After the “Government Hour”, Dmitry Rogozin told reporters that on the basis of “Ishmash”, “a single competence is being formed” with “Izhmeh”. A single design office and two production bases will be created. After that, negotiations will begin with the Vyatka-Polyansky plant "Molot" on its accession to the "single competence."
It is like a drowning man instead of a lifebuoy to throw in the help of an incompetent swimmer who can barely float. And promise to add a second - with a stone around his neck.
Dmitry Rogozin proposed to merge Izhmash and Izhmeh in November 2012. At a meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, he said: “There are two enterprises in Izhevsk, both complex, Izhmash and Izhmeh. In order to concentrate efforts and, most importantly, to preserve the design potential in Izhevsk, there is a proposal to combine these two enterprises in the framework of the state corporation “Russian Technologies” under the common brand “Kalashnikov”.
The president supported the proposal. Outstanding designer Mikhail Kalashnikov did not object to such perpetuation of his name. In December 2012, Dmitry Rogozin appointed Konstantin Busygin as the head of Izhmash, and work began on the creation of the Kalashnikov concern. This process was recalled by the Deputy Prime Minister after the Government Hour.
The idea looks promising - to collect power into one fist, unite designers, strengthen, multiply, etc. Although, if you look, not everything is so simple. Firstly, these are enterprises with large history, traditions and labor dynasties. They have separate design schools working in different directions. And, most importantly, their material and financial situation is not brilliant. "Izhmash" is generally bankrupt. And the union looks like an attempt to fix his business at the expense of a slightly more successful neighbor, who himself barely started to get out of the financial quagmire.
It will be very ugly if, as a result of such a merger, the Kalashnikov brand is discredited and other well-known brands are killed - Izhmash, Izhmeh, and Baikal.
To begin, consider the design potential in Izhevsk, which is planned to be maintained and strengthened. In fact, it must be saved and restored. It's no secret that weapons The design bureau of the Soviet Union actively competed with each other. Often, competition turned into the worst feud when they don’t choose the means. After all, it was precisely these competing gunsmiths who intensively spread rumors that the Kalashnikov’s assault rifle was “licked” from Hugo Schmeisser's “stormmaker”. At the same time, they knew very well that these were fundamentally different weapons.
The Izhmash design bureau, however, remained the leader, and the Kalashnikov family of automatic weapons was the basis of the country's small arms.
During the “great mistress” of 1990's, the lack of government orders, as well as the illiterate and predatory management, ruined more than one defense industry enterprise. The sad fate befell the famous Tula Arms Plant (TOZ), the former Imperial. The extent of his ruin is illustrated by the following glaring fact. When the company’s 300 anniversary was celebrated last year, it turned out that its 300-year-old archive had disappeared - an invaluable collection of documents that began with the decrees of Peter I. This is a real state crime that no one thinks of investigating.
The famous design office of TOZ - the Central Design and Research Bureau of Sports and Hunting Weapons (TsKIB SOO) is now a branch of the Tula Instrument Design Bureau. From there, the current chief designer Vladimir Zlobin moved to Izhmash. Brought him with the team in May 2011, the newly appointed general director of the company, Maxim Kuzyuk, who did not briefly lead the concern and left him on the eve of the crash. Tula, who were not useful at home, actively engaged in the reconstruction of the KB of long-standing competitors. Zlobin headed the Design and Technology Center (KTC), and his fellow countrymen, pushing aside Izhevtsy, led a number of projects and directions in the center.
Some works were closed. For example, the development of the AK-200, which was promised to be the best in the world. Instead, the Tula brigade, which began work on 2011 in May, began assembling AK-5, the newest 12 generation of AK-10 from what it had been producing at Izhmash over the past 2012 years, in May. And in January, XNUMX, a ready-made sample of the “V.Zlobin design” was presented to a high-ranking public.
From the very beginning, the indigenous Izhevsk designers, to put it mildly, were skeptical of the weapon, which they called “puzzle” and “Lego” for its combined construction. It was noted that not all attractive developments can work together, and the manufacturability of production may be too difficult for mass production. Just a couple of days ago, the results of the first stage of testing were leaked to the press. The worst assumptions were confirmed.
Vladimir Lepin, general designer of wearable weapons and combat equipment of the military personnel of the Central Scientific Research Institute of Precision Engineering (TsNIITOCHMASH), noted that AK-12 had “critical things that were unfinished by designers for certain reasons and that begin to appear at the stage of these tests” . He did not give details, but the main thing he said was a design flaw.
