At this time the “Russian kingdom” of Galician-Volyn prince Yury Lvovich collapsed. The “king” Yury Lvovich actively participated in the wars of the western sovereigns, wasting the undermined forces of south-western Russia in vain. Yury was succeeded by his sons Andrey and Lev. Gedymin quickly routed Andrew, seizing his daughter for his son Lubart. Lyubart Gediminovich (adopted Orthodoxy under the name of Dmitry) received a lot - Prince of Lutsk and Lyubar (East Volyn). As a result, he became the last ruler of a single Galitsko-Volyn principality.
The strengthening of Lithuania and the strengthening of the positions of the Western powers in the Galicia-Volyn principality disturbed Uzbek. South Russia paid him tribute, and he was not going to give it up. Therefore, he continued his policy of establishing order in North Russia. Here he was assisted by Metropolitan Peter. By imperial will, the metropolitan agreed on the marriage of the youngest son of the murdered Prince of Tver, Michael of Constantine, with his daughter Yuri of Moscow. This marriage was supposed to stop the blood feud between Tver and Moscow.
However, Yuri Danilovich himself was in a quandary. From his first marriage, he had only a daughter. The second wife Agafya-Konchak was poisoned. The church at that time was categorically against the third marriage. In addition, Uzbek, punishing Tver, weakened it, the political goal was realized. Yuri Moskovsky was no longer of interest to the Horde ruler. Now, according to the "divide and conquer" strategy, Tver should have been supported. It was supposed to restore the balance of power.
Tsar Uzbek, at first having played Moscow, now made a turn in the opposite direction. He took under his patronage Dmitry Mikhailovich. The new prince of Tver was not going to put up with Yuri of Moscow, whom he considered the main culprit in the death of his father. Man, he was very tough - the chronicles give him the nickname Animal Eyes. Later, the name was somewhat softened - Terrible Eyes. Sensing a political turnaround in Sarai, Dmitriy immediately perk up and wanted to avenge his father and return the Vladimir table. Tver boyars resumed the political game in the Horde.
At the same time, Uzbek decided to involve Lithuania in its game. In the year 1320, Tver, fulfilling the will of the Horde king, sent matchmakers to Lithuania. Unmarried Dmitry seemed to Uzbek as a good candidate for the implementation of his plans. Dmitri married Gedimin's daughter Maria. There was great joy in Tver. Dmitri was honored by Khan and established an alliance with Lithuania.
Yuri is getting worse. In 1320, his brother Boris died, who was the prince of Nizhny Novgorod and Gorodets. To leave the inheritance under the authority of Danilovich, Yuri sent Ivan Kalita to Saray. However, Uzbek thought differently, he did not want to join Nizhny Novgorod and Gorodets to Moscow, of which Ivan was prince. He did not give the label and left Ivan with him to appreciate the prince of Moscow.
The situation for Yuri was complicated by the fact that, temporarily slowing down Russia, the Uzbek wanted to restore order in taxation. But the problem turned out to be too neglected and actually unrealizable in the old framework. It was impossible to pay in the same amount. Yaroslavl, Rostov, Suzdal, Belozersk, Ryazan lands were divided into frontiers, which were severely ravaged and continued to be regularly devastated. People from these lands began to go to safer areas, protected by distance, forests and marshes. Went to Moscow, Tver, Novgorod lands. And the size of the Horde exit for these territories was determined at an early time. Debts grew. Uzbek, demanding payments, sent “embassies” to the Russian lands, in fact, punitive expeditions. "Fierce ambassadors", squeezing back taxes, raged, which only increased the flight of people. It turned out a vicious circle.
Uzbek also put pressure on Grand Duke Yuri. He was visited by Ambassador Bider, who was outraged in Vladimir. However, Yuri could not rectify this situation. He was more a warrior than a business executive. Previously, Ivan was engaged in economic, financial matters, but now he was not around. In Rostov, the residents were tired of the excesses and rebelled, expelled the "evil Tatars". This angered the Horde king, he began to think that Yuri could not cope with his duties.
