The Kazakhstani armed forces were created on the basis of military objects deployed on the territory of the Kazakh SSR, formations and units of the Central Asian Military District of the Soviet Union. Independent Kazakhstan went to the army, which numbered about 200 thousands of personnel and had modern strategic weapons and powerful arsenals of conventional weapons.
15 May 1992 Kazakhstan, together with Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, signed the Collective Security Treaty.
In 1992, the republic abandoned nuclear weapons and it was decided to withdraw strategic weapons to Russia. 13 December 1993 of the year The Supreme Council of Kazakhstan adopted a resolution “On accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons”. In February-April of the 1994, all the nuclear warheads and Tu-95MS bombers were redeployed to Russian territory.
The system of fundamental views that determine the policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of defense security is presented in the military doctrine. The first is approved by presidential decree 11 February 1993 of the year, the second - 21 March 2007 th, and now the current 11 October 2011 th. The military doctrine of Kazakhstan is defensive in nature. Consistent commitment to peace is combined with a determination to protect national interests and guarantee the country's military security.
The document states that the military security of the Republic of Kazakhstan is ensured by pursuing a policy of cooperation and good neighborly relations between countries, their equality and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, the peaceful resolution of international disputes, the refusal to use the first armed force, and the strengthening of the state’s military organization forecasted threats, identifying and using the most effective forms and methods for neutralizing them.
As part of the implementation of the directions defined by the doctrines, a significant amount of measures have been taken to ensure military security, improve the military organization of the state, and build few but technically equipped and highly mobile armed forces.
The current version emphasizes that the range of military and military-technical cooperation with Russia, China, the United States and other states is expanding in the interests of strengthening national and regional security. The document lists possible external threats:
Internal threats include:
At the same time, the Republic of Kazakhstan believes that no state is a potential adversary for it.
It is assumed that in low-intensity military conflicts, the armed forces, other troops and military units of the country will be used, as a rule, to localize the focus of tension and stop hostilities at the earliest possible stage in order to create conditions for resolving conflicts by peaceful means, and to eliminate illegal armed groups. , normalization of the situation, restoration of law and order, ensuring public safety, providing the population with the necessary assistance.
Medium intensity military conflict against the Republic of Kazakhstan can be unleashed with the aim of undermining the administrative, economic and defense potential, seizing or establishing control over certain territories, forcing the state to significant political, economic and other concessions. Participation in such a conflict may require the introduction of martial law throughout the territory of Kazakhstan or in certain areas and the announcement of partial or general mobilization, the use of all or a significant part of the military-economic potential of the state.
A high-intensity conflict against Kazakhstan can be unleashed with radical military and political goals: a change of political power in the country, disorganization of the state and military control system, the rejection of a large part of the territory, the complete destruction of the state defense potential. In the event of a conflict of high intensity, the republic will seek to use the coalition capabilities and the potential of collective military security systems to which it is a party.
In terms of international military cooperation, the military doctrine of Kazakhstan provides for:
completion of the formation of a regulatory legal base in the field of military and military-technical cooperation with the member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization, based on the need to consolidate efforts to create a common defense space and ensure collective military security, as well as further development of the forces and means of the CSTO;
deepening the strategic partnership in the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization on the basis of common military-political interests;
expansion of cooperation in the military and military-technical field with the United States of America and the states of the European Union.
Since February, 2001, all troops are directly subordinate to the Chief of General Staff, and the Minister of Defense performs administrative and political functions. The Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces is the President of Kazakhstan.
It is necessary to take into account that the exact quantitative and qualitative composition of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan is secret information. Therefore, all these estimates are taken from publicly published sources.
The number of armed forces is 49 thousand, including ground forces - 30 thousand, air defense (Air Force and Air Defense) - 12 thousand, naval forces - about three thousand, the central office of the Ministry of Defense - four thousand.
The term of compulsory military service is two years. The draft age and the minimum age for voluntary contractual service are 18 years.
The male population from 16 to 49 is 4,16 million, of whom 2,92 million are considered suitable for military service. Every year, thousands of men reach 125,3 military age.
In 2010, the military budget was 1,1 percent of gross domestic product, which was equal to 204,9 billion dollars at purchasing power parity. In 2012, Kazakhstan's GDP at purchasing power parity was 232,3 billion, at the official exchange rate - 200,6 billion, and likely military spending could reach 2,56 billion at purchasing power parity and 2,21 billion dollars at the official exchange rate.