Now Mr. Zlobin and the team will have to eliminate these shortcomings in a short time and transfer AK-12 to TsNIITOCHMASH for state tests. In the same place, the AEK automat, created by Kovrov’s designers, is being tested. They are also perennial rivals of Izhmash, where many interesting and original models of modern weapons were developed, often by Western designers. Only they were not lucky, they failed to break through the Kalashnikov monopoly. But now AEK has every chance of being adopted. Although there are claims of testers against him, this is really a new generation machine that allows you to hit a target with the 0,9 probability even to a not very experienced shooter.
An arms school is people, knowledge-bearers, who can think originally. Everything rests on them. Now they are leaving Izhmash en masse. When from the bankrupt Concern Izhmash OJSC, which was discussed ahead, the mass transfer of workers to a new legal entity, NPO Izhmash OJSC, began, this was done not by transfer, but through dismissal. The man left and came with the workbook to the same place where he worked. Only accepted it already on lower position with a smaller salary. We are talking about world-famous designers.
By the way, registration to the native enterprise went through a recruitment agency registered in Irkutsk. It turns out that it belonged to Ekaterina Sugarenko, thirty years old - Director for Personnel, NPO Izhmash OJSC. It is clear that to pay for the services of the agency, except at the expense of weaning wages, there is nowhere to take the money.
Many experienced designers did not want to endure the humiliation and left the company. Young people also left, which was paid for a salary of five thousand rubles. According to the general designer Vladimir Zlobin, now KTC is developing forty projects, of which he personally oversees thirty. Ten of them are students, graduate students and yesterday's graduates. "Under the guidance of experienced comrades," notes the head of KOTS. Interesting projects that students are engaged in are the simplification of a small-caliber rifle, the conversion of a SVD into a pneumoelectric weapon for airsoft. For the graduation project, probably, it is quite appropriate, especially in collaboration with an experienced designer. It is still difficult to say how much such developments will strengthen the Kalashnikov brand. Usually, a youth support entirely dependent on the owner is grown in this way.
WORK IN MINUS
The troubles of "Izhmash" did not begin now, but, like almost everyone, during the 1990's catastrophe. For many years Vladimir Grodetsky was the head of the Izhevsky Machinery group of enterprises. Under his leadership, he sought to pick up as many enterprises of any profile as possible. After that, loans were issued to them, they were pledged, etc. The usual practice of the time, leading to bankruptcy, even the gold and emerald mines.
In September, 1998 was established on the basis of the production complex of OAO Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant a large industrial holding operating in several areas of the defense and civilian profile of Concern Izhmash. From 2008, he became the parent company of a melee weapon production holding as part of the Russian Technologies State Corporation. By the beginning of 2011, OJSC Concern Izhmash, as part of 32 legal entities, has accumulated 19 billion rubles of debt. Rostekhnologii sent a rescue anti-crisis team to Izhevsk. It turned out that a significant part of assets was plundered, production stagnated. Nine companies of the Izhmash group have already been declared bankrupt in respect of 11 enterprises, including Izhevsk Machine-Building OJSC, Izhmash Concern OJSC, Izhevsky Arms Plant OJSC, Izhmashanko OJSC, Izhmashenergo OJSC as creditors bankruptcy petitions were filed. GK "Russian Technologies" repaid and restructured the debt of a number of enterprises for almost 3,5 billion rubles, but this could not help.
Bankruptcy is inevitable, and with it the loss of mobilization capacity at least is real. Fraudulent schemes were opened, ashamed of Vladimir Grodetsky in the spring of 2011, head of the Russian Technologies State Corporation Sergey Chemezov finally dismissed a few weeks before the expiration of the contract. And the former director went, no, not under investigation, but to create another holding.
19 of May 2011 of the year Sergey Chemezov signed a decision on the establishment of OAO NPO Izhmash. The CEO was approved by 37-year-old Maxim Kuzyuk, who had never worked in the military-industrial complex. In this position, he lasted a year, distributing an interview about the success of the enterprise. During this short time, several promising areas of activity were lost and, accordingly, the state defense order in these areas. The design bureau was destroyed and a time bomb in the form of a Tula group of specialists was laid in it. Lost frames and confused workflow. The Ministry of Defense and other power departments of the state order were not given, because the newly formed company did not have a license to manufacture weapons.
Ultimately, what is OAO NPO Izhmash? The authorized capital is one hundred thousand rubles (!), Sberbank loans and production and administrative areas leased from Izhmash Concern. There are also bills of exchange for 150 million dollars, issued by OJSC Concern Izhmash. There was an attempt to get this money from a bankrupt through the Arbitration Court. But no court has recognized these bills. They are refused to be included in transactions using in the competitive mass. Moreover, these actions were qualified in court as “abuse of the right to harm their creditors”. Some experts suspect that the whole operation with the creation of a new legal entity was just being started for the sake of obtaining these 150 million dollars. Meanwhile, the assets of the bankrupt Concern Izhmash OJSC for 31.12.2011 were estimated at - (minus) 311 085 000 rubles. That is, in more than 300 millions of debt. This is the annual report data. The company is in the process of liquidation.
