Military Review

Fifth generation submarines: what to expect from them?

28
This week, 18 March, RIA News With reference to the general director of the TsDB Rubin Igor Vilnita, reported that Rubin began the development of 5-generation submarines, both nuclear and non-nuclear. According to Vilnita, the creation of the appearance of new ships is carried out taking into account the suggestions and comments that come to us during the operation of ships of previous generations and the lead submarines of new projects. Earlier, the commander-in-chief of the Russian Navy, Viktor Chirkov, said that the serial production of 5-generation submarines would begin in Russia after the 2030 year.


Currently, the foundation of the Russian underwater fleet make up the 3rd generation ships. The first submarine of the fourth generation - the strategic nuclear submarine Yuri Dolgoruky of project 955 Borey - was adopted by the fleet only in January 2013. In total, the Russian fleet will receive 8 such submarines - 3 of the 955 Borey project and 5 of the 955A Borey-A project. All of them will have to replace the 3rd generation of Project 667BDRM Dolphin on the Navy’s fleet, which currently form the basis of Russia's nuclear submarine containment forces.

The fourth-generation submarines also include ships of the 885 "Ash" project. Currently, the head submarine of this project is being tested and can be used by the Russian fleet this year. In total, by the 2021, the Russian Navy expects to receive the 7 nuclear submarine "Ash". Of the non-nuclear submarines, the 4 generation ships also include diesel-electric submarines of the 677 "Lada" project. The head submarine of this project, bearing the name "St. Petersburg", has been in trial operation in the fleet since May 2010.
Fifth generation submarines: what to expect from them?
Diesel-electric submarine pr. 677 "Lada"

Earlier, the representative of the General Staff of the fleet said that the submarines of the 5 generation, the development of which was laid down in the state armament program (LG) of Russia before the 2020, would be standardized using both ballistic and cruise missiles. It is assumed that such ships will differ in greater automation of control systems, lower noise levels, long-range weaponssafe reactor. First of all, we are talking about new torpedoes and long-range cruise missiles.

The head of the Rubin Design Bureau stressed that the life cycle of modern submarines is about 50 years from the moment of research design to the moment of boat disposal. Therefore, the fact that work on the design of new ships started now, there is nothing strange. According to this principle, work has always been carried out. After the end of the design work on one generation of submarines, the designers began a new phase. This is a normal workflow that simply can not stand still.

Regarding the 5 th generation of the shock submarines, there are 2s of opposing concepts for their likely development: evolutionary and revolutionary. The first of these is the most likely and involves the gradual improvement of existing technical solutions that are characteristic of modern submarines. At the same time, some of the existing solutions are already at the limit of their development, and the very high cost of today's submarines will force the designers to try to do everything possible to reduce their final cost and reduce their dimensions.
Strategic submarine project 955 "Borey"

The main method of cheapening is to increase the flexibility of using 5-generation submarines. In order to implement this in practice, it is planned to equip them with modules for replaceable weapons, as well as with unmanned underwater vehicles (NPA) and even UAVs. For the best location on the ship of a similar load, it is supposed to shorten the hull of the submarines, at the same time increasing its diameter. At the same time, perhaps, a return to the two-case architecture, but this decision is not tied to the requirements for reducing the price of the structure.

Today, all countries that have their own submarine development programs are searching for new types of propulsion systems, alternative hull lines, weapons use methods, target designation and information exchange methods based on new physical principles. At the same time, in any case, the automation of the 5 generation submarines will be significantly increased, and the method of their use in battle will be tied to the concept of a “network-centric war”, when the enemy will have to fight not with individual combat units, but with a single, monolithic system will include surface, submarine, air, land and space assets. All submarines of the future will be designed for operation in this “network”.

The use of the “network-centric war” concept, as well as the opinion of a number of industry experts, that the evolutionary path of development of the submarine fleet is a dead end, has led to the emergence of a “revolutionary path” of development. The basis of this concept is the rejection of “outdated” large nuclear submarines and the concentration on the production of small submarines with a displacement of up to 1500 tons, which have an auxiliary nuclear power plant. It is assumed that each of the mini-submarines individually will not be able to solve complex problems. They will be limited in autonomy, range of use of weapons and target designation, seaworthiness, but the deployed grouping of such submarines will surpass any modern submarine in effectiveness. And the loss of a part of such a group will not jeopardize the performance of the main combat mission.
Multipurpose submarine pr. 885 "Ash"

Be that as it may, with all its logic, this concept now seems to be still quite futuristic for most of the representatives of the Navy, both the United States and Russia, because of their conservatism. Probably, this idea can be implemented in the framework of the 6 generation of submarines, but in the coming 10-15 years, the development of the fleet will follow an evolutionary path of development without any unexpected "jumps."