The Ground Forces (SV) of Kazakhstan total 30 thousand people. They are united in 15 brigades: 10 mechanized and motorized rifle, four assault and one peacekeeping. The SV also includes seven artillery brigades, two missile brigades, two anti-tank brigades, one brigade of operational tactical missiles, one brigade of coastal defense and three engineering battalions.
All of them are deployed in four regional commands: "Astana", "East", "West" and "South".
"Astana" (headquarters - Karaganda) is the reserve rate of the Supreme Commander. It is subject to a separate motorized rifle brigade in Karaganda.
Vostok (headquarters - Semipalatinsk) includes the 4th mechanized brigade (Ust-Kamenogorsk), the Separate motorized rifle brigade (Ucharal), the Separate tank brigade (Ayaguz) - probably reorganized into a mechanized brigade, as well as the 1st and 3rd bases of storage of military equipment, a separate reconnaissance battalion, cannon artillery brigade, anti-aircraft missile brigade, 120th combined arms range.
"West" (headquarters - Atyrau) - 390-th brigade of coastal defense (Aktau) and an artillery brigade (Aktobe).
“South” (headquarters - Taraz) - 5 th motorized rifle brigade in Taraz, two separate motorized rifle battalions, mountain hunters' battalion and 210 th training center “Guards” near the village of Otar.
Airborne troops (AV) are considered as a reserve of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, which is designed to respond quickly to crises in the event of sharp changes in the military-political situation and to strengthen troop groups. Their number is about six thousand in four airborne assault and one peacekeeping brigade. The 35-I separate air assault brigade is stationed in Kapchagai, the 36-I - in Astana, the 37-I - in Taldykorgan, the 38-I - in Almaty. The AB also includes the Kazbrig peacekeeping brigade deployed in the Kapshagay garrison. In 2003 – 2008, a separate special engineering engineer detachment carried out a peacekeeping mission as part of a multinational force in Iraq. During this time, one officer died and several peacekeepers were injured. In 1992 – 2001, the combined Kazakh battalion was in Gorno-Badakhshan and performed the combat task of guarding the Tajik-Afghan border as part of the peacekeeping forces in Tajikistan. 54 people were killed there, including during the 7 battle on April 1995 in the Pshira gorge of the Pamir 17 killed killed a company of internal troops. The airborne troops also included a separate reconnaissance battalion in Taldykorgan and a separate communications battalion in the village of Shilikemir, Almaty region.
Armed with ground forces is the following armored vehicles: tanks T 980-72, 140 BRDM-2, 140-BRM 1k, BMP 730-1, 700 BMP-2, 90 BTR-80A, 2 BTR-3U (E), 180 MT XB, 180 BTR-70 and BTR-80, 40 American all-terrain vehicles HMMWV.
Self-propelled artillery represented Soviet 120 122-mm ACS 2S1M "Carnation, 120 152-mm 2S3" Acacia "and 6 122-mm SAU" Semser "Kazakhstan production and 25 Soviet 120-mm ACS 2S9" Nona-C ', capable of shooting both shells and mines.
There are 400 122 mm D-30 howitzers cannons, 180 152 anchs of aktomanscan XHUMXX2 "Xyntint-B", 36 ak ak 90A152 "Msta-B" aprons and 2 aprons of howitzer 65X145 of aprons;
The anti-tank weapon is represented by 68 100-mm anti-tank guns MT-12, as well as a significant number of anti-tank complexes 9K111 "Fagot", 9K113 "Konkurs", 9K115 "Metis".
Kazakhstan has tactical missiles X-23, X-25, X-29 and anti-radar missiles X-28 and X-58 and 12 tactical missile systems 9-79 “Tochka”.
The republic also has rocket artillery systems: 150 122-mm BM-21 "Grad" (50 is still in conservation), 180 220-mm BM-27 "Hurricane", 18 300-mm BM-30 "Smerch".
Air Defense Forces
The air defense forces of Kazakhstan include the air force, air defense troops and radio engineering troops.
The Air Force has two regiments of fighters, three regiments of attack aircraft, one regiment of scouts and one command of the transport aviationas well as three regiments (training, attack and transport helicopters). They are armed with 162 combat-ready aircraft. This number includes 97 fighters (16 MiG-25, 39 MiG-29 and MiG-29UB, 42 MiG-31 and MiG-31BM), 53 attack aircraft (14 Su-24, 25 Su-27, 14 Su-25), 14 scouts of the Su-24MR. Transport aviation is represented by two Tu-134 and one Tu-154. Training aviation is represented by 12 L-39s and four Yak-18s.