In 1321, in Kashin, the inheritance of the Prince of Tver, the Horde collected tribute, but could not dislodge everything. Complained to the Grand Duke. Yuri decided that it was a good excuse to short out an opponent. I collected an army and marched on Tver. Dmitry Animal Eyes led to meet the host. The troops again turned against each other on the banks of the Volga. There was no battle. Yuri did not want a battle, it was a demonstration. Dmitri feared the first to join the battle, Muscovites carried out the Horde will. It was an agreement. Tver recognized the power of Yuri Danilovich and paid Horde debt - 2 thousand rubles. Yuri Moskovsky, instead of immediately taking the Tver tribute to the Golden Horde, took her to his brother in Veliky Novgorod and put it into circulation through the merchants, planning to make additional profit. This was another step that angered the Horde Khan. Moreover, in the Horde itself, the pro-Moscow party in the person of Kavdygaya suffered a defeat. Patron Yuri Kavdygai had strong opponents who “hooked” him. Uzbek sang that Kavdygay and Yuri slandered the late Prince of Tver. Uzbek ordered to arrest Kavdygai, he was under investigation, and then executed.
In this struggle, the Horde factions dragged on and Yuri. With the help of the Tver boyars, a denunciation was prepared on Yuri. He was accused of underpaying tribute, pocketing a part for himself. Believed Uzbek or not, you can not say. But he was already dissatisfied with Yuri. I wanted to bet on Dmitry. Denunciation allowed legally remove unnecessary figure. At the end of 1321, Uzbek sent a лю fierce ambassador 'Akhmyl to Russia. He robbed Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl was burned for debts in general, and its inhabitants were sold into slavery. Rostov was able to pay off rich gifts. Akhmyl conveyed to Yuri the king’s order to immediately appear in the Horde, to transfer the great reign to the prince of Tver, and to Moscow to brother Ivan. Kalita at this time returned home and warned his brother that things could not be worse.
Yuri was not a fool. He did not put his head on the scaffold. In order not to look like a rebel, he respectfully wrote to the Khan that he, of course, would be coming soon, but on the western border the situation became aggravated, it was necessary to solve the problem, and to collect it at the same time from Novgorod. Yuri knew the Horde policy well. We had to pull the time, you see the situation will change. Uzbek cool. Dmitry is guilty of something.
Therefore, Yuri went to Veliky Novgorod. There, in 1322, he went to the Swedes with Novgorod, besieged Vyborg. They couldn’t take a well-fortified fortress neither by siege nor by storm, but the Swedes were slaughtered a lot, destroyed the neighborhood, took a rich booty. Yuri decided that you can go to the Horde. However, the prince and the Novgorod caravan on the way intercepted the brother of Prince of Tver Alexander. Tverskaya ambush suddenly attacked the caravan, captured rich booty. Yuri with a small detachment was able to leave and returned to Novgorod.
The year was very active for Yuri. He prevented the war between Pskov and Novgorod. In 1323, Yury, expecting the Swedes to retaliate, founded the Oreshek fortress at the source of the Neva. In the same year, Yury and the Novgorodians concluded an agreement with the Swedes on "perpetual peace." In 1324, Yuri led Novgorodians to Ustyuzhan. They claimed the land rich in furs and silver on Novgorodians in the North and were able to intercept Novgorod tribute collectors. Rich prey from the Ugra land hit the Great Ustyug. City Yuri was able to take a sudden blow. Ustyuzhan was forced to pay damages and admit that the northern regions and the Ural region did not belong to Ustyug, but to Novgorod. Yuri received a substantial share and again moved to the Horde, now in a roundabout way, through the Kama.
It should be noted that the calculations of Yuri Danilovich for political changes in the Horde were fully justified. Dmitry Groznye Ochi could not improve the situation with the collection of tribute. Yes, and his marriage with Lithuanian political benefits not brought. Gediminas led an active attack on the Russian lands. In 1323, the rulers of the Galitsko-Volyn principality Andrei and Lev Yuryevich in the battle of Vladimir-Volyn were defeated by Gedimin and died (according to another version, in a battle with the Tatars). The Poles began to fuss, tidying up the Russian lands. After the death of Andrei and Leo, Vladimir Lvovich formally occupied the throne - the only son of Lev Yuryevich, the last representative of the Rurik dynasty on the Galician-Volyn throne in the male line. In fact, the boyars headed by Dmitry Ditk ruled. Boyars decided to call on the throne of Yuri-Boleslav Troydenovich, son of the Prince of Mazovia. Gedymin did not fight the Poles, preferred to conclude an agreement on the division of territories, and a military alliance against the German Order and the Horde.