Currently, the main developers of boats in the country are CB "Rubin" and "Malachite." The designers of both design bureaus agree that future submarines will finally move to a one-and-a-half or one-body architecture with a buoyancy margin of 15%. Low-magnetic steel will continue to be used as the main structural material, but the proportion of the use of composite materials for both internal and external use will increase significantly. In addition, a search is underway for solutions that make it possible to abandon traditional fencing of sliding devices in favor of alternative design solutions, for example, a retractable walkway, folding in a developed superstructure, etc. At the same time at the moment there are no special prerequisites and the need to increase the speed of travel, autonomy or depth of the submarines. However, a decrease in displacement may lead to a reduction in the crew of the boats and a wide automation of shipboard facilities and equipment.

On the 5-generation boats, the final transition to jet propulsion is expected, perhaps even with the outboard arrangement of the electric motor as the main propulsion complex of the boat with the final displacement of the classic propellers from the scene. If we talk about the missile armament of such submarines, then, most likely, it will have hypersonic flight speeds. At the same time, the development of boats will be carried out in the direction of improving combat use algorithms and on-board electronics.
Diesel-electric submarine pr. 636.3 "Varshavyanka"

With the appearance on diesel-electric submarines of the 677 “Lada” project of the first hydroacoustic complex with a large area “Lira” quasiconformal bow antenna, the fleet has a tendency to equip with similar antennas and submarines in addition to on-board antennas, whose dimensions are also growing. These activities have significantly increased the aperture of antenna devices. Due to the abandonment of very large and heavy spherical antennas GAK with ballast systems, durable capsules and massive fastening elements, it will be possible to release significant volumes located in the bow of the submarines. On the one hand, this leads to a reduction in the dimensions of the hull of the boat, to simplify the design and reduce the cost of the entire SJC, and on the other hand, it allows engineers to return to the nasal placement of torpedo tubes, which is more advantageous from the technical and tactical points of view.

If we talk about underwater armament, then among the experts there are different opinions on this matter. At present, it is believed that the caliber in 533 mm for rocket-torpedoes and torpedoes no longer provides realization of sufficiently high transport characteristics of ammunition (speed and range), and therefore a return to a larger caliber - 650 mm with the possibility of placing more powerful warheads on such torpedoes is necessary. parts and perfect homing system. However, along with this, 650-mm torpedoes have a large mass (about 5 tons against 2 tons in 533-mm torpedoes) and a length (about 11 meters). And this in turn leads to the complication and increase of torpedo compartments, torpedo-loading and charging devices, reducing the ammunition of the boat. Along with this, there is an opinion that for promising submarines there is a sense to increase the number of torpedo tubes for the production of massive volleys for numerous, including various purposes, using different weapon systems.

Information sources:
-http: //vz.ru/news/2013/3/18/624879.html
-http: //lenta.ru/news/2013/03/18/nsub5gen
-http: //vpk.name/news/68946_sovetskie_i_rossiiskie_atomnyie_podvodnyie_lodki_4go_i_5go_pokolenii_chast_2.html
-http: //vpk.name/news/68890_sovetskie_i_rossiiskie_atomnyie_podvodnyie_lodki_4go_i_5go_pokolenii_chast_1.html
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  1. Arberes
    Arberes 21 March 2013 08: 11
    17
    In principle, everything is correct. Fourth-generation boats are just starting to arrive, but development is already underway for the next.
    Only this course can be kept in the number of countries with advanced technologies.
    1. Ascetic
      Ascetic 21 March 2013 18: 10
      +8
      Quote: Arberes
      In principle, everything is correct. Fourth-generation boats are just starting to arrive, but development is already underway for the next.


