000 miles, continuous underwater underway - 260 miles.
Maximum immersion depth - 200 m.
The autonomy of swimming is 10 days.
Crew - 3 pax + to 6 combat swimmers
Armament - 2 torpedoes 400 mm torpedo "Latush" or 4 mines.

Information sources:
-http: //www.navy.su/navyfrog/sub/piranya/index-photo.html
-http: //ship.bsu.by/ship/102077
-http: //bastion-karpenko.narod.ru/VVT/865.html
-http: //www.navy.su/navyfrog/sub/piranya/index.html
War, which was not. 9 series. "Piranhas. Shadows of the depths"

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  1. redwolf_13
    redwolf_13 21 March 2013 08: 28 New
    19
    What we do not value, for the lost cry.
    Sad all these unique ships were.
    1. newnutella
      newnutella 21 March 2013 10: 58 New
      10
      "-The area is quiet here ... it's better here on a submarine ...
      - Exactly, on the "Baby" ...
      - How do you know!? This is a military secret !!
      - Oh well, we went to such a distant cordon ... "

      Great device!
      1. During
        During 21 March 2013 12: 14 New
        +7
        Yes, I just want to shout "Kuzmiyich !!!" ...
        Sad ...
    2. Sirocco
      Sirocco 21 March 2013 14: 32 New
      +4
      Well, it’s good that in due time they saved TU 160 by purchasing them from Ukraine on time. Although there they managed to put under the knife these aircraft.
  2. Mother russia
    Mother russia 21 March 2013 08: 37 New
    15
    What boats the fleet lost! Titanium! They could be in the fleet for decades! It is simply a crime that they were incapacitated for such a short service life.
    Eh ... So many things that the country needed were disposed of, that now we need to build new ones and accumulate, accumulate!
    1. Норд
      Норд 21 March 2013 14: 26 New
      11
      I would like to look into the eyes of these naval commanders, who came to the brilliant conclusion that Russia does not need such submarines ... There are no words, just letters ...
  3. Baron Wrangell
    Baron Wrangell 21 March 2013 08: 41 New
    +6
    and then it will be necessary! but no, sawed! damn nineties!
    1. Edge_kmv
      Edge_kmv 21 March 2013 08: 56 New
      +5
      Well, if only sawed, and maybe as always, and lost the documentation (CD)
      1. skeptic
        skeptic 21 March 2013 13: 27 New
        11
        Quote: Edge_KMV
        Well, if only they sawed it, or maybe as always, they lost the documentation (


        Until now, the West is dealing with all the "lost documentation" of the military-industrial complex of the USSR. To the greatest regret, no one investigated who these "losers" are, which provokes their further treacherous activities.
    2. evgenii67
      evgenii67 21 March 2013 10: 15 New
      +5
      Hello everyone! Sad picture recourse because really boats are unique.
      Quote: Baron Wrangel
      but no, sawed! damn nineties!
      in the 90s it was best to cut the budget and saw for scrap, what was being built in the USSR recourse thank God now funding for the army has increased (compared to the 90s), but the budget cut is still taking place ....
      1. black_eagle
        black_eagle 21 March 2013 15: 44 New
        +4
        Nineties speak? Read about K-222, just don’t cry, and pay attention to the dates.
    3. ziqzaq
      ziqzaq 23 March 2013 13: 41 New
      +2
      Good day to everyone !!!!
      Quote: Baron Wrangel

      and then it will be necessary! but no, sawed! damn nineties!

      Damned hunchback and other liberals ........
  4. jayich
    jayich 21 March 2013 10: 01 New
    +1
    During my summer trip to Sevastopol in 2012, I saw at the very end of the Sevastopol bay in the vicinity of the Inkerman-1 railway station, a half-sunken submarine about 30-35 meters in size similar to pr. 865.
    Who knows what kind of boat it is?
    Unfortunately I did not have time to take a picture
    in somewhere in the area http://maps.yandex.ru/-/CVR~7JNX
    Coordinates:

    Latitude: 44 ° 36′37.94 ″ N (44.610538)

    Longitude: 33 ° 35′36.96 ″ E (33.593601)
    1. Sirocco
      Sirocco 21 March 2013 14: 29 New
      +1
      I saw similar boats in Balaclava, about 15 years ago.
    2. Misantrop
      Misantrop 21 March 2013 22: 59 New
      +3
      Research submarine belonging to the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of Sevastopol. Ukraine carefully stores what it snatched out during the partition of the USSR ... It looked like that in 2006
      1. Kars
        Kars 21 March 2013 23: 34 New
        0
        Quote: Misantrop
        Raina carefully stores what it snatched out during the partition of the USSR ...