October 9 2012 of the year was denied approval by the bankruptcy manager of Concern Izhmash OJSC, Artemiy Kuznetsov. And on November 23, he was also removed from the duties of the bankruptcy trustee of OAO Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant - the parent company of the concern. Lenders suspect him of attracting affiliates to the case and of improper performance of duties. Now, non-working enterprises are laid off employees who did not want to leave for a lower salary in NPO Izhmash OJSC. This February, more 50 people have already been laid off. Actually thrown into the street. In Izhevsk, the gunsmith has nowhere else to go.
After working for a year as CEO, Maxim Kuziuk swiftly left Izhmash, NPO in June 2012, to head another division of the Rostekhnologiya Group of Companies, and now Rsstekh, AKB Yakor, OJSC. And in July, Russian Technologies did not approve its annual and accounting reports. Alexander Kosov was appointed general director. It was with him in the autumn of 2012 that workers who had received a salary in 2,5 thousand rubles. About 200 workers staged a spontaneous rally. Then many quit, and 2012’s state defense order was disrupted. It was after this that Dmitry Rogozin received a salutary thought - to correct the dying Izhmash at the expense of a little more successful Izhmekh.
"IZHMEKH" UNDER THREAT
The current CEO Konstantin Busygin, appointed last December, is apparently designed to perform exactly this task - to join Izhmeh, and then the Molot plant from Vyatskiye Polyan, and to pull out Izhmash from the bottomless abyss. And buy for real money put up for a contest of production, listed for JSC "Concern" Izhmash ". Although Rostec could help him with this, covering the multibillion-dollar debts of former leaders, if he was patient and let go in peace.
At the time, OAO Izhevsk Mechanical Plant (Izhmekh) also Moscow managers frolicked with exorbitant salaries and accommodation at the expense of the enterprise. For the sake of their whims, the employee of the canteen was forced to stay at work after midnight, working actually for food, because 2,5-3 thousand rubles. normal salary can not be considered. From FSUE to OAO the plant was transformed in December 2012 of the year. It seems, specifically, to legally merge into the “single competence” with OAO NPO Izhmekh.
From weapons products, the company manufactures hunting rifles, pistols - combat, service and traumatic, sport and sports training pistols and a large number of air pistols and rifles of various designs. For all these products there is a fairly high demand. The company's share in the total release of small arms in Russia is estimated by various experts from 40 to 86%. In general, the company in the last few years began to revive. Abroad good demand for its products under the brand "Baikal".
Naturally, there is a design bureau at Izhmekh that specializes in sports and hunting weapons, as well as pistols. Of the latest innovations, the Yarygin pistol (PU), put into service and, finally, ordered in industrial quantities. He does not intersect with Izhmashevsky KTC in any way, and the combination of two different design schools looks strange. However, it is nothing strange if all the developments of the two enterprises will be in the hands of the management of OAO NPO Izhmash. And the promised transfer of the production of hunting weapons to Tula will save the native enterprise of the chief designer Vladimir Zlobin. Where to put the workers of a number of Izhmekh workshops seems to excite very few people.
It is useful to recall here that Russian President Vladimir Putin, endorsing “shared competence,” nevertheless said: “The result should be an improvement in the situation, and in no case deterioration.” And he especially warned Dmitry Rogozin: “And always in such cases many questions of a social nature arise; I ask you to pay close attention to this. ” Nothing, the salary will be cut off, as at “Izhmash”, the workers themselves will scatter. From the point of view of management “competence”, the situation will only improve from this.
HEAVY DESTINY "MOLOTA"
The “Hammer” plant in the city of Vyatskiye Polyany was already a member of Concern Izhmash OJSC. Nothing good happened. The company specialized in the production of machine guns, which are not needed by the RF Ministry of Defense for the last 20 years. It also produces rifled hunting carbines "Vepr" based on machine-gun barrels. But in Russia, rifled hunting weapons due to a number of restrictions are scanty popular.
It is unlikely that the “single lineup” promised by merging into a single “Kalashnikov” means for the “Hammer” the same as for “Izhmash”. It seems unlikely that the manufacture of machine guns was transferred from Izhevsk to Vyatskiye Polyany. Rather, they will take away the production of machine guns and other products of defense value. And in return, they will give to a single-industry city, wholly dependent on the state of the plant, something not so monetary.