      If it weren’t for Gorbach, they would have served for a long time. Nuclear submarine K-123 "Mars" (pr945) The boat was laid in March 1990 at the factory number 112 "Red Sormovo". In November 1993, the construction of the boat was discontinued at 30% readiness due to the cessation of funding. The unfinished ship was cut on a slipway.
  2. tronin.maxim
    tronin.maxim 21 March 2013 08: 21
    +6
    Submarines on new physical principles are interesting! Maybe they will move in plasma formations like warhead MBR of the same ash. No, hyper speed on apl something I bent. That’s what I’m sure will increase the depth of immersion from 1 km and below and the weapons will be completely different!
    1. Arberes
      Arberes 21 March 2013 08: 38
      28
      Quote: tronin.maxim
      That’s what I’m sure will increase the depth of immersion from 1 km and below

      We had one such beauty "KOMSOMOLETS", the project "Fin" -685.
      The diving record she reached 1030 meters, if my memory serves me.
      And she could attack with torpedoes from this depth, and the pins at that time did not even have the means of hitting this boat at that depth! It was made of a titanium alloy, but the trouble sank in a fire in the Norwegian Sea in 1989.
      I was then 19th! hi Already in those days we could do it.
      I just want to say, no matter how much the USSR is sprinkled now, but we were proud of what !!!
      1. dimon-media
        dimon-media 21 March 2013 08: 56
        +4
        So I wrote about the same below. I agree with you, colleague.
      2. Delta
        Delta 21 March 2013 16: 14
        +5
        Quote: Arberes
        And she could attack with torpedoes from this depth

        Torpedo firing on it was tested at 800 meters. This is a SAET-60 torpedo. And "Shkvalami" can be fired from depths of up to 30 meters. But the boat was really said to be able to shoot from all depths of diving.
      3. vyatom
        vyatom 29 March 2013 13: 25
        +1
        Quote: Arberes
        Quote: tronin.maxim
        That’s what I’m sure will increase the depth of immersion from 1 km and below

        We had one such beauty "KOMSOMOLETS", the project "Fin" -685.
        The diving record she reached 1030 meters, if my memory serves me.
        And she could attack with torpedoes from this depth, and the pins at that time did not even have the means of hitting this boat at that depth! It was made of a titanium alloy, but the trouble sank in a fire in the Norwegian Sea in 1989.
        I was then 19th! hi Already in those days we could do it.
        I just want to say, no matter how much the USSR is sprinkled now, but we were proud of what !!!

        The 2nd crew turned out to be completely unprepared for an emergency situation and due to his mistakes the boat sank. nevertheless, training of personnel is of great importance
    2. Evrepid
      Evrepid 21 March 2013 10: 35
      +4
      Why not? as in "Shkval" rocket torpedoes, but how to solve a bunch of other problems? Like stealth, communication, maneuverability ... oh, it's all difficult, very difficult ...
      Strain the brains of gentlemen! strain :)
      More schools! More educated people!
      More removal of a person from household chores!
  3. engineer74
    engineer74 21 March 2013 08: 31
    +4
    But what about cruising afterburning supersonic, over-maneuverability and stealth ??? wassat
    Thanks to the author! Very good review!
  4. dimon-media
    dimon-media 21 March 2013 08: 48
    +9
    Earlier, Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy Viktor Chirkov said that serial production of submarines of the 5th generation will begin in Russia after 2030.

    Everything seems to be fine, boats of the 4th generation are and will continue to be received as part of the rearmament and renewal of the fleet. Such long terms always confuse me. Why will boats of the 30th generation be built and delivered after 5 years? I'm wildly sorry, this is a very slow job. Indeed, in the 40s of the last century, when nuclear physics in the USSR had just begun to develop, as well as electronics and instrumentation, but at what pace did we begin to "stamp" nuclear submarines? At that time, there were none of those inclinations and building experience that we have now, thanks to the Soviet past. At that POST-TIME it was many times more difficult to create institutions, conduct development and finance projects. But they could, they did everything as soon as possible. Now what (or who) is stopping us from working fast? Why is it that the state now has money and means, that neither the project is so unfinished? Already dragged on for decades. At this pace, we will forever rearm. We work as Estonians, no offense they are told ..
    1. Arberes
      Arberes 21 March 2013 09: 15
      +3
      Quote: dimon-media
      Why is it that the state now has money and means, that neither the project is so unfinished? Already dragged on for decades. At this pace, we will forever rearm. We work as Estonians, no offense they are told ..

      And good afternoon, dear hi
      Oh, there were so many disputes on this subject, and I took an active part in this!
      I will say in short, “You don’t need to break your mind”; - but to create, debug and systematized put on stream ...
      This is all the legacy of the collapse under the sonorous name Perestroika!
      Oh, I would like MECHANICand listen, he is more or less in the know!
      Do you hear us Dear?
      1. dimon-media
        dimon-media 21 March 2013 10: 49
        +5
        Of course I hear. Clever people are always interesting to listen to. One thing the new bureaucrats and their minions very well managed to systematize, in the form of cut budget funds. Actually, I myself answered my own question. Hence all our troubles. I think so, at least many times, even if you increase the state. the budget and financing of our defense industry - nothing will change fundamentally. Too many Serdyukov on top. This question is becoming rhetorical in our country.
    2. nickname 1 and 2
      nickname 1 and 2 21 March 2013 11: 43
      +2
      Quote: dimon-media
      Now what (or who) is stopping us from working fast?