        [media = http: //www.youtube.com/watch? feature = player_embedded & v = uHcqJUZbhMw]

        http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=uHcqJUZbhMw
  5. vadson
    vadson 21 March 2013 10: 36 New
    +4
    then I think where I saw this miracle, while I read I remembered fishing, I read it for sure
  6. Black Colonel
    Black Colonel 21 March 2013 12: 49 New
    +2
    It's sad to read that. By the way, not very long ago I read about how a mini-submarine with a batch of heroin was intercepted from the "friends of America" ​​- Colombian mafiosi. According to amerskih experts, the design and construction of mini-submarines was carried out at a fairly high production level, not without the participation of former Soviet specialists ... Ndya-ya-ya, round Earth, however.
  7. Takashi
    Takashi 21 March 2013 12: 50 New
    0
    and it certainly can move on alcohol / vodka?
    1. Delta
      Delta 21 March 2013 14: 02 New
      +1
      of course not))) any diesel engine runs on refined products. From kerosene to fuel oil. Well, even on some products of natural origin, such as rapeseed or palm oil. The so-called biofuel, where methyl alcohol is involved in the reaction. On pure alcohol or vodka - no. Although there were, it seems, research in this direction. Need to seriously remodel the engine
      1. Takashi
        Takashi 21 March 2013 17: 15 New
        +2
        So in the film they cheated. :) :) :) :)
        And then I wonder how they could pour 20 or 40 boxes of vodka into it. Already it became bad, I thought - "God forbid, and the tractor on alcohol will do how we will continue to live."
        Although it’s like a Volkswagen Beetle (some models), it’s like alcohol. :( :(
        1. Delta
          Delta 21 March 2013 17: 16 New
          0
          so that ICE, not diesel)))
          1. Firstvanguard
            Firstvanguard 22 March 2013 21: 08 New
            +1
            Diesel is also an internal combustion engine soldier hi
  8. Nayhas
    Nayhas 21 March 2013 13: 00 New
    0
    For such mini-DPLs, a carrier was needed that could tow it closer to the target, it is not practical to get to the enemy on its own.
  9. jayich
    jayich 21 March 2013 13: 07 New
    0
    Quote: Nayhas
    For such mini-DPLs, a carrier was needed that could tow it closer to the target, it is not practical to get to the enemy on its own.

    well, there are as many as 2 such carriers, pr941 sharks, there are a lot of places in them (upgrade, upgrade, and still the place will remain), but most likely they will be sawed,
    would remake at least one of the "Losharik"
  10. Suvorov000
    Suvorov000 21 March 2013 16: 16 New
    +5
    There is no way to give such a miracle to the special intelligence of the Navy just right, you can’t think of it better, so don’t get to anyone, it seems to me that it wasn’t enough to do without the intrigues of imperial intelligence, in 90 years our generals wouldn’t have enough of that that’s all, well, we’d go fishing on a distant cordon, sell at most to someone, and then cut it right away and see that it’s done, it’s not just that they were used up, someone really tried
  11. galiullinrasim
    galiullinrasim 21 March 2013 18: 06 New
    +1
    I won’t be surprised if somewhere such a boat appears in service
  12. Hemi cuda
    Hemi cuda 21 March 2013 18: 10 New
    0
    How many interesting and necessary reptiles were ruined.
  13. kirpich
    kirpich 21 March 2013 18: 31 New
    -1
    Quote: Delta
    .... Well, on some products of natural origin, such as ... The so-called biofuel, where methyl alcohol is involved in the reaction ...


    Oh, I’m thinking something about that. lol
  14. sso-xnumx
    sso-xnumx 21 March 2013 18: 56 New
    +1
    Well done designer !!! But the boats are a pity. at least one was left for the museum.
    Probably they handed over for scrap metal, but they drank the money as always!
  15. cobalt
    cobalt 21 March 2013 20: 39 New
    +5
    It was reduced to the fact that only 1 combat-ready submarine remained on the Black Sea, and these babies are very sorry, they probably could have secretly called the exit from any port in the Baltic (Kille for example) and put mines at the exit as a present. Another question is whether they were accidentally cut, and not whether it was intentional wrecking.
  16. crambol
    crambol 21 March 2013 21: 00 New
    +1
    And here is a sample of German production in 1967. Port of Kiel. Shot from a porthole. Perhaps smaller than ours.
  17. Rezun
    Rezun 21 March 2013 21: 20 New
    +2
    Repetition of the passed, unfortunately ...

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gL6yG7YeWvY&feature=player_detailpage#t=4s
  18. svp67
    svp67 24 March 2013 15: 03 New
    0
    But I wonder if the mini-submarine "Pygmy" was the progenitor of "Piranha"
    1. Bosk
      Bosk 25 March 2013 12: 36 New
      0
      By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the Pygmy nuclear submarine was officially registered with the People's Commissariat of the Navy (NK Navy) as an experimental submarine. It was not officially put into operation, it was not enrolled in any of the fleets and was stored on the coast. According to some reports, the Pygmey nuclear submarine was left at the former Ostekhbyuro base in Balaklava in Sevastopol, according to others, it was transported to Feodosia, where it was installed on the territory of the Naval Weapons Test Base of the NK Navy. In the summer of 1942, the boat was in the hands of the Germans, but its further fate has not yet been clarified.
      In August 1942, the Pygmy nuclear submarine was examined by Italian submariners from 11 squadrons of ultra-small boats (XI Squadriglia Sommergibili CB Regia Marina Italiana), which made its description not uninteresting for fleet historians. “This was the newest unit, which was at the final stage of the equipment, its dimensions did not differ from the Italian type SV, but the case was slimmer and longer. The boat had a rather large, but narrow cabin of a trapezoidal shape. ”At the middle of the hull’s height were oblong depressions, allowing torpedoes to be placed in them.”
      What happened to the only "Premier League Pygmy" further is not known for certain.
      According to some reports, it was not introduced into the German fleet, and in the spring of 1944 it was flooded by the Germans 20 miles south of Alupka. According to unverified information in the early 1980s, the boat was found on the ground and surveyed.
  19. Music
    Music 17 October 2017 22: 51 New
    +1
    There are a lot of fools. But why do they command?