The average flight time of pilots is one hundred hours per year. The aircraft are armed with P-60, P-73, P-27, P-33, P-77 air-to-air missiles.
The squadron of attack helicopters has more than 40 Mi-24В, nine of which are upgraded. The squadron of transport helicopters includes 50 Mi-8, 20 Mi-171В5 and six Bell-205.
The air defense forces have 20 anti-aircraft missile systems 2K12 “Cube” and more 27 2K11 “Circle”, up to 10 C-300 PMU2, 100 C-75М “Volkhov” and C-125 “Neva” complexes.
The Navy of Kazakhstan has three thousand people. The main base is the port of Aktau on the Caspian Sea. They include the marine corps, coastal artillery and the Caspian flotilla. Naval aviation has Mi-8, Mi-2 helicopters.
16 patrol boats, two minesweepers, two hydrographic boats are stationed in the port of Bautino.
The flagship of the Caspian flotilla is the 0250 “Bars-MO” rocket-artillery ship, built at the Zenit factory in Uralsk. It also includes three Sea Delphin artillery boats purchased from South Korea, one Turk-type artillery boat, the XHAUM hydrographic vessel ZHAIK, purchased from Russia in 01340 and built in Astrakhan, as well as the Zhambul hydrographic boat of the project 2008, built on the Zenith in 101, and another boat of the same type should be delivered shortly.
The four landing craft were transferred to Kazakhstan by the United States in 2009 for free under the cooperation program between the Ministries of Defense of the two countries.
Soon, the navy of Kazakhstan will be replenished with three South Korean rocket boats of the Yoon Young-ha type and six Russian rocket-artillery ships of the 21632 “Tornado” type. In addition, the flotilla will receive the multipurpose vessel Bulan of the 0310 project, which the Zenit plant will commission in 2014, and the mine-sweeping ship of the Kormoran 2 project, which is expected to arrive from Poland in 2013.
The naval forces include border boats (perhaps some of them are part of the border service). Four 2 rank ships of the 0300 “Bars” project produced in Kazakhstan, boats — seven Burkit (“Grif”) of the 0200 project, (the 22180 project) and three FC-19 projects, as well as small boats — two Karlygash (КС-701), one of “Shagal”, 18 “Sapsan-M” and “Sapsan-2М”, four “Sunkar” (“Kalkan”) and one “Sagym” of the 190 project. In addition, foreign-made vessels - three patrol boats from the 369 project from Germany, three boats from the SAFE Boats International project, one from the Donotels project and 15 airboats from the United States. In the near future, seven Aybar boats of the 0210 project (also known as the Sobol of the 12200 project), which Zenit is to build, one 2 ship of the 0300 Bars project, two boats of the FC-19 project, will be among the border boats. and 15 Sagym project 190.
Military units of other departments
In addition to the Ministry of Defense in Kazakhstan, paramilitary forces have republican guards (2,5 thousands of people, including 2 thousands - presidential guards, 500 people - government guards), internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan (20 thousands of people possessing Mi-171 helicopters), KNB border guard service RK (nine thousand people). The 1 Brigade of the Republican Guard is deployed in Almaty, and the 2 Brigade and the government guard battalion are in Astana. The structure of the internal troops includes a special unit "Berkut", performing mainly the tasks of the army special forces.
Defense Industrial Complex
Kazakhstani military industrial complex is capable of producing or upgrading self-propelled artillery mounts, armored personnel carriers, fighters and Soviet-made missiles, as well as small ships.
It is assumed that in the 2012 – 2015 years, the republic’s armed forces will receive mainly foreign models - transport aircraft: 10 CASA C-295 and 12 C-130 Super Hercules, Sukhoi Super Jet 100 and IL-96, 30 fighter jets MIG-29XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX-2 XHUMXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX of X-NumberNXX XG of 30 400 100 and 4 C-XNUMX divisions, as well as XNUMX BTR-XNUMX, assembled in Kazakhstan.
A good example of joint production is the release of the Petropavlovsk Heavy Machinery Plant (PZTM JSC) in 2008 – 2012 380 of Naiza multiple rocket launcher systems developed in Israel.
The development of the military-industrial complex is hampered by the lack of a sufficient number of specialists and by the isolation of all enterprises from other former Soviet, primarily Russian, enterprises.