      In my opinion, E. Gaidar, the fault. It was he who eliminated a huge army called the electronics industry! It was a school in which unique brains were grown, original solutions were found, discoveries and inventions were made.

      Just like in chess - there are more champions, where the school (section) is more extensive!

      We must wait when the brains grow!

      Shoigu is not right in declaring give us what is due to us! In the units there was ensign with his head and hands, who repaired the equipment and invented - found ways out of the situation. Take them away and a bunch of equipment will wait for specialists from the design bureau or factory, but the point is nothing.
    3. Dima67
      Dima67 21 March 2013 13: 19
      0
      So let's get the USSR back and be in chocolate !!! The Chinese, too, every year or two launch a new corvette, or what?
    4. Botanologist
      Botanologist 21 March 2013 17: 41
      0
      I'm wildly sorry, this is a very slow job

      Read the speed of the aircraft refinement on the next branch, despite the fact that the 5 generation is already flying with might and main. And with the sub-melting, everything is much more serious. You do not plan to send crews to check theoretical developments? At each stage, trials are indispensable. For many years now, Lada has been driven, and they still can’t comb out all the fleas.
  5. Mother russia
    Mother russia 21 March 2013 08: 50
    10
    Quote: engineer74
    But what about cruising afterburning supersonic, over-maneuverability and stealth ???


    And we will do it, it will certainly! bully
    Everything has its time.
  6. Mikado
    Mikado 21 March 2013 09: 11
    +1
    Who can tell if we have boats with a water jet or just in projects?
    1. PLO
      PLO 21 March 2013 09: 39
      +6
      Who can tell if we have boats with a water jet or just in projects?

      all boreas


      they also say that starting from the second building (Kazan), Ash-trees will also receive a water-jet
      1. Papakiko
        Papakiko 21 March 2013 15: 42
        0
        Quote: olp
        all boreas

        Oh, I see you are also participating in this topic.
    2. Arberes
      Arberes 21 March 2013 09: 50
      +2
      Quote: Mikado
      Who can tell if we have boats with a water jet or just in projects?

      "SEVERODVINSK" -project ASH.
      Information on it is very small, but rumor is persistent that a water cannon is on it!
  7. SmacXnumx
    SmacXnumx 21 March 2013 09: 40
    +2
    Very interesting article. The main process does not stand still. It is moving and as we know the movement is life
  8. PROXOR
    PROXOR 21 March 2013 09: 42
    +4
    Unfortunately we give way to striped boats at the same time in the ranks. We have a gorgeous base near Severodvinsk, and another good base in Kamchatka. We need parity with the enemy. T-34-76 completely tired of the Tiger, but we crushed the mass.
    1. FATEMOGAN
      FATEMOGAN 21 March 2013 22: 27
      0
      Quote: PROXOR
      Unfortunately we give way to striped boats at the same time in the ranks. We have a gorgeous base near Severodvinsk, and another good base in Kamchatka. We need parity with the enemy. T-34-76 completely tired of the Tiger, but we crushed the mass.

      Parity is certainly great, for starters it’s just a little, to find the extra 600 billion dollars for the defense every year, so that you can talk about parity, maybe you know where to get them?
      Of course, fantasizing is not bad, but we need to really look at things, we can inflict unacceptable damage on any aggressor, why tear off the last vest and give the last penny to the defense industry, we and besides it are full of industries that need some funding. And we will begin to print rubles ourselves, then it will be possible to think about parity.
    2. FATEMOGAN
      FATEMOGAN 21 March 2013 22: 29
      +3
      Quote: PROXOR
      Unfortunately we give way to striped boats at the same time in the ranks. We have a gorgeous base near Severodvinsk, and another good base in Kamchatka. We need parity with the enemy. T-34-76 completely tired of the Tiger, but we crushed the mass.