On the "Hammer", probably, have not yet forgotten the period of the rule of Izhevsk. Concern "Izhmash", when he cleaned the Vyatka-Polyansky plant in its composition, sent there his head of the price control department Sergey Bakhmournov as a commercial director. He then became the first deputy general director, and in the 2007 year - the general director. He worked clearly in the interests of "Izhmash" and not "Hammer."
Under his strict control and control, the plant sharply reduced the production of small arms. Even in the best years, loading orders provided work only half the capacity. The production base was modernized at a snail's pace, and the development of new samples almost ceased. And the “Hammer” was left almost without state order. For a small town, it was a real disaster. People went to the demonstration, demanding to restore the plant or give the city subsidies. From the budget for the payment of arrears of wages had to allocate half a billion rubles.
In May, 2010, during Vladimir Putin’s visit to Izhevsk, was presented with a proposal to transfer the production of military weapons from Vyatskiye Polyan to Izhmash. The Kirov authorities strongly opposed this. In August 2010 was decided by Gennady Brusnigin, who was the general director of the Molot Vyatskopolyansky Machine-Building Plant, was decided by shareholders by GK Russian Technologies and Concern Izhmash OJSC. He had no connection with Izhmash.
The company began to revive. Hammer produces a quarter of civilian weapons sold in Russia. Exports have tripled - from 352 million rubles in 2009 to 1,09 billion rubles in 2011. 2012 data for the year has not yet been received, but growth continues.
Within the plant, a joint Russian-Italian enterprise for the production of hunting rifles is being created. Rostec Corporation acts as a guarantor for the loan for the modernization of production, which eliminates the need to pledge property to the bank. The first batches of products have already been released. From abroad supplied part of the components. The main thing is that there are no problems with sales, it is not necessary to conquer the European market from scratch. Foreign brands are also selling well in the domestic market.
A certificate was received for the new carbine of the “Vepr” line - “Vepr-K” based on the Kalashnikov assault rifle. The production of the new Vepr-15 carbine was started on the basis of the American self-loading rifle AR-15 in partnership with the German arms firm Waffen Schumacher. New civilian (traumatic) and combat pistols are being developed. The construction of an assault rifle for the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation continues. In general, the designers are not idle either.
Negotiations on the inclusion of the “Hammer” in the “single competence” have been going on since November 2012. But, as the press service of the enterprise notes, the topic is just being discussed. It is understandable, the enterprise that barely survived after the Izhevsk leadership did not rush to jump on the same rake.
In the United States, small arms production was the most successful business in the 2012 crisis year. Pistol and revolver maker Smith & Wesson earned $ 2012 million in the first quarter of 129, up 29% on the previous quarter. And he received orders for $ 439 million. In 2011, the amount of orders was $ 252 million. It is clear that they have freedom of ownership of weapons.
But the production of hunting weapons is also growing. There was a real shooting boom. Almost every day, new shooting galleries, training grounds, clubs and courses for beginners are opened. The number of collectors and the release of special collection weapons is growing. Travel agencies massively organize hunting tours. Since the beginning of 2012, many states have streamlined weapons sales procedures. At the same time, the production of historical samples of 100-150-year-old, which are much more expensive than modern ones, brings huge profits. And they serve more to decorate the home than for practical shooting.
For Russia, of course, this development path is unacceptable. But there are almost no orders from power ministries, the production of military weapons is almost stopped. This threatens with the loss of mobilization capacities, which can not be maintained, the loss of technology and personnel. It is clear that if these capacities are required by the state, it should pay for them. As well as paying for the training and maintenance of workers, who, if necessary, will immediately revitalize mobilization capacities. So, for example, is done in the USA, where the production of new tanks stopped, but capacities and workers saved. And there are already planned subsidies to manufacturers of automatic rifles, which Barack Obama intends to ban for sale to the public. Otherwise, production will be eliminated, and in case of any disaster it can no longer be restored.
Russia has already passed. In peacetime, the tsarist government left factories without orders. Those hibernating, the workers went to work. And in the war began a feverish recovery of production. The beginning of World War I, when the 200 thousand rifles were lost at the front in a month, instantly devastated warehouses. By the end of 1914, the gun mills had reached only half the capacity. I had to buy obsolete samples worldwide, even in Japan. And ammo, respectively.
But in the present conditions, the most important thing is competent and non-stealing leadership in enterprises. The example of "Izhmash", "Izhmekha", "Hammer" and TOZ in this respect is indicative of the entire industry. And the solution of the problems of the plundered enterprises at the expense of the not plundered and getting up on their feet is the way to the abyss. Hopefully, the plans to create a “single competence” will not succeed. And the brand "Kalashnikov" will not be disgraced.