South Russia was falling apart literally before our eyes. Gediminas captured one city after another. Some took by storm, others surrendered themselves. In late spring 1324, the Lithuanian army moved to Kiev land. Taking the fortress of Ovruch, the Lithuanians approached Zhytomyr, which also fell after a short siege.
Kiev prince Stanislav Ivanovich (according to other sources, his name was Svyatoslav) gathered troops, which included troops from Pereyaslavl Yuzhny, Lutsk, Bryansk, Horde regiment. On the field near the river Irpin a fierce battle took place. The camp was stubborn, the Russian-Horde forces stood to death. Then Gedymin at the head of his squad was able to deliver a flank attack on the Russian army, which caused confusion and made it possible to turn the tide of the battle in their favor. Oleg Pereyaslavsky and other princes fell in battle. Stanislav of Kiev was able to escape and went to Ryazan land, without becoming to defend Kiev. The ancient Russian capital resisted for some time, but then capitulated. Gedimin took the title of "Grand Duke of Lithuania and Russian." Along with Kiev, Lithuanian troops also captured Pereyaslavl, Putivl, Vyshgorod, Kanev and Belgorod.
It is clear that Uzbek did not indifferently observe how its lands are seized by all and sundry. In 1325, he raised troops, called for the squads of Russian princes and threw them onto the principality of Lithuania. Lithuania pogroms well, burned dozens of settlements, took a huge full. Gedymin made concessions and in the territories seized by him established a double power. They recognized their sovereign Gediminas, but the tribute was still paid to the Horde.
In this situation, Yuri arrived in Sarai in 1325 and began to seek the right to the great Vladimir reign. Prince of Tver, Dmitry Groznye Ochi, also arrived at the Horde. However, according to his custom, the Horde king was in no hurry to resolve the dispute. Drew, delayed this decision. Impatient, hot Tver prince, finally, could not resist and decided to take revenge personally. 21 November 1325, on the eve of the anniversary of the death of his father (22 November), Dmitry waylaid Yuri on his way to church and struck him with a mortal blow with a sword.
It was a murder in a fit of anger, or the finale of cold design, is unknown. In any case, Uzbek was not going to close his eyes on him. Dmitry was no longer needed. First, the Prince of Tver thought too much about himself, it was possible to kill in the Horde only with the permission of the Khan. Secondly, the idea of strengthening relations with the help of Dmitry's marriage did not justify itself. Lithuania has become a serious enemy of the Horde, encroaching on its lands. Khan ordered the arrest of Dmitry, and the body of Yuri sent to his homeland, bury there as the legitimate prince.
In Moscow, Yuri mourned. He was loved in Moscow land, he defended his principality, expanded it. Yuri personally reprimanded Metropolitan Peter, summoned the archbishop of Novgorod, the bishops of Rostov, Ryazan and Tver. By this time, Moscow has actually become the residence of the Metropolitan.
Meanwhile, there was a terrible lull in the Horde. Uzbek drove for his bid Tver prince already 10 months. All wondered what to do with it. Thought, suddenly still useful? I looked at the behavior of Lithuania. Finally, the verdict was rendered. September 15 Dmitry Mikhailovich 1326, nevertheless executed. Along with him, Prince Alexander Novosilsky was executed - either he was a friend and accomplice of Dmitry, or for another guilt.
The reign of Alexander Mikhailovich and the uprising in Tver
Khan called to himself contenders for the great reign: Alexander Mikhailovich (son of Michael of Tver and brother of Dmitry) and Ivan Danilovich. The choice fell on Alexander. Uzbek believed that after the death of his father and brother, he would lose himself especially vigorously. In addition, he had a plan to place a strong Horde squad in Tver land, near the Lithuanian borders. With the threat in the south, where the main Horde troops were deployed, this detachment, together with the Russian troops, was to deliver a heavy blow to the Lithuanian rear.
The position of Alexander from the very beginning was deplorable. He made debts in the Horde, taking money from usurers, to bribe the Khan entourage, when he fought for the label. He returned to Tver with a crowd of lenders. The prince, wanting to pay off this greedy horde, gave them at the mercy of markets, duties, taxes, crafts. Tverches were cleaned up cleaned up, and in princely villages, children and girls were taken away in debt. But this was only the beginning of the troubles of the Tver land. In the summer of 1327, the Horde squad, led by a relative of Uzbek Chol-Khan (in Russian sources, Shchelkan), reported to Tver. Warriors housed in Tver. Chol-Khan's warriors with the townspeople were not considered, they created "the great persecution of Christians - violence, robbery, beating and desecration." There has even been a rumor that the Horde people want to kill the princes of Tver and will govern Tver themselves, and the population will be converted to Islam. The atmosphere in the city quickly heated up. A spark was enough to cause an explosion.
The reason for the uprising was the attempt of the Tatars from Chol-Khan's retinue to take away the mare from a certain deacon Dudko. He began to call for help. Tverichi rushed to the Horde, the first killed and wounded fell. Comrades came to the aid of the Tatars. Hit the alarm bell. Citizens grabbing weapon rushed to the square. The riot was led by the boyars Borisovic, tysyatsky and his brother. On the streets of the city, bloody slurs began to boil. The prince, apparently, was not the organizer of the uprising, as some historians suggested, it would be suicide. But he could not stop him. Chol-Khan, with the remnants of the detachment, locked himself up in a princely residence. The palace was set on fire and all the Horde were killed. In Tver, they slaughtered not only warriors, but also usurers, Horde merchants. Only the shepherds who grazed the herds outside the city were saved. They fled to Moscow. Kalita sent them to the Horde with security.
Should I blame Ivan for this? This is not reasonable. All Russian lands had accounts, old and new to each other. Many hated Horde people, but there was no single force capable of resisting the Horde. It was obvious that a moment of violent freedom would be followed by cruel punishment. There was no point in dying with Tver.
Uzbek, having learned about the death of a relative with a detachment, "rykasha aki lion." In the Horde, a massacre of Russians swept through, affecting many merchants, artisans and slaves. They killed the Ryazan Prince Ivan Yaroslavich, who came to the Horde at this inopportune moment. Upon learning that not all of Russia had risen, but only Tver, the Horde king had cooled somewhat. He summoned several princes, including Ivan Kalita, Alexander Suzdalsky. Large-scale military preparations were going on in the Horde, 5 tumens were assembled - 50 thousand soldiers. Army led by temnik Fedorchuk. In the Horde army joined the squad of Russian princes.
Alexander could lead his subjects and die in an unequal battle, could, like a father, go to the king with a confession, buy Tver's forgiveness at the cost of his life. However, he preferred to flee to Novgorod, and then to Pskov. And his brothers Konstantin and Vasily fled to Ladoga. Tver left without defenders. There was virtually no battle, someone resisted separately, others tried to hide. Both cities of the principality - Tver and Kashin were defeated, and the land was devastated. Those Tverches who were not killed were taken to full.
Russian regiments participating in the campaign saved thousands of people, who were taken away as prisoners to their lands. I must say that other lands were seriously injured as well. Strongly inherited Nizhny Novgorod, Kostroma, Rostov, Novgorod villages. Torzhok was taken, his surroundings devastated. Novgorodians assured that Tver princes do not have them, and paid 2000 hryvnas of silver to Horde people and gave many gifts to their leaders.
I must say that due to the one-sided coverage of these events by some historians, Kalita looks almost as bad as Uzbek. But he did not get into debt in the Horde. Not a Moscow prince, could not control the behavior of Horde warriors and their own subjects. Not Ivan Kalita threw his subjects. However, he did everything so that the rebellion of the doomed would not result in a new invasion and bloody war.
In 1328, the Uzbek gave the label for Tver to his younger brother, Alexander, who had fled, Konstantin. The label on Kashin gave the third of the brothers, Basil. But the main political consequence of the defeat of Tver was the reform of power, which was carried out by Uzbek. He decided not to transfer the supreme power over the Russian lands to a single prince. Instead of one grand duke, the khan appointed two. Prince Alexander of Suzdal, in addition to his principality, received Vladimir, Nizhny Novgorod and Gorodets. Under the authority of Ivan Kalita, Novgorod, Kostroma, Pereyaslavl withdrew. He received half of Rostov. The local princes are very impoverished and could not pay tribute. Uzbek considered that the Moscow prince, who is well established economic and financial affairs in their lands, will fix the situation. Kalita did not refuse and immediately “bought” three more princedoms - Uglitskoe, Belozersk and Zavolzhsky Galich. He took over the debts of the local princes, pledged to pay arrears to the Horde for them, for which he received power. Uglich, Belozersk and Galician princes became "assistants" of Ivan Kalita. The long process of creating a new core of the Russian state began.