      Parity is certainly great, for starters it’s just a little, to find the extra 600 billion dollars for the defense every year, so that you can talk about parity, maybe you know where to get them?
      Of course, fantasizing is not bad, but we need to really look at things, we can inflict unacceptable damage on any aggressor, why tear off the last vest and give the last penny to the defense industry, we and besides it are full of industries that need some funding. And we will start to print rubles ourselves, then it will be possible to think about achieving parity.
  9. Evrepid
    Evrepid 21 March 2013 10: 02
    +2
    Somewhere I met the classification and the time of putting the submarine into operation by generations, if I am not mistaken, then there the difference was reduced until 1992 and amounted to about 5 years ...
    It seems like something ...
    Let them develop ... I wonder when the duck launched in the movie "The Hunt for October" will be realized?
  10. Evrepid
    Evrepid 21 March 2013 10: 28
    +1
    And the parcels have already begun :) http://www.ntpo.com/techno/techno1_7/engine_100.shtml
    Already since 1992.
    Waiting for implementation? fellow
  11. kirieeleyson
    kirieeleyson 21 March 2013 12: 48
    +2
    "... it is planned to equip them with interchangeable weapon modules, as well as unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) and even UAVs."

    - I was interested in the wording, is it so compact to have the various modules inside the cruiser, or will projects of individual carriers of non-regulatory legal entities be implemented? The strategy to destroy AUG of any configuration, judging by the development of the direction of hypersound and massive attacks ..
  12. Tektor
    Tektor 21 March 2013 18: 21
    +4
    I have a picture, I’m trying to insert ...
  13. Evgeniy667b
    Evgeniy667b 21 March 2013 19: 21
    +4
    If we evaluate the tendency to create submarines both in the USSR and in the Russian Federation, then the overwhelming majority of projects have a displacement tending to 10000 tons or more. When it comes to powerful ICBMs, perhaps this path is rational, but over time the priorities change and at this stage it is desirable to have a multipurpose submarine. If we consider Ash as a counterweight to Virginia, then for a very long time we will not catch up with the Americans in the number of units built. So, there is practically nothing to neutralize them and the modernized Ohio. And the decision suggests itself - it is necessary to build boats of the project 705 type (it was not in vain that the Americans made efforts to withdraw them from service) and 671RTM, but taking into account the mine installations of the Kyrgyz Republic, as thought out for the Amurs. These ships are cheaper than "monsters" and quantity !!! will allow to block all carriers of the CD of a potential enemy. Simultaneously, to control the near zone, non-nuclear submarines of the Amur 950 and Amur-650 types. Until VNEUS is finalized, there is nothing left to do but to build a diesel-electric submarine, similar to the "St. Petersburg". The enemy will not wait for us to "reach"! And to build not a year by a teaspoon, but as in the good Soviet times. Another possibility is to stop the thoughtless selfish utilization of the same RTMoks that have survived and subject them to a deep modernization.
  14. spravochnik
    spravochnik 21 March 2013 19: 43
    +1
    Alrosa, pr. 877B, has been floating with a water cannon for quite some time.
  15. Boa kaa
    Boa kaa 22 March 2013 21: 20
    +2
    Quote: FATEMOGAN
    we can inflict unacceptable damage on any aggressor, why tear off the last vest and give the last penny to the defense industry, we and besides it are full of industries that, oh so, need financing. And we will start to print rubles ourselves, then it will be possible to think about achieving parity.

    This is how we are solving the issue of protecting the country today. The Armed Forces were brought to the minimum sufficient level, but the equipment is aging, the warranty period for the operation of ICBMs, artillery ships, RPKSN and other hardware is ending. The Amers do not stand still, they go under the umbrella of missile defense, thereby calling into question the "unacceptable" damage for themselves. They strive to drag us into a non-contact war with high-precision weapons, where we, frankly, are not very strong. To do this, you need to enter into the START-3 treaty, resolve the issue with tactical nuclear weapons, and so on. They seriously believe they will be able to intercept 700 carriers before the BB is split. Therefore, in order to at least preserve the status-KVO, we are forced to throw billion rubles, which are so necessary in other places, into the furnace of the military-industrial complex. Without Yankee-level weapons, we will no longer be taken seriously, because the economy - alas ...
    About the printing of rubles. If they are not provided, then this is paper and the path to hyperinflation. The ruble as a world reserve currency is still too early, as a regional one is quite real. And the last: how many jobs does the defense industry give, what is the return on the ruble invested in it, where are the achievements of science and technology and advanced technologies being introduced in the first place? History shows that an infusion into the military-industrial complex can drag the entire economy of a country (Germany, USA ...). True, I prefer the experience of